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A Guide To Cultural Landscape Reports: 

Contents, Process, and Techniques 



by 

Robert K, Page 

Cathy A. Gilbert 

Susan A. Dolan 




U.S. Department of the Interior 

National Park Service 

Cultural Resource Stewardship and Partnerships 

Park Historic Structures and Cultural Landscapes Program 

Washington, DC 

1998 




Site plan for Motor Service ar)d Tea Room, Blue Ridge Parkway at Rocky Knob Park. B/ue Ridge Parkway. (NPS. 1936) 

Page, Robert R. 

A guide to cultural Landscape reports : contents, process, and techniques /by Robert R Page, Cathy A. Gilbert, Susan A. Dolan. 

p. cm. 

Includes bibliographical references and index. 

I . Historic sites— United States— Conservation and restoration— Research— Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Historic presen/a- 
tion— United States— Research— Handbooks, manuals, etc, 3. Landscape protection— United States— Research— Handbooks, 
manuals, etc, 4, Report writing— United States — Handbooks, manuals, etc. 

I, Gilbert, Cathy. II. Dolan, Susan, 1 967- . III. United States, National Park Service. Park Historic Structures and Cultural Landscapes 
Program, IV Title, 
E159,P27 1998 

363.6'9'0973— dc21 98-3267 

CIP 



The mission of the Department of the Interior isto protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor ourtrust responsibilitiestotribes. 




U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 

Cultural Resources .^^ 

Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 




IN REPLY REFER TO: 



United States Department of the Interior 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

1849 C Street, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20240 



H30 (2260) 
August 17, 1999 



To Whom It May Concern: 

Enclosed is a copy of A Guide to Cultural Landscapes Reports for inclusion in your library. The 
document addresses the ro!e of the Cultural Landscape Report in managing cultural landscapes in the 
national park system. Authored by Robert R. Page, Cathy A. Gilbert, and Susan A. Dolan, this new guide 
describes the contents, purpose, and use of the Cultural Landscape Report, and provides practical 
information and procedures for planning and conducting cultural landscape research, documentation, 
analysis, and treatment. 

The guide has been prepared in three parts: 

• A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Contents, Process and Techniques provides a general history 
of landscape research in the National Park Service; describes the relationship of the Cultural 
Landscape Report to park planning, design and resource management; and describes the content and 
format of a comprehensive Cultural Landscape Report. 

• A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Landscape Lines provides a collection of technical 
documents containing detailed and up-to-date information on topics and techniques that apply directly 
to the development of Cultural Landscape Reports. 

• A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Appendices provides examples and general reference 
materials related to the information included in both the Contents, Process and Techniques and 
Landscape Lines parts of the guide. 

This document represents the ongoing expansion of technical information for managing cultural 
landscapes in the national park system. The information in this guide also should be useful to other 
agencies, organizations, and individuals involved in similar work. If you have any questions regarding the 
guide, please contact me at 202-343-8147 or email bob_page@nps.gov. 

Sincerely, 



IpbertR. Page » 

Program Manager 
Park Cultural Landscape Program 



Acknowledgments 

The development and production of this guide has benefited from the 
involvement of many people. Beginning in 1 994, in an effort to 
provide a comprehensive scope for the guide, a worl<shop was held 
in Washington, DC. Professionals from within and outside of the 
National Park Service who have experience in preparing cultural 
landscape reports participated in the workshop. These individuals 
include Randy Biallas and Lisa Sasser, Park Historic Structures and 
Cultural Landscapes Program; Charles Birnbaum, Heritage Preser- 
vation Services Program; Steve Burns, Paul Cloyd, Joan DeGraff, 
Maureen Joseph, and Helen Starr, Denver Service Center; Jill 
Cowley, Southwest Support Office; George Curry, State University of 
New York at Syracuse; Shaun Eyring, Chesapeake Support Office, 
Ian Firth, University of Georgia, Hank Florence, Columbia Cascades 
Support Office, Mary Hughes, Midwest Support Office; Lucy Lawliss, 
Southeast Support Office; Robert Melnick, University of Oregon; 
Nora Mitchell, Olmsted Centerfor Landscape Preservation; Darwina 
Neal, National Capital Support Office; Patricia O'Donnell, Land- 
scapes; Marion Pressley, Pressley and Associates; and Cynthia 
Zaitzevsky. 

The development of the Landscape Lines series was coordinated by 
Susan Dolan, historical landscape architect, Each publication in the series 
was prepared with input from subject area experts across the country. 
Our thanks to the following individuals who contributed their expertise 
to this part of the project: 

• Craig Dolby, Columbia Cascades Support Office, Patrick Gregerson 
and Kevin Ortyl, National Capital Support Office, Katie Ryan, CRGIS 
Facility, Heritage Presentation Services Program, and Trimble Naviga- 
tion for input on Geographic Information Systems and Global Position- 
ing Systems 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



III 



• Paul Shackel, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, and Richard 
Waldbauer, Archeological and Ethnography Progrann, for input on 
archeology 

• Gar/Upchurch.Universityof Southwest Texas, forinputonmacrofloral 
analysis 

• Barbara Little, CRGIS Facility, Heritage Preservation Services Pro- 
gram, for input on geophysical surveys 

• Steve Devore, Rocky Mountain Support Office, and Dr. Jerome Ward 
for input on pollen analysis 

• Jane Beu, Midwest Support Office, Jerry Buckbinder, MPS Printing 
Coordinator, Heidi Hohman, Landscapes, and Sherda Williams, 
Midwest Support Office, for input on printing and distribution 

• Darwina Neal and Michael McMahon, National Capitol Support 
Office, for input on surveys 

• Charlie Pepper, Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, and 
Sherda Williams, Midwest Support Office, for input on tree coring 

• Scott Kunst, Old House Gardens, for input on historic plant materials 

• Paul Dolinsky, Craig Strong, and Jet Lowe, HABS/HAER, for input on 
graphic documentation 

• Charlie Pepper and Kirston Thorton, Olmsted Center for Landscape 
Preservation, for input on the treatment of plant features 

• Eliot Foulds, Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, and Joe 
Crystal, Denver Service Center, for input on accessibility 

Several drafts of the document were sent out for a comprehensive 
national review. Substantive and useful comments were received from 
Charles Birnbaum and Kay Weeks, Heritage Preservation Services 
Program; Susan Buggey, Parks Canada; Paul Cloyd; Jill Cowley; George 
Curry; Shaun Eyring; Camille Fife, the Westerly Group; Ian Firth; Susan 
Frey, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park; Jane Grey, 



iV A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 





Archeology and Ethnography Program; Maureen Joseph; Lucy Lawliss; 
Linda McClelland, National Register Program; Robert Melnick; Christine 
Capella Peters, New York State Office of Parks, Recreation, and Historic 
Preservation; Marion Pressley; Perry Wheelock, National Capitol Sup- 
port Office; and Sherda Williams. 

Throughout the production ofthe document, several individuals assisted 
by collecting and submitting illustrations for the guide, including Gina 
Bellavia, Eliot Foulds, Katy Lacy, Lauren Meier, and David Uschold, 
Olmsted Centerfor Landscape Presen/ation; Patricia Brouillette, Golden 
Gate National Recreation Area; Steve Burns; Joe Crystal; Jill Cowley; 
Maureen Joseph; Lucy Lawliss; Maria McEnaney and Sherda Williams, 
Midwest Support Office; Michael McMahon; Steve McMahon, The 
Trustees of Reservations; Darwina Neal; Peggy Nelson, Landscape 
Systems; Paul Shackel; and Tim Davis and Tom Behrens, HABS/HAER. 

Finally, thanks to Randy Biallas and Stephanie Toothman, Columbia 
Cascades Support Office, for their support of this project from its 
inception, and a special thanks to Lynda Frost, Park Historic Structures 
and Cultural Landscapes Program; Patricia Brouillette; and Karen Bertram 
and Shawn Connolly, The Write Stuff, for assisting in the final production 
ofthe document. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 




Table of Contents 

Acknowledgments iii 

Introduction xi 

Purpose of the Guide xi 

How THIS Guide is Organized xii 

Understanding Cultural Landscape Research 

Overview of Cultural 

Landscape Reports — Purpose and Use 3 

Standards for the Use of a 

Cultural Landscape Report 4 

The Park Cultural Landscape Program 7 

Cultural Landscape Program — Timeline of Events ... I 
Cultural Landscape Definitions 12 

History of Cultural Landscape Research in the 
National Park Service 13 

Early Reports: The Focus on FHistorical Features 13 

Expanding the Purpose and Scope of Research 14 

Extending the Content of Reports 16 

Defining the Purpose, Content, and 

Format of Reports 18 

■ Use OF Cultural Landscape 
Reports in Park Management 20 

Use of CLRs in Park Planning and Design 20 

Linking Cultural Landscape Data to 

Park Planning and Management 21 

Use of CLRs in Cultural Resource Management 25 

Use of CLRs in Natural Resource Management 29 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 



VII 



Preparing a Cultural Landscape Report 

Overview of Content and Format 3 5 

Model Outline for a Cultural Landscape Report 36 

CLR Introduction 37 

Management Summary 37 

Historical Summary 37 

Scope of Work and Methodology 38 

Description of Study Boundaries 39 

Summary of Findings 40 

CLK Part I; Site History, Existing Conditions, and 
Analysis and Evaluation 4 1 

Site History 41 

Materials Useful in Research 42 

Documentation Sources for Landscape Research .... 46 

Historic Context 50 

Overview of Landscape Characteristics 53 

Existing Conditions 56 

Defining the Condition of a Cultural Landscape 67 

Analysis and Evaluation 68 

National Register Criteria 70 

Seven Aspects of Historic Integrity 72 

Guidelines for Selecting Boundaries 77 

Analysis and Evaluation of Landscape 

Characteristics — Two Examples 78 

CLR Part 2; Treatment 8 1 

Treatment Definitions 82 

Policies, Guidelines, and Standards 82 

Defining a Management Philosophy 83 

Determining Treatment 83 




Viii A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




Cant Ranch Historic District Management 

Philosophy 84 

Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the 

Treatnnent of Historic Properties 88 

Evaluating Treatment Actions 90 

Level of Detail 91 

Format 93 

Narrative Design Guidelines — An Example 96 

Cost Estimates 97 

Treatment Considerations 99 

CLR Part 3: Record of Treatment 121 

Appendices, Bibliography, and Index 123 

Glossary 1 25 

Bibliography 151 

References Used in Developing this Guide 151 

General References 1 55 

Index 1 63 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



IX 



Introduction 

Purpose of the Guide 




This guide addresses the role of the Cultural Landscape Report (CLR) 
in managing cultural landscapes in the national park system. This 
guide focuses on three primary objectives: I ) to clarify the purpose 
and use of a CLK, 2) to define the content, process, and format of a CLR, 
and 3) to provide technical information on the methodologies and tech- 
niques for cultural landscape research, documentation, analysis, evalua- 
tion, and treatment. 

This guide to CLRs expands on the information provided in the National 
Park Service (N PS) Cultural Resource Management Guideline. Inaddition 
to defining a CLR and describing its content, this guide clarifies the 
purpose of a CLR, its relationship to other types of reports, and its use 
in cultural landscape research and management. This guide also gives 
professionals and park management and staff practical information and 
procedures for planning and conducting cultural landscape research for 
a CLR project. This guide has been prepared specifically for those who 
manage cultural landscapes in the national park system. However, the 
information in this guide should be useful to other agencies, organiza- 
tions, and individuals involved in similar work. 

This guide does not provide step-by-step instructions for developing a 
CLR. The CLR itself is a flexible document that can be used for a wide 
range of cultural landscapes and different management objectives. A CLR 
might address an entire landscape, a portion of a landscape, or an 
individual feature. To best serve management objectives for a project, 
professional judgment is integral to interpreting and applying the informa- 
tion in this guide to a particular CLR. 



INTRODUCTION XI 




How THIS Guide is Organized 

This guide contains three standalone documents: 

• A Guide to Cu^urs/ Landscape Reports: Contents, Process, and Techniques 

• A Guide to Cuiturai Landscape Reports: Landscape Lines 

• A Guide to Cuiturai Landscape Reports: Appendices 

Contents, Process, and Techniques 

This perfect-bound document provides a general history of landscape 
research in the NPS, describesthe relationship of a CLR to park planning, 
design, and resource management, and describes the content and format 
of a comprehensive CLR. This information provides guidance for preparing 
a CLR and contains material that will remain fairly constant overtime. 

Landscape Lines 

This new collection of technical documents provided by the NPS contains 
information about preparing a CLR. The Landscape Lines documents are 
intended to provide "lines ofcommunication" for specialized information 
that represent the state of the art in cultural landscape research, 
documentation, analysis, evaluation, and treatment. As such, the infor- 
mation is transitory and meant to be updated and expanded. Each of the 
Landscape Lines documents included in this guide was prepared with 
input from individuals with expertise in the specialized subjects. To- 
gether, the documents represent the initial development of the collec- 
tion. Additional Landscape Lines documents will be developed as topics 
are defined and expertise is available. 

Each Landscape Lines document is produced as an individual piece 
that can be distributed and copied. The collection is presented in a 
three-ring binder to provide a central location for the information. 




Xii A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




permit the addition of new or updated Landscape Lines pieces, and 
allow for the inclusion of related reference material selected by the 
user. 

The technical information in Landscape Lines is presented in three 
formats: 

• general information highlighting the application of existing technology 
to cultural landscape research (for example, pollen analysis) 

• comprehensive information on subjects for which limited reference 
material currently exists, especially as the subjects are applied to 
cultural landscape research (for example, treatment of biotic re- 
sources) 

• procedural guidelines for subjects related to preparing a CLR (for 
example, graphic conventions) 

Appendices 

This document provides examples and general reference materials 
related to the information included in both the Contents, Process, and 
Techniques and Landscape Lines parts of the guide. The appendices are 
presented in a three-ring binder to provide a central location for the 
material and allow for subsequent additions and updates. 

How to Obtain these Documents 

Contents, Process, and Tectiniqueszx\6 Landscape L/nesare available for 
purchase as a set from the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, DC, 20402-9325, Stock Number 0245- 
005-0 1 1 87- 1 . Materials contained in the Appendices are available from 
various sources. For information on how to obtain these materials, 
contact the Park Historic Structures and Cultural Landscapes Program, 
National Center for Cultural Resources Stewardship and Partnerships, 
1 849 C Street NW, Room NC360, Washington, DC, 20240. 



INTRODUCTION xiii 



Overview of Cultural 

Landscape Reports — Purpose and Use 

The Cultural Landscape Report (CLR) serves two important func- 
tions: it is the principle treatment documentfor cultural landscapes 
and the primary tool for long-term management of those land- 
scapes. A CLK guides management and treatment decisions about a 
landscape's physical attributes, biotic systems, and use when that use 
contributes to historical significance. (See Figure I .) 





Figure /. The CLR for the Moses H. 
Cone Memorial Park outlmed a 
management strategy for each 
significant landscape component, 
such as the carriage roads, orchards, 
pastures and meadows, and lakes 
and ponds. The historic orchards and 
Bass Lake can been seen in the 
middle ground of this view from the 
manor house. Blue Ridge Parkway. 
(NPS,I940) 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 



ACLRmustestablishpreservationgoalsforacultural landscape. The goals 
must be grounded in research, inventor/, documentation, and analysis 
and evaluation of a landscape's characteristics and associated features. The 
content of a CLR provides the basis for making sound decisions about 
management, treatment, and use. Information about the historical devel- 
opment, significance, and existing character of a cultural landscape is also 
valuable for enhancing interpretation and maintenance. 

ACLRclearlyidentifiesthe landscape characteristics and associated features, 
values, and associationsthat make a landscape historically significant (accord- 
ing to the National Register criteria). A CLR may include information 
spanning numerous disciplines in orderto evaluate a landscape's historical, 
architectural, archeological, enthnographic, horticultural, landscape 
architectural, and engineeringfeatures,alongv\/ithecoiogicai processes and 

Standards for the Use of a Cultural Landscape Report 

The following standards guide the appropriate use of CLRs in cultural resource 
management. 

• A CLR is prepared in order to minimize loss of significant landscape characteristics 
and associated features, and materials when existing information about the physical 
history and condition of the cultural landscape is inadequate to address anticipated 
management objectives, when impending development alternatives could have 
adverse effects, or to record actual treatment. 

• A CLR is prepared by qualified professionals based on appropriate methodologies 
and techniques for cultural landscape research, documentation, and evaluation. (See 
A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Appendices, "Appendix A: Professional Qualifi- 
cation Standards.") 

• Archeological records, base maps, and techniques, such as soil analysis, are used to 
collect data on historic and prehistoric features and conditions. 

• Landscape, architectural, and archeological investigations supporting a CLR employ 
nondestructive methods to the maximum extent possible; they are prescribed and 
justified in a project agreement that includes a research design and impact analysis. 

• National Register documentation is prepared or amended to address cultural 
landscape resources identified in a CLR. 

• All field notes, primary documents, original maps, drawings, photographs, and plant 
materials gathered or associated with the research for CLRs or special landscape 
projects are organized and preserved as archival material or museum objects in 
consultation with the park or curator. 

{Excerpted from Cultural Resource Management Guideline, Release No. 5.) 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 





natural systems. Based on this information and site management goals, such 
asaccess, contemporary use, and interpretation, aCLRoutlines appropriate 
treatment for a landscape consistent with its significance, condition, and 
planned use. (See A Guide to Cu/tura/ Landscape Reports: Appendices, 
"Appendix A: Professional Qualifications Standards.") 

Treatment decisions for cultural landscapes are generally determined 
through the park planning process via a General Management Plan (GM P) 
or a Site Development Plan (SDP). The physical implementation of the 
treatmentforaparticularlandscapeisguidedbytheCLR. When treatment 
of a landscape has not been defined through the planning process, a CLR 
may augment or be combined v\/ith an SDP to determine the preferred 
treatment alternative and physical design. 




The scope and level of investigation for a CLK varies depending on 
management objectives. A CLK is aflexible document, the scope of which 
is determined by the needs of park management, type of landscape, 
budget, and staffing requirements. (See Figure 2.) Management decisions 
should be based on a comprehensive understanding of an entire landscape 




figure 2. Historic roads, such as 
Coing-to-the-Sun Highway, are one 
type of landscape that may be 
addressed in a CLR. Glacier NaUor)al 
Park. (NPS, 1995) 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 



Gateway National Recreation Area ■ Sandy Hook Unit 

Fort Hancock 
Existing Conditions: 1994 




/ fen^ o«w .■; '''m^ 



Figure 3. Existing conditions drawing 
of Fort Hancock, Sandy Hook Unit 
Gateway National Recreation Area. 
(NFS, 1994) 



SO that actions affecting an individual feature can be understood in relation to 
other features within a property. Management objectives may, however, 
require a CLKto focus on a portion of a landscape or an individual feature 
within it, or to be prepared in phases. Therefore, it is imperative that a 
CLR's scope and objectives be clearly defined and articulated and any 
treatment decisions made in a CLR be limited to the scope and objectives. 
Before any treatment decisions are made. Part I of a CLR, titled "Site History, 
Existing Conditions, and Analysis and Evaluation," must be prepared. 




A comprehensive CLR includes the following parts: 

• Introduction 

• Part I : Site History, Existing Conditions, and Analysis and Evaluation 

• Part 2: Treatment 

• Part 3: Record of Treatment 

• Appendices, Bibliography, and Index. 



Each of these parts is described in detail in the section titled, "Preparing a 
Cultural Landscape Report," later in this guide. 



A GUIDE TO cultural LANDSCAPE REPORTS 





The Park Cultural Landscape 
Program 

The national park system contains an impressive array of landscapes 
that reflect history, cultural richness, developmental patterns, and 
a changing relationship between people and the environment. 
These landscapes range from large rural tracts covering several thousand 
acres, to estates with formal gardens, to urban parks. 

Over the past 1 5 years, cultural landscapes have become an integral 
component of historic preservation in the United States and abroad. In 
turn, the National Park Service (NPS) has come to recognize the 
significance of cultural landscapes to the national heritage, making the 
stewardship of these resources an important part of the NPS mission. 

Since the 1 930s, management of historical areas in the national park 
system has recognized the significance of the landscape characteristics and 
associated features in a park. However, in recent years the NPS has 
broadened its understanding of what constitutes a cultural landscape and 
has approached management of these resources with a greater degree of 
rigor. Until recently, however, there were no policies, guidelines, or 
standards for preserving and managing cultural landscapes. 

At a broad program level, two developments clearly identify the preser- 
vation of cultural landscapes as a significant component of the NPS 
mission: 

• In 1 988, "cultural landscapes" were formally identified in NPS Man- 
agement Policies zs a type of cultural resource in the national park 
system. At this time, policy was established to mandate the recogni- 
tion and protection of significant historic, design, archeological, and 
ethnographic values. The policy recognized the importance of con- 
sidering both built and natural features, the dynamics inherent in 
natural processes, and continued use. 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 




• In 1 994, the guideline used to expand, clarify, and apply NPS cultural 
resource policy — Cultural Resource Management Guideline — was 
revised to include comprehensive procedural guidance regarding the 
management of cultural landscapes in the national park system, 

In addition, much effort has been expended since the early 1980s to 
interpret and apply tv^o documents, both which codified the preservation 
program in the United States since passage of the 1 966 National Historic 
Presen/ation Act. The two documents are: 

• The National Register of l-iistoric Places Criteria, which provides the 
basis for evaluating the significance of a property. The criteria have 
beenappliedtoavarietyoflandscapetypes, such as cemeteries, rural 
historic districts, and battlefields, in the form of technical bulletins. 
(See Figure 4.) 

• The Secretary ofthe Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic 
/^ro/?e/t/e5, which guides the physical treatment ofasignificantproperty. 
The language in these standards was revised and broadened to include 
landscape resources. 

Collectively, these activities and documents have provided the frame- 
work for the NPS park cultural landscapes program, which focuses on 
preserving a landscape's physical attributes, biotic systems, and use 
(when that use contributes to historical significance). The NPS program 
involves three primary activities: research, planning, and stewardship. 
Research defines the landscape characteristics and associated features, 
values, and associations that make a landscape historically significant. 
Planning outlines the issues and alternatives for long-term preservation. 
Stewardship involves such activities as condition assessment, mainte- 
nance, and training. The two documentation tools associated with these 
activities are the Cultural Landscapes Inventory (CLI) and the Cultural 
Landscape Report (CLR). The CLi provides baseline information on the 
location, historical development, landscape characteristics and associated 





GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 





Figure 4. In 1 986, a CLR was 
prepared for the larxiscape at 
Rosemary Inn on Lake Crescent The 
CLR used the NaiJonal Register 
Criteria and the new NFS guidelines 
for evaluating the significance of the 
landscape. Olympic National Park. 
(NFS, 1920) 



features, and management of cultural landscapes in the national park 
system. The CLR is the primary guide for treatment and use of a 
cultural landscape. (See the insert titled, "Cultural Landscape Pro- 
gram — Timeline of Events" on the following page.) 




Today, the term "cultural landscape" serves as an umbrella term that 
includes four general landscape types: historic designed landscapes, 
historic vernacular landscapes, historic sites, and ethnographic land- 
scapes. Identifying distinct landscape types assists in distinguishing the 
values that make a landscape significant and aids in determining hov/ it 
should be treated, managed, and interpreted. These landscape types are 
not mutually exclusive. A landscape may be associated with a significant 
event, include designed or vernacular characteristics, and be significant to 
a specific cultural group. (See the insert titled, "Cultural Landscape 
Definitions" later in this section.) 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 



Cultural Landscape Program — Timeline of Events 



1 960s Research is broadened to include historic grounds along with historic structures. "Historic Grounds Reports" 

were prepared. 

1 968 Historic sites (grounds or terrain), structures, and objects are identified as historic resources in NPS Administrative 

Policies. They are defined as "a distinguishable piece of ground or area upon which occurred some important 
historic event, or which is importantly associated with historic event or persons, or which was subject to sustained 
activity of man — historic, prehistoric, or both. Examples of historic sites (grounds or terrain) are battlefields, 
historic campgrounds, historic trails, and historic farms." 

Historic gardens are classified as historic structures, and policy states that they "will be accorded treatment as 
indicated herein for the several classes of historic structures." 

1973 Treatment guidance for preservation and restoration of historic sites is provided in NPS Administrative Policies. 

Policy pertains solely to topography and vegetation (such as soil erosion and exotic or intrusive vegetation). 

"Historic scene" is defined as "the overall appearance of all cultural resources and their surroundings as they were 
in the historic period." 

1 975/78 "Cultural" is identified as a preferred term to "historic" in NPS Management Policies regarding resources significant 

in the human past Cultural resources include "sites, structures, objects, and districts." Treatment policy for 
historic sites pertains to the "surfece and vegetative cover of the site during the historic period." Historic gardens, 
historic roads, and earthworks are listed individually and continue to be classified as historic structures. 

Historic scene protection and aesthetics guidance prohibits "any attempt to beautify, improve, enhance, or 
otherwise alter the appearance of the historic scene [in a manner] that does not accurately reflect the historic 
character." 

1 98 1 Historic Grounds Report is identified as a special resource study in the Cultural Resource Management Guideline, 

NPS-28, Release No. I, but no definition or oudine is provided. 

Cultural landscapes are first identified as a resource type in Cultural Resource Management Guideline, NPS-28, Release 
No. 2. Four types are identified; historic sites, historic scenes, historic landscapes, and sociocultural landscapes. 

1 984 Cultural Landscapes: Rural Historic Districts in the National Park System, is published. The document provides the first 
technical guidance for the identification, evaluation, and management of rural historic landscapes. Cultural Land- 
scape Report is defined and oudined in the publication. 

1 985 Cultural landscape types are revised in Cultural Resource Management Guideline, NPS-28, Release No. 3. to include 
historic sites, historic scenes, historic designed landscapes, historic vernacular landscapes, and ethnographic 
landscapes. 

Cultural Landscape Report is identified and defined in the third release of NPS-28. Treatment standards for rural 
historic districts are oudined. 

Twelve major tasks to enhance landscape preservation both within and outside the national park system are 
identified by the NPS Washington Office. The tasks call for standardized terminology, evaluadon criteria, a 
comprehensive inventory, documentation standards, and technical information. 





10 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




1 987 National Register begins producing publications to assist in nominating cultural landscapes to the National Register 
of Historic Places (for example, Bulletin 1 8: How to Evaluate and Nominate Designed Historic Landscapes, \987; Bulletin 
30: Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Rural Historic Landscapes, 1 990). 

Technologies for the Preser/ation of Prehistoric and Historic Landscapes is published by the Office of Technology 
Assessment, United States Congress. The report finds that the application of federal preservation laws to historic 
landscapes lags far behind similar efforts for historic structures and archeological sites. 

1 988 MPS Management Policies identifies cultural landscapes as a type of cultural resource in the national park system. 
Policy mandates the recognition and protection of significant historic, archeological, ethnographic, and design 
values. 

Historic Landscape Initiative is established in the NFS Washington Office to "develop and disseminate uniform 
standards relating to the allowable treatments of historic landscapes that meet the National Register criteria and to 
adopt these standards within the MPS and as guidance for federal, state, and local governments and the private 
sector." 

1 992 The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties is revised, expanding the language to 

include historic landscapes (the revised standards were codified in 1995 as 36 CFR 68). 

Cultural Landscapes Inventory initiative begins with design development and testing of an inventory methodology 
for all cultural landscapes in the national park system. 

1 994 Cultural Resource Management Guideline, NPS-28, Release No. 4, is prepared and includes an entire chapter titled 
"Cultural Landscape Management" The chapter contains a new definition and oudine for the Cultural Landscape 
Report. 

1 995 Preservation Brief 36: Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatinent and Management of Historic Landscapes is 
published. The brief provides a step-by-step process for preserving historic designed and vernacular landscapes. 

1 996 The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treati^ent of Historic Properties with Guidelines for the Treatment of 
Cultural Landscapes is published to assist in applying the standards to all project work involving the treatment of 
cultural landscapes. 

1 997 Cultural Landscapes Inventory is implemented Servicewide. 

1 998 A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Contents, Process, and Techniques is published, providing procedural and 
practical information related to preparing a CLR. 

Fourteen Landscape Lines are published, introducing a new series of technical publications related to cultural 
landscape management 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH || 




Cultural Landscape Definitions 



Cultural landscape: a geographic area, including both cultural and natural resources and the wildlife or domestic animals 
therein, associated with a historic event, activity, or person, or that exhibit other cultural or aesthetic values. There are four 
general types of cultural landscapes, not mutually exclusive: historic sites, historic designed landscapes, historic vernacular 
landscapes, and ethnographic landscapes. 

Historic site: a landscape significant for its association with a 
historic event, activity, or person. 




Historic designed landscape: a landscape significant as a 
design or work of art; was consciously designed and laid out 
either by a master gardener, landscape architect, architect, or 
horticulturist to a design principle, or by an owner or other 
amateur according to a recognized style or tradition; has a 
historical association with a significant person, trend, or move- 
ment in landscape gardening or architecture, or a significant 
relationship to the theory or practice of landscape architecture. 



Historic vernacular landscape: a landscape whose use, 
construction, or physical layout reflects endemic traditions, 
customs, beliefs, or values; expresses cultural values, social 
behavior, and individual actions overtime; is manifested in 
physical features and materials and their interrelationships, 
including patterns of spatial organization, land use, circulation, 
vegetation, structures, and objects. It Is a landscape whose 
physical, biological, and cultural features reflect the customs and 
everyday lives of people. 

Ethnographic landscape: a landscape containing a variety of 
natural and cultural resources that associated people define as 
heritage resources. Examples are contemporary settlements, 
such as the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site; New 
Orleans neighborhoods; the Timblsha Shoshone community at 
Death Valley; and massive geological formations, such as Devil's 
Tower. Small plant communities, animals, subsistence grounds, 
and ceremonial grounds are included. 



Photos from top to bottom: William Howard Taft's home, William Howard Taft National Historic Site. (NPS, 1 868) The Box Garden 
from the upper terrace Hampton National Historic Site, published in "House & Garden," vol. 3, Januaty, 1 903. Klett Farm, Sleeping 
Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. (John McWilliams, HABS, NPS, 1 990) Canyon de Chelly, Canyon de Chelly National Monument 
(Photograph courtesy of Russell Bodnar, 1 988) 




12 



GUIDE 



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CULTURAL LANDSCAPE 



REPORTS 



History of Cultural Landscape 
Research in the National 
Park Service 

During the past 50 years, research has addressed the full array of 
cultural landscapes in the national park system. A review of the 
reports containing this research reveals changing perceptions of 
cultural landscapes and different approaches to the research, inventory, 
documentation, analysis and evaluation, and treatment of these re- 
sources. As a result, the purpose, content, and format of reports has 
evolved. The foilov^ing sections describe the major changes that have 
occurred during this evolution. 



Early Reports: 

The Focus on Historical Features 

Before the 1 960s, research dealt primarily with historic sites and empha- 
sized the grounds associated with historic structures. The structures were 
the primary interest. The landscape information contained in these 
reports was particularly concerned with associative values, such as troop 
movements. Rarely did reports deal with landscape characteristics, such 
as land use, spatial organization, and vegetation. Some early reports were 
limited to a narrative documentation of the historical base map for a park, 
describing the primary source materia! from which the base map was 
produced. 

Early reports, addressing landscape resources, were single-discipline 
research projects that tended to concentrate almost exclusively on 
historical documentation. (See Figure 5.) They were prepared primarily 
by historians and based solely on research of primary sources, such as 
ledgers, journals, diaries, order books, historic photographs, and 
sketches. In most cases, these reports included some evaluation of the 
research, such as conclusions about the appearance of a landscape at a 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 13 





Figure 5. Antietam and other 
battlefield sites were the focus of 
early lar)dscape research and 
documentatior). Photo ofSherrick 
Farm, Antietan) National Battlefield, 
(jack Boucher, HABS, NFS, 1992) 



specific date or witliin a liistorical period, and a historical base map. 
However, in some instances, reports only contained relevant landscape 
references noted in chronological order with no discussion or analysis. 
Early reports frequently served two purposes, providing both a record of 
the cultural landscape and a source of interpretive material, and much of 
the research focused on architectural and social history. 



Expanding the Purpose and Scope of Research 

With an increase in the understanding about the complexity of cultural 
landscapes, the scope of research expanded from historical documenta- 
tion to a review of the archeological record for a site and a detailed 
physical investigation of the existing landscape. 



14 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




Based on the expanded scope, recent reports generally are the result 
of a multidisciplinary effort, involving a historical landscape architect 
v^ho serves as the project manager, v^orkingv^ith a historian, archeolo- 
gist, historical architect, and ethnographer, as needed. While research 
of historical documentation remains important, few of the reports 
compiled since the late 1 980s rely solely on primary sources. Equal 
consideration is given to recording and "reading" the landscape "on the 
ground." This involves a detailed field survey to document landscape 
characteristics and associated features, such as site boundaries, cluster 
arrangements, circulation systems, and views and vistas. The field 
survey has become an essential tool for understanding a cultural 
landscape. 

Since 1987, the National Register program has produced several 
publications addressing the documentation and evaluation of cultural 
landscapes, such as rural historic landscapes, cemeteries, and mining 
landscapes. The publications provide a framework for applying the 
National Register criteria for significance and integrity to landscape 
resources. This type of evaluation is included in recent reports, where 
prior research efforts did not evaluate cultural landscapes within this 
context. 

Recognizing the diversity of cultural landscapes, research addresses more 
landscape resources, including those with designed, vernacular, and 
ethnographic value. (See Figure 6.) Recent reports have focused on 
identifying the landscape characteristics and associated features, materials, 
and qualities, and analyzing and evaluating these attributes in relation to 
development and evolution of the landscape. Based on this information, 
recent reports include recommendations for treatment of landscapes. 
(See Figure 7.) 



UNDERSTANDiNG CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 15 






figure 6. Rock Creek Parkway is a 
desigr)ed lar)dscape in the District of 
Columbia. Rock Creek Park, (jack 
Boucher, HABS, MPS, 1 992) 



Extending the Content of Reports 

One of the most noticeable changes in the reports is the breadth of 
infornnation they contain. The increased understanding and involvement 
of researchers from multiple disciplines has lead to the inclusion of 
substantive analysis, evaluation, and discussion of the information pre- 
sented in a CLK. Recent reports involve research, inventory, documen- 
tation, analysis, and evaluation of both historical data and existing landscape 
conditions. The historical data often is organized into significant periods, v/ith 
period plans (historical base maps) produced for each era. Historic and 
contemporary landscape base maps are often produced to identify and 
evaluate the integrity of landscape characteristics and associated features. 



16 



GUIDE 



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CULTURAL LANDSCAPE 



REPORTS 




Inclusion of Treatment Recommendations 

Because early reports were research projects involving a single disci- 
pline and nnininnal field investigation, they rarely included treatment 
reconnmendations. Although early reports proposed restoring, reviv- 
ing, recreating, or reconstructing a historic scene, very little discussion 
of treatment was provided. Reports often included a specific date for 
restoration work. Since most of the landscapes addressed were asso- 
ciated with structures that had been, or were in the process of being 
restored to a particular period, the decisions regarding the landscape 
were driven by the desire to represent the historic scene at a predeter- 
mined date. In some instances this resulted in reconstruction of the 
period landscape. 



Figure 7. Overview ofBoxley Volley 
farmlands. Boxky Valley served as 
the case study for "Cultural 
Lar)dscapes: Rural Historic Districts in 
the NaiJonal Park System," one of 
the earliest studies providing 
inventory, evaluation, and 
rr^anagement guidelines for cultural 
landscapes. Buffalo National R/ver. 
(NPS, 1990) 



In contrast, reports completed since the mid- 1 980s provide an under- 
standing of the landscape characteristics and associated features of a 
cultural landscape as they relate to each other and to the significant 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 



17 




events, trends, and people discovered through the collection, analysis, 
and evaluation of documentary and field data. Based on this information, 
a period(s) of significance is defined for a landscape in its entirety. 
Treatment recommendations are presented in a treatment plan or 
narrative guideline. In proposing treatment, The Secretary of the 
Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties \s used as 
the basis for evaluating proposed interventions in a landscape. 



Defining the Purpose, Content, and 
Format of Reports 

The format of early reports varied greatly depending on their purpose 
and scope. These reports included Historic Grounds Reports, landscape 
sections within Historic Structures Reports, documentation of historical 
base maps. Historic Ground Cover Reports, and special site/garden 
histories. In 1981, cultural landscapes were initially recognized as a 
distinct resource type in the second release of the Cuiturai Resources 
Management Guideline, NP5~28. At that time, the guideline identified 
the Historic Grounds Report as a special resource study, but no definition 
or outline for the document was provided. 

In 1 984, Cuiturai Landscapes: Rurai i-iistoric Districts in the National Pari< 
System, identified and defined for the first time the content and purpose 
of a CLR. This information was incorporated into NPS-28 the following 
year. Since then, numerous reports have been prepared for- cultural 
landscapes in the system, including the Cultural Landscape Report, 
Historic Landscape Report, Cultural Landscape Recommendations, and 
the Landscape Management Plan. As the titles suggest, these reports vary 
in purpose, format, and content. The variation isduetothe lack of baseline 
information on cultural landscapes and the need to address a particular 
research, planning, or treatment issue. 




18 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



The proliferation of study types resulted in confusion about what was 
needed to guide treatment and managennent decisions for a cultural 
landscape. The need to standardize these reports was viewed as funda- 
mental to adequately incorporating cultural landscape research into a 
comprehensive park resources management program. The need also 
existed to outline requirements for professional adequacy. As a result, the 
purpose, use, and content of the CLR was reevaluated and redefined in 
the development of the Cultural Resource Management Guideline, 
Release No. 4, in 1994. 

The recognition of cultural landscapes as significant cultural resources in 
their own right, and not simply for their associative qualities as the setting 
for a structure or scene of an event, has resulted in a greater degree of 
rigor by which landscape resources are managed. The evolution of the 
purpose, content, and format of a CLR has paralleled the increased 
understanding of these resources. (See A Guide to Cultural Landscape 
Reports: Appendices, "Appendix B: Cultural Landscape Bibliographies.") 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 19 



Use of Cultural Landscape 
Reports in Park Management 

Cultural Landscape Reports (CLRs) play a significant role in park 
management. In park planning and design, a CLR may be required 
to provide information about a landscape's significance, characteris- 
tics, and features. In cultural and natural resource management, a CLR 
provides detailed, site-specific information that can supplement other 
resource managennent documents and describe the relationship between 
natural and cultural resources in a particular landscape. 



Use of CLRs in Park Planning and Design 

Aspecial relationship exists betv\/een cultural landscapes and the planning 
and design process for a national park. Cultural landscapes often share the 
same boundary as the park itself — as in the case of many historic sites— 
or are discrete portions of a park. Planning for development within a 
cultural landscape often requires a CLR to contain specific information 
about the landscape's significance, characteristics, and features. The 
information is often needed to ensure that decisions made through the 
planning process do not have a negative effect on the character of a 
landscape. 

In response to the goals of the Vail Agenda related to the National Park 
Service (MPS) management planning process. Special Directive 96-1, 
Tables for Planning: Linking Resources l^anagement Studies and Data to 
Parl< Planning was issued in 1 996. This document identifies the infornna- 
tion needed to support park planning by linking studies and adequate data 
requirements, such as the Cultural Landscapes Inventory (CLI) and CLR, 
to planning documents. (See the inserttitled, "Linking Cultural Landscape 
Data to Park Planning and Management" on the following page.) 




20 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



Linking Cultural Landscape Data to Park Planning and Management 



Planning Document Information Needed 



Source 



Special Resource Study 
(New Area Study), 
Suitability/ Feasibility Study, 
and Boundary Study 



Kinds of known {or expected) cultural 
resources and their general distribution and 
significance, relevant historic contexts, and 
important gaps in extant survey information 



National Register of Historic Places files, other 
existing inventories and assessments, and 
relevant literature including Federal, state, and 
local sources for data on archeological 
resources, cultural landscapes, historic sites, 
and structures 



Statement for 
Management 



Location, historical development, land- 
scape characteristics and associated features, 
and management of cultural landscapes in 
the park 



Cultural Landscapes Inventory, if available 



General 
Management Plan 



Site Development Plan 



Location, historical development, land- 
scape characteristics and associated features, 
and management of cultural landscapes in 
the park 



Cultural Landscapes Inventory 



Physical evolution, key developments, physical Cultural Landscape Report, Part I: Site 



relationships, patterns, and features of a 
cultural landscape; accurate site map; 
inventory, documentation, and condition 
assessment of landscape characteristics and 
associated features 



History, Existing Conditions, and Analysis and 
Evaluation 



Appropriate treatment and use of a cultural 
landscape 



Cultural Landscape Report, Part 2: Treatment 
(may be prepared in conjunction with an SDP 
that corresponds to boundary of a cultural 
landscape and includes schematic design) 



Interpretive 
Perspectus 



Summary of prehistory and history of the 
park and environs and what visitors should 
understand about it; which cultural re- 
sources can best interpret this history and 
prehistory; and what information is confiden- 
tial and should not be released to the public 



Historic Resource Study; cultural resources 
maps. National Register multiple properties 
and other National Register documentation; 
NPS and non-NFS cultural resources over- 
views; Resource Management Plan 



Land Protection Plan 



Physical evolution, key developments, 
physical relationships, patterns, and features 
of a cultural landscape; accurate site map; 
inventory, documentation, and condition 
assessment of landscape characteristics and 
associated features 



Cultural Landscape Report, Part I: Site 
History, Existing Conditions, and Analysis and 
Evaluation 




Design and Treatment Plan 



Appropriate treatment and use of a cultural 
landscape 



Cultural Landscape Report, Part 2: Treatment 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 



21 



The following sections explain the relationship of two planning docu- 
ments, the General Management Plan and the Site Development Plan, to 
the CLR. 

General Management Plan 

The General Management Plan (GMP) sets forth the basic strategy for 
managing park resources, visitor use, and interpretation. Basic resource 
information (such as inventories) is needed to outline strategies for 
preserving both natural and cultural resources. The Historic Resource 
Study (HRS) provides a historical context for all cultural resources within 
a park, including cultural landscapes. More specific cultural landscape 
information is provided in the CLI, which includes information on the 
location, historical development, and management of a landscape. 
Ideally, the CLI is completed before any major planning effort is begun, 
and generally is considered to provide an adequate level of information for 
a GMP effort. 

Bydefinition, the GMP istheprimar/vehicle for determiningthe general 
treatment of all cultural resources in a park. However, many GMPs do 
not specifically address the treatment of cultural landscapes. As a result, 
treatment may be decided within the context of a Site Development 
Plan. 

Site Development Plan 

The most direct relationship of a CLR to the NPS planning process 
occurs with the preparation of a Site Development Plan (SDP). An 
SDP is prepared after the GMP to implement the proposed actions. 
The SDP addresses visitor use and interpretation of the landscape, 
along with compliance and public review associated with the pro- 
posed actions. It is the intermediate step between the GMP and 
comprehensive design. 




22 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




In comparison, a CLR is prepared to guide park nnanagement deci- 
sions regarding treatment and use. A CLR focuses on preserving tlie 
significant landscape characteristics and associated features and en- 
sures that the treatment complies with The Secretary of the Interior's 
Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for 
the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes. Both documents may include 
schematic designs for treatment based on a landscape's significance, 
condition, and planned use. 

Before preparing an SDP for a cultural landscape, or portion of it, 
consideration should be given to the way in which significant landscape 
values are addressed, and the role a CLR plays in providing informa- 
tion forthe planning process. When the scope of an SDP corresponds 
to the boundary of a cultural landscape and results in changes to the 
landscape, Part I, titled "Site History, Existing Conditions, and Analysis 
and Evaluation," and Part 2, titled "Treatment," ofaCLRare prepared 
together with an SDP. (The documents may be combined into a CLR/ 
SDP). Therefore, Parts I and 2 are completed priorto the preliminary 
and comprehensive designs. A historical landscape architect should 
oversee both the preliminary and comprehensive designs. (See Figure 8.) 

in some cases, the site addressed in an SDP represents only a portion 
ofthe cultural landscape or may result in indirect effects to the landscape 
(such as development on adjacent lands). In these instances, preparing 
the CLR in conjunction with the SDP may not be necessary. However, 
the team preparing the SDP should include a historical landscape 
architectto assess the significance ofthe landscape and assist in minimiz- 
ing the effect of development on the resource. 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 23 



Dcvtlop pedestrian way uilh 
specially paving along Main 
Street to Downey Street. 



By making the noted 
modifications to areas of 
diminished integrity, areas of 
integrity such as Main Street 
and Downey Street are 
enhanced. 



Connect the visitor to West 
Branch by providing 
parking adjacent to 
Main Street. 



Consider relocating Visitor 
Center entry to northeast 
corner of building to improve 
pedestrian circulation along~ 
Main Street. 



Develop new bridge 
Relocate and enlarge parking thai is less restrictive 

area (o Ihe north adjacent to to water flow. Only demolition required- 

Main Street. fjps maintenance tacililies. 






n ®B0 





F/gure 8. To provide guidance for the Site Developmerit Ptar) plar)r)ir}g team. Parts I and 2 of a CLR were prepared, indudir)g tliis 
schematic design for treatment, for the birthplace of Herbert Hoover. Herbert Hoover National Historic Site. (NFS, 1 995) 



24 



GUIDE 



T O 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



Use of CLRs in Cultural Resource 
Management 

Cultural landscape research builds a better understanding of the relation- 
ship between cultural and natural resources in a park. A CLK can, 
therefore, provide a general framework for resource nnanagement. 
Cultural landscapes often include other cultural resources, such as ar- 
cheological sites, historic structures, and ethnographic resources, so site- 
specific information about these resources is part of the CLR documen- 
tation process. Within the context of cultural resource management 
studies, a CLR is most directly related to the Historic Resource Study, 
Cultural Landscapes Inventor/, the Historic Structure Report, and the 
Ethnographic Landscape Study, which are described in the following 
sections. 

Historic Resource Study and 
Cultural Landscapes Inventory 

The initial identification of cultural landscapes in a park occurs in a 
Historic Resource Study (HRS) and the CLI. The HRS provides a 
historical context for all cultural resources within a park, including 
cultural landscapes, and entails the preparation of National Register 
nominations for all eligible properties. The CLI identifies the cultural 
landscapes in a park and provides information on their location, historical 
development, landscape characteristics and associated features, and 
management. (See Figure 9.) 

The HRS and CLI support one another. The HRS provides a context 
that is often necessary to determine the relative significance of cultural 
landscapes in a park, while the CLI provides a basic inventory of the 
landscape resources to assist in defining the contexts and resources to 
be included in the HRS. The level of detail provided in an HRS will vary 
depending upon the complexity of a park. For example, an HRS for 
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site would provide much more detail 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 25 





EBEY'S LANDING 

NATIONAL 
HISTORICAL RESERVE 



PNRO 

INVENTORY 



National Park Service 
Paciftc KorOw/est Re^on 
Guttural Resources Division 



Wdstin Building, Room 1920 
2001 Sixth Avenue 
Seattle, Washington 98121 



SITE ID. H . 6e^ 4. -r.^i rj. Ta-.i^., 



QUAD name; t^^LJfgvJluUg 



SOURCES: 



uses W FIELD OBSERVATION 

AIR PHOTOS n OTHER 



date; 



INVENTORIED BY; 



FILM units: 



DESCRIPTION This half section in the northern portion of Ebey's Prairie and includes the coramercial part of 
Coupeville, Icnown as Prairie Center. Primary access is along Engle and Terry roads which Intersect in Prairie 
Center and along Cook Road which runs northwest across the prairie. Pasture lands and croplands surround the commer- 
cial district with higher residential densities clustered within the Coupeville city limits. 



LANDUSE CATEGORY o 

V 



% AGRICULTURE 



% RANCHING 



% NATURAL VEGETATION 



% RESIDENTIAL 



» COMMERCIAL 




LANDUSE ACTIVITY 



cropland: 



□ PERMANENT 



GRAZING 



□ HOLDING 



pFOREST D GRASSLAND 



dwellings: V MULTIPLE 



SINGLE 



□ single building bi group 



RECREATION: 



notes: rfVMP-l& O&hWF^ C^>r\tA^ftC\M. Vi^Xf^^ 



BOUNDARY DEMARCATION 



TOPOGRAPHIC-. Etf6»g. of f^Pd^e Ih HvJ 



1 vegetative; ^t^AU, WETLAMU EA^T 



Jroad: T^js.'prf 1^AP, ^HiitE -pQ^P, 



[fence: Wa>P ro^T ANP Wirt IH 

Iffi&TOK's AMP Aujiitr rmtfrr une& 



other; CO0r&/\U^ 0\rX UMIT^ 



description: 




description: fe^a 




description: fe=* 






Figure 9. The Cukura! Landscapes 
inventory, which precedes a CLR, 
prowdes baseiine information on the 
significance and physicai character of 
a landscape. This is an exampie of 
an eariy inventory format used to 
docunnent cultural landscape 
resources. Ebe/s Landing National 
Historical Reserve. (NPS, 1 983) 



on the significance and clnaracter of the landscape than an MRS for 
Olympic National Park would provide on back country homesteads 
within the Elwha River Drainage. 

The baseline documentation provided in the HRS (including National 
Register nominations) and CLI should be available at the time a CLR 
is undertaken. However, depending on the scope of the HRS, certain 
information about the landscape may be inadequate or nonexistent. 
In these cases, the information provided in the CLI and CLR 
can be used to revise or amend the HRS or National Register 
nomination. 



26 



GUIDE 



T O 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




Ideally, a CLl should precede the preparation of a CLR or other research 
on the cultural landscape. A completed CLl provides information about 
the significance and historic character of a particular landscape and 
identifies other research needs. Conversely, the information collected in 
a CLR can serve to update and expand the CLl as needed. 

Historic Structure Report 

Historic structures are a characteristic of many landscapes. The research, 
analysis, evaluation, and treatment for historic structures is the same as 
that for cultural landscapes. The primary guide to treatment and use of 
historic structures is the Historic Structure Report (HSR). The purpose, 
content, and use of the repori: parallels that of a CLR. Treatment and use 
of historic structures can directly affect a landscape. For example, in 
establishing the period of restoration for a building, the entire property 
should be evaluated to establish a common period of significance for 
treatment and management. (See Figure 10.) 



Figure 10. The treatment of historic 
structures should not be 
undertaken prior to documentation 
and assessment of a cultural 
landscape. TreaW^ient of many 
historic structures along Auburn 
Avenue in Martin Lu^er King, jr. 
National Historic Site was 
undertaken based solely on Historic 
Structure Reports. A CLR prepared 
in 1 995 provided contextual 
information on the landscape and 
revealed the significance of later 
additions to the structures, 
prompting reconsideration of prior 
treatment decisions. Martin Luther 
King jr. National Historic Site. 
(NPS, 1994) 




UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 



27 



Appropriate sequencing of research associated with cultural landscapes 
and historic structures ensures that critical decisions are not made in 
isolation fronn one another. In general, a CLR should be prepared prior 
to or in conjunction with the HSR. Decisions about the sequencing of 
research are based on the scope of work, level of investigation, and 
management objectives of a given project. 

Ethnographic Landscape Study 

Ethnographic landscapes are one of the four general types of cultural 
landscapes. (See the insert titled, "Cultural Landscape Definitions" 
earlier in this guide.) Many cultural landscapes have ethnographic value 
to associated communities. The ethnographic significance of a landscape 
nnay be documented in a CLR or an Ethnographic Landscape Study 
(ELS). (See Figure 1 1 .) 

CLRs focus on landscapes that are listed in or eligible for the National 
Register, and document the landscape characteristics and associated 
features, values, and associations that make the landscape historically 
significant (according to National Register criteria). An ELS addresses 




Figure II. Native American and 
Hispanic petrogiyphs stretch 1 7 miles 
along Albuquerque's West Mesa 
escarpment The escarpment is listed 
on the National Register based on its 
archeological significance. An 
Ethnographic Landscape Study is 
being conducted to understand i^e 
meaning of the escarpment and the 
surrounding landscape to all 
associated communities. Petroglyph 
National Monument (Photo courtesy 
of Peggy Nelson, 1994.) 




28 



GUIDE 



T O 



CULTURAL 



LANDSCAPE 



REPORTS 




landscapes that may or may not be eligible for the National Register and 
documents the names, locations, distributions, and meanings of land- 
scape features from the perspective of the associated communities. 

To document and identify the ethnographic significance of a cultural 
landscape in a CLR, a cultural anthropologist should be part of the 
multidisciplinary team. Additionally, treatment and use decisions in a CLR 
should be made in consultation with the associated communities. Land- 
scapes primarily significant for their ethnographic value should be docu- 
mented by conducting an ELS; however, a historical landscape architect 
nnay be involved in their documentation and treatment. 



Use of CLRs in Natural Resource 
Management 

Virtually all cultural landscapes are influenced by and depend on 
natural resources and processes. Therefore, as the primary guide for 
managing the cultural landscape, a CLR addresses the dynamics 
inherent in natural processes and systems, as well as the relationship 
between natural and cultural resources in a particular landscape. The 
site history, existing conditions, analysis and evaluation, and treatment 
sections of a CLR generally contain information related to a variety of 
natural resource concerns and issues. As a result, a CLR can directly 
affect vegetation management, ecosystem restoration, integrated pest 
management, grazing practices, wetland management, and biotic 
diversity. 

In evaluating cultural and natural resource values, conflicts may arise that 
make it necessary to establish priorities based on the significance of the 
resources. (See Figure 1 2.) The treatment section in aCLRaddressesany 
potential conflicts and ensures that all values are integrated into the 
recommendations for treatment. Management decisions should not be 
limited to preserving one resource value at the expense of another. In 



UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 29 






Figure / 2. Beginning in the early 
1 900s, Mirror Lake ;n Yosemite 
National Park was dredged to retain 
its reflective character. Management 
has considered suspending dredging 
to allow the natural processes to 
occur. The historic character of the 
lake contributes to the cultural 
significance of landscape, therefore, 
this decision would threaten its 
historic integrity. Yosemite National 
Park.(NPS, 1865) 



some cases, certain values take precedence in the landscape (such as the 
retention of exotic vegetation in a designed landscape, and the protection 
of an area associated with endangered species). In all cases, natural 
resource specialists should be involved in definingthe treatment of natural 
systems, such as large scale vegetation restoration projects, to provide the 
necessary expertise. For example, a CLR may recommend reestablishing 
native grasses in a portion of a large vernacular landscape. A natural 
resource professional on the CLR team provides preliminary objectives 
and techniques for implementing the treatment. Subsequently, depend- 
ing on the complexity of the project, it may be appropriate to prepare a 
Vegetation Management Plan (as outlined in the Natural Resource 
Management Guideline, NPS-77) to provide a more comprehensive 
approach. 



30 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



Research regarding cultural and natural resources is coordinated to avoid 
contradictions in management recommendations. A CLR identifies gen- 
eral treatment and establishes preservation goals based on the signifi- 
cance, integrity, and use of the landscape. These goals provide the 
framework for natural resource management of the landscape (for 
example, establishing the limits of pesticide use for integrated pest 
management). Management plans (such as vegetation, grazing, fire) 
therefore serve as tools for preserving and perpetuating the significant 
characteristics and features of the landscape identified in the CLR. 




UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE RESEARCH 31 



Overview of Content and Format 

The contents and format of a Cultural Landscape Report (CLR) 
reflect the development of cultural landscape research duringthe 
past several years. The contents and format follov^ National Park 
Service (NPS) guidelines and are relatively standard, but the document is 
flexible to allow for a wide range of cultural landscapes and different 
management objectives. 

The CLR has three primary parts; 

• Part I : Site History, Existing Conditions, and Analysis and Evaluation 

• Part 2: Treatment 

• Part 3: Record of Treatment 

In addition to these, a CLR includes an introduction, one or more 
appendices, a bibliography, and an index. (Seethe insert titled, "Model 
Outline for a Cultural Landscape Report" on the following page.) 

The three main parts should be completed sequentially. It is important to 
note, however, that information and findings acquired while completing 
alatersection ofthe document may result in revisions to an earliersection. 
For example, findings from the analysis and evaluation of a landscape may 
identify the location of a lost feature, such as a pathway, which was not 
clearly documented in the site history or existing conditions. The site 
history may be prepared concurrently with the documentation of existing 
conditions so that both sections benefit from the findings of the 
multidisciplinary investigations. 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 35 



Model Outline for a Cultural Landscape Report 



Table of Contents 



INTRODUCTION 

This section includes: a management summary describing 
the purpose of the project; a historical overview that 
provides a brief historical context for the landscape; a 
description of the scope of the project and methodology 
for completing it; a description of study boundaries; a 
summary of findings. 



PART I: SITE HISTORY, EXISTING 
CONDITIONS, ANALYSIS & EVALUATION 

Site History gives a historical description of the 
landscape and all significant characteristics and features. 
The text is based on research and historical documenta- 
tion, with enough support material to illustrate the 
physical character, attributes, features, and materials that 
contribute to the significance of the landscape. This 
section identifies and describes the historical context and 
the period or periods of significance associated with the 
landscape. 



Existing Conditions describes the landscape as it 
currently exists, including the documentation of such 
landscape characteristics as land use, vegetation, 
circulation, and structures. It is based on both site 
research and site surveys, including on-the-ground 
observation and documentation of significant features. 
Contemporary site functions, visitor services, and 
natural resources are described to the extent that they 
contribute to or influence treatment. 



Analysis and Evaluation compares findings from the 
site history and existing conditions to identify the 
significance of landscape characteristics and features in 
the context of the landscape as a whole. Historic 
integrity is evaluated to determine if the characteristics 
and features that defined the landscape during the 
historic period are present. A statement of significance 



for the landscape is included, and the analysis and 
evaluation may be summarized in the identification of 
character areas, or the development of management 
zones. 



PART 2: TREATMENT 

This section describes the preservation strategy for long- 
term management of the cultural landscape based on its 
significance, existing condition, and use. It also includes a 
discussion of overall management objectives for the site 
as documented in planning studies or other management 
documents. The treatment section may address the 
entire landscape, a portion of the landscape, or a specific 
feature within it. Treatment is described in a narrative 
text, treatment plan, and/or design alternatives. 



PART 3: RECORD OF TREATMENT 

This seaion summarizes the intent of the work, the way 
in which the work was approached and accomplished, 
the time required to do the work, and the cost of the 
work. This section also contains copies of the field 
reports, condition assessments, and contract summaries. 
Based on when the record of treatment generally is 
prepared and its content, this section usually is included 
as an appendix or addendum to a report. 



APPENDICES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, 
AND INDEX 

The appendices contain supplemental drawings, 
illustrations, maps, photographs, technical information, 
or other supplemental support documentation. The 
bibliography lists the sources used in the preparation of 
the document. The index includes an alphabetized list of 
topics contained in the CLR. 



36 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



CLR INTRODUCTION 



CLR Introduction 



T 



he first section of a CLR is the introduction. It provides the ad- 
ministrative context for a project. The introduction includes the 
follov/ing: 



• Management Summary 

• Historical Overview 

• Scope of Work and Methodology 

• Description of Study Boundaries 

• Summary of Findings 

Management Summary 

The management summary describes the purpose of the project. It 
includes a discussion of whether and how the existing planning and 
management documents identify issues that influence the project. For 
example, the managementsummary addresses any treatmentdecisions 
made for the landscape through prior park planning documents, such as 
a General Management Plan (GMP) or a Site Development Plan (SDP). 



Historical Summary 

The historical summary is an abbreviated physical history of the cultural 
landscape focusing on human interaction with and modifications to the 
natural landscape. The historical summary provides a historical contextfor 
the property. (See Figure 1 3.) Additionally, the relationship of the cultural 
landscape to specific historic contexts. National Register criteria, and 
periods of significance are summarized. The summary is usually prepared 
as a narrative. 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 37 



figure 13. The scope of work for the 
CLR for Vanderbilt Mansion National 
Historic Site, Volume I, involved an 
exhaustive level of historical research 
and field analysis to reconstrua a 
detailed evolution of the landscape, 
establish a historic context, and 
evaluate the landscape's significance 
and integrity. Vanderbilt Mansion 
National Historic Site. (NPS, 1976) 




Scope of Work and Methodology 

The scope of work and methodology used to complete a CLR includes 
a concise description of the following: 

• purpose of the project 

• i$sue(s) to be addressed in the report 

• level of investigation required to complete the work 

• limitations defined in the project agreement 

• process for conducting the work and the techniques used to 
complete it 

• format for the report 



38 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



CLR INTRODUCTION 




(See A Guide to Cu/tura/ Landscape Reports: Appendices, "Appendix C: 
National Register Bulletins (nos. 18,30,38,40,41 ,and42),"and/l(Sty/b'e 
to Cuiturai Landscape Reports: Landscape Lines "Landscape Lines I: 
Project Agreement" and "Landscape Lines 2: Levels of Investigation.") 



Description of Study Boundaries 

A description of study boundaries for the project defines the physical 
limits ofthe investigation as outlined in the project agreement. For most 
projects there are at least two physical boundaries that need to be 
defined. The first is the site boundary, defining the cultural landscape 
addressed in the report. This boundary is defined accordingto National 
Register guidelines and generally conforms to the boundary defined in 
the Cultural Landscapes Inventory (CLI) or National Register nomina- 
tion. The boundary may conform to existing natural features, political 
jurisdictions, cultural elements, and if appropriate, to historic bound- 
aries. Boundaries are described both in narrative form and graphically 
on a map or drawing. (See Figure 1 4.) 

The second boundary to define is the regional context, locatingthe site in 
the larger landscape context as defined by a physiographic area or 
landscape system, such as a drainage or watershed, or political area, such 
as a state or region. Depending on the scale of the site, this can be 
represented as a location on a state map, a United States Geological 
Survey (USGS) map, or an aerial photograph illustrating the regional 
setting ofthe site. (See the insert titled, "Guidelines for Selecting Bound- 
aries" later in this guide.) 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 39 




Figure 14. Historic property 
boundaries were evaluated to define 
the cultural landscape at t/ie Marsh- 
Billings property. Marsh-Billing 
National Historical Park. (NPS, 
1994) 



Summary of Findings 

The summary of findings provides management with general conclu- 
sions from the report. The amount of detail presented in the summary 
depends on the complexity and scope of the project. Key findings may 
include the identification of new historic conte>cts and periods of 
significance, recommendations for revising the boundaries of an existing 
National Register nomination, general treatment recommendations, 
identification of potential threats, and future research needs associated 
with the cultural landscape. 



40 



GUIDE TO CUUTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



SITE HISTORY 



CLR Part I: 

Site History, Existing Conditions, 

AND Analysis and Evaluation 

Part I provides documentation about and an evaluation of landscape 
characteristics and associated features, materials, and qualities that 
make a landscape eligible for the National Register. The site history, 
existing conditions, and analysis and evaluation sections identify the 
historical values associated with the landscape, document extant land- 
scape characteristics and associated features, and define the significance 
and integrity of the landscape. All three sections of Part I must be 
completed before any treatment decisions for a landscape can be made. 




Site History 

The site history provides a description of the landscape through every 
historic period uptothe present, and it identifies and describes the historic 
context and period(s) of significance associated with the landscape. The 
site history documents the physical development of the landscape, 
focusing on human interaction with, and modification to, the natural 
landscape. (See Figures 15 through 19.) It describes the physical 




Figure IS. The she history of 
Yosemite Valley includes this 
proposed village, which was never 
built, by Mark Daniels. Yosemite 
National Park. (NPS,c.{9 1 4) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE 



REPORT 



4\ 




Materials Useful in Research 



figure 16. Historic maps and 
drawings, such as this partial plan, 
can illustrate the original design 
intent for a landscape. Grand Canyon 
National Park. (NPS, 1924) 




♦iHTtUXDIW- +NATlOHAl + pAILK+;taVICt h 

ND aNYON NATIONAL PA UIT 
tRAl PLAN CDnMUHlTTDEVELOPntNT 

Olt lien - 100 rttT JUKt I4- 19.£4 

«YIX>»JC1PE t>CIHt(LIII£i tlllJION 



Figure 1 7. Oral histories can provide 
valuable information about the historic 
charaaer of a landscape, especially 
when litde documentation exists. This 
drawing of the Summer Garden at 
Carl Sandburgs home was prepared 
by his daughter, Paula Steichen Polega. 
Carl Sandburg National Historic Site. 
(Image courtesy of Paula Steichen 
Polega, n.d.) 



at ]jtwIi<A.-<WJiA Wg««/Y'nJ».'^^'*^»^<M*. t 



'Vl C^tr^-i^-*:;^^ 



1 









^'^'^^-S^ 





■VLtK 



■r*iai >aM5 ip-r^ — «!j?H»r^6r«>p K^,^ l 
■»Wt!) >»M +,^ «M='V♦^ - -fti^wb' -May '"^^r" "- 



■A. 



^■^ 
*^^,*^ 






,i3(*** 



^jcw 



^^■ 



42 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



SITE HISTORY 




Palh leading to ths Baracks, 

'^sn Fr?inr.tnr.r\ . C.?,\. 



Figure 18. Period illusuatjons can 
assist in documenting the character 
of a landscape during distinct liistoric 
periods. For example, this postcard 
image illustrates the character of the 
Presidio in ihe late nineteenth 
centur/. Golden Gate National 
Recreation Area. (NPS, n.d.) 




Figure 1 9. Historic surveys can assist in 
documenting the historic boundaries 
and conditions of a landscape. For 
example, G. M. Hopldns' AlJas of the 
County of Suffolk, Volume III, South 
Boston and Dorchester, Massachusetts, 
illustrates the nineteenth century 
boundary of Dorchester Heights- 
Thomas Park. (Image courtesy of the 
Society for the Preservation of New 
England Antiquities, 1874.) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



43 



character, attributes, features, and materials (tlie landscape characteristics 
and associated features) that contribute to the significance of the land- 
scape. Othertypes of historical information, such as stylistictrends, social 
history, the history of technology, and cultural history are detailed in the 
report if they have a direct bearing on the physical development of the 
property. This is often the case with vernacular landscapes. The site 
history should include the experiences and stories of all individuals 
associated with the physical development and use of the landscape, 
including those who have traditionally been under-represented. 

The type of cultural landscape often influences the type of research and 
history prepared for a CLK. For example, in a historic designed 
landscape, it is important that the site history discuss design intent, 
primary design principles, physical relationships, patterns, features, and 
important individuals or events that have influenced the design of the 
landscape, In a historic vernacular landscape, such as a mining district, it 
may be more important for the history to focus on the environment 
systems, transportation networks, technology, and legal aspects of 
claims and ownership. 

Site histories are typically prepared by a historian or historical landscape 
architect. Depending on the character of the landscape, however, other 
professionals may be involved, such as cultural anthropologists, horti- 
culturists, and historical architects. Site histories are prepared using 
appropriate research techniques and source materials. 

Historical research involves the study, analysis, evaluation, and use of 
both primary and secondary source materials. Primary source materials 
include historic plans, photographs, newspapers, period literature, 
journals and other written records, oral histories, maps, tax records, 
drawings, and illustrations. These source materials are very useful for 
profiling the landscape's appearance through time. Secondary source 
materials include special studies, recent scholarship, reports, and cul- 
tural resource inventories. These are used to help establish the 

44 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




SITE HISTORY 



historical and physical context within which a landscape developed. 
Oral histories from people directly associated with a cultural landscape 
can provide a subjective view of its histor/. Historical information about 
a landscape can also be collected by documenting changes in the type, 
location, and composition of ecological systems and vegetation. For 
example, on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State, plant succes- 
sion indicates how long a homestead has been abandoned; young 
alder and fir trees, along with bracken fern are good indicators that an 
area was once cleared or more open. 

Two important steps in planning a CLR project are defining the scope of 
historical research and determining the appropriate research materials and 
sourcesforthe particularcultural landscape. Historical information aboutthe 
development and significance ofthe landscape may be adequately recorded 
in other sources, such as a Historic Resource Study, Historic Structure 
Report, or Archeological Overview. In this case, the site history section of 
a CLR consolidates the information from these sources and focuses on 
additional research related directly to the landscape or to a single feature in 
the landscape. If the history of the landscape has not been previously 
documented, research will need to include appropriate primary and 
secondary source materials as part ofthe investigation. 

(See A Guide to Cu/tura/ Landscape Reports: Appendices, "Appendix B: 
Cultural Landscape Bibliographies," "Appendix D: Preservation Briefs 
(no. 36)," and 'Appendix E: Oral History Guidelines.") 



Determining the Scope ofthe History 

The scope ofthe history is determined by three factors: management 
objectives, including the scope of the project and treatment; the 
complexity ofthe cultural landscape; and, the availability of relevant 
documents. 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 45 



Documentation Sources for Landscape Research 



WRITTEN SOURCES 

Published Secondary Sources 

Published histories of the site, park guide books, biogra- 
phies of owners and other key people. 

Unpublished Secondary Sources 

Research and senninar papers, theses, dissertations, and 
unpublished reports. 

Diaries and Journals 

Documentation by people who occupied the site at various 
periods, or recorded impressions as visitors. These are 
published or unpublished. 

Landscape Design Journals, General 
Periodicals, and Catalogs 

Useful for the early twentieth century and to some extent for 
the late nineteenth century. Examples are Landscape Architec- 
ture, House Beautiful, Scribner's. 

Newspapers 

Most newspapers are unindexed, and are best used when 
there are specific references and target dates for informa- 
tion. 

Local Records 

Consulted for any site that has ever been in state or 
municipal ownership. For any site that has been in private 
ownership, town or city tax records are helpful for dating 
structures on the site, and indicate improvements to the 
property such as orchards, croplands, or livestock. 

Manuscript Collections 

Correspondence, financial records, and diaries of owners or 
other people closely connected with the site. 

Registry of Deeds 

Map and plan files, or surveys bound with the deeds. These 
records are consulted if a complete historical title search has 
not been done. It may be important to know the earlier 
boundaries and uses of a site, even if not all of it is currently in 
NFS ownership. 

Registry of Probate 

The wills of previous owners are often useful. These may 
include surveys of the property and inventories of contents. 

National Park Service Administrative Files 

Available in the park archives, field area offices. Support 
offices, or National Archives and Records centers. 



Pl»it Lists and Catalogs 

Plant lists prepared in conjunction with planting plans by 
professional landscape firms may be available. Nursery catalogs 
are useful to identify plants commonly available in a specific year. 

RECORDS OF FIRMS 

Records of architectural firms, landscape architectural firms, 
engineering firms, green house design and construction firms, 
and nurseries. These include written records, such as 
correspondence and plant lists, as well as plans and photo- 
graphs. For well known, well published firms these records 
are easily located; for example, the Olmsted firm-Library of 
Congress and Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site. 
Others will require more searching. {See Computer Data- 
bases listed here under "Other Types of Repositories.") 
Many universities maintain collections associated with 
individual designers or firms. Examples include Beatrix 
Farrand-University of California, Berkeley; Charles Platt-Avery 
Architeaural Library, Columbia University; Ellen Shlpman- 
Cornell University. 

VISUAL SOURCES 

Maps, Site Plans, and Surveys 

The accuracy of maps of all kinds varies greatly. It is best to 
have maps from a number of sources. Sanborn maps (fire 
insurance maps) and real estate atlases, for example, were 
prepared in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries 
at frequent intervals for many cities, towns, and counties, 
especially in the northeast These generally show the location 
of all buildings, including outbuildings, as well as interior drives, 
and sometimes include garden layouts. They do not show 
topography or vegetation. 

Design Plans 

Design plans by professional landscape architects and 
drawings by owners, and friends and relatives of owners. 

Paintings, Prints, and Drawings 

Especially important for earlier sites, with periods of 
significance that predate the use of photography (pre- 1 839). 
These are important also for later periods in conjunction 
with photographs. 

Photographs 

Historic photographs, including aerial photographs, if 
available, are one of the most important sources. More 
recent photographs are also very helpful. 



46 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



SITE HISTORY 



Films 

Professional films, commercial films, such as real estate 
films, and home movies. 

Videos 

May be available for very recent periods. 

ORAL HISTORIES 

Tapes and transcripts of interviews from previous ov/ners; 
family members and relatives of owners; residents at the site, 
who were not owners; workers at the site, especially 
gardeners; landscape architects/designers if living, if not, their 
associates or descendants; members of the community; 
representatives of occupational, ethnic, and otiier social 
groups; people who have done earlier research on the 
property; and earlier NPS managers and employees. 

NATIONAL PARK 
SYSTEM REPOSITORIES 

Park Libraries and Arciiives 

May include photographs and other park collections 
related to the landscape. Recent records, in particular 
maintenance files, may be useful. 

NPS Computer Databases 

A variety of computer databases have been developed to 
provide information on cultural landscapes in the national 
park system. Examples include the Cultural Landscapes 
Inventory, the List of Classified Structures, Cultural 
Resources Management Bibliography, and a variety of park 
natural resource inventories. 

Harpers Ferry Center Library and 
Photography Collection 

A collection of primary and secondary sources and 
photographs related to the national parks. 

Denver Service Center Technical 
Information Center 

A source for microfilm and hardcopies of NPS reports and 
drawings. 

OTHER TYPES OF REPOSITORIES 

Computer Databases 

A variety of computer databases have been developed to 
provide information on cultural landscapes in the United 
States. Examples include The Catalog of Landscape 



Records in the United States, which provides informa- 
tion on the location of historical landscape documenta- 
tion, the NPS Pioneers of American Landscape Design, 
which provides information on the lives and work of the 
predecessors of contemporary landscape architecture, 
and the National Register Information System, which 
provides information on properties listed in the 
National Register of Historic Places. 

Libraries 

Most large libraries have print, drawing, and photograph 
collections. Most municipal libraries have local history 
rooms and collections, as well as local newspapers on 
microfilm. Libraries to investigate might include the 
Library of Congress; Smithsonian (Garden Club of 
America slide collection); presidential libraries; univer- 
sity libraries; state libraries; local town and city libraries; 
private libraries; libraries of agricultural societies; botanic 
gardens and horticultural sociedes; libraries of other 
federal agencies; and libraries of genealogical societies. 

National Archives 

Washington D.C. and regional record centers. 

Historical and Preservation Societies 

Collections vary but many local, county, state, and 
regional historical societies have large photograph and/ 
or drawing collections. 

County Courthouses 

Registry of Deeds; Map Collections (usually within the 
Registry of Deeds); Registry of Probate. 

Museums and Galleries 

Paintings, drawings, and prints by recognized artists. 

Community Resources 

Libraries and societies, community leaders, citizens' and 
neighborhood groups. 

Archives of Landscape Architectural Firms, 
Architects, Engineers, and 
Nursery Companies 

Such as the archives at the Olmsted Firm, 1 857-ca. 1 970, 
Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, 
Brookline, Mass. 

Internet/World Wide Web 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE 



REPORT 



47 



Figure 20. Rehabilitation of Rim 
Village at Crater Lake was proposed 
based on a series of park planning 
documents. A CUi was prepared to 
guide and direct treatment of 
significant landscape characteristics 
and associated features. Crater Lake 
National Pork. (MPS, 1990) 




Management Objectives — Project Scope and Treatment 

The scope of research and level of detail required in a landscape 
history are determined by a CLR's management objectives and 
purpose. The scope of the history increases as the project scope and 
the extent of physical intervention planned for a landscape increases. 
For example, if a restoration or reconstruction is proposed, then a 
significant amount of detailed historical information is required to 
guide and direct treatment. (See Figure 20.) Without this information, 
the treatment cannot be implemented. Conversely, if the project 
scope is focused on one feature in the landscape, such as a hedge or 
a path, and the recommended treatment is preservation, then a 
comprehensive and detailed history of the entire landscape is not 
necessary. 

Complexity of the Site 

Research efforts are also influenced by the complexity of a landscape in 
terms of physical character, age, and degree of change. For example, a 
rural historic district that is large in size, physically complex in terms of 
topography, vegetation, structures, and roads, and which also has multiple 



48 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



periods of development, will require more time to research than a small 
homestead site with one period of significance and limited records. (See 
Figures 2 1 and 22.) 



SITE HISTORY 



Avoilability of Source Materials 

The availability of source materials has a direct influence on the scope of 
historical research. If many sources are available, all materials must be 
reviewed and pertinent information extracted. If, on the other hand, few 
sources are known at the outset, part of the scopingforthe history should 
include time to investigate potential repositories. In many cases, historical 
data directly related to a landscape is not readily available, making secondary 
sources the most important initial source material. This is especially true for 
many vernacular landscapes, such as back country homesteads or aban- 
doned mining sites, where records may not have existed or were lost. 



Figure 21. Aerial view ofGrant-Kohrs 
Ranch. The ranch is physically 
complex and includes approximately 
1,500 acres witfi over 90 historic 
structures related to the catde 
industry from 1 860 to the 1930s. 
Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic 
Site.(NPS,c. 1970) 




PREPARING 



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LANDSCAPE 



REPORT 



49 



Figure 12. Home and west yard of 
Horry S Truman. Known as the 
Summer White House, the park is 
small (1.4 acres) and includes the 
main house, carriage house, and 
various othe:r features. However, it is 
surrounded by the Harry S Truman 
Heritage District, a local preservation 
district Harry S Truman National 
Historic Site. (Jack Boucher, HABS, 
NPS, n.d.} 



Historic Context 

To determine whether a property 
is significant within its historic 
context, the following five factors 
must be evaluated: 

• The fecet of prehistory or history 
of the local area, state, or the 
nation that the property 
represents. 

• Whether the facet of prehistory 
or history is significant. 

• Whether it is a type of property 
that has relevance and impor- 
tance in illustrating the historic 
context. 

• How the property illustrates 
history. 

• Whether the property possesses 
the physical features necessary to 
convey the aspect of prehistory 
or history with which it is 
associated. 

(Excerpted from National Register 
Bulletin 1 5: How to Apply National 
Register Criteria for Evaluation) 




Historic Context 

The historic context for a cultural landscape consists of information 
related to a specific thenne, time, and place in American histor/ (for 
example, Landscape Architecture of the Civilian Conservation Corps in 
the U.S. Southwest, l930-i942). Every cultural landscape relatesto one 
or more historic contexts that provides the basisfor its relative significance. 
Evaluating an individual landscape in relation to a historic context 
involves research of other properties associated with a given theme, so 
that the significance of the landscape can be evaluated in comparison to 
those other properties. (See the insert titled, "Historic Context" on this 
page, and see Figures 23 and 24.) 

The NPS conducts thematic research through a variety of formats, 
including Historic Resource Studies, multiple property nominations, 
National Historic Landmark nominations, and special history studies. 
The historic context for a cultural landscape is traditionally defined in 
the Historic Resource Study for the park, or through academic work 
based on scholarly research. In addition, several State Historic 
Preservation Offices (SHPO) have undertaken thematic research to 



50 



GUIDE 



T O 



CULTURAL 



LANDSCAPE 



REPORTS 



SITE HISTORY 




Figure 23, The Sunrise {historic Distiia is located in a subaipine n]eadow at the foot of a glader and is naijonally significant in relation to 
the historic context of landscape architecture designed by NFS and the 1 926 master plan for the park. Mount Rainier National Park. 
(NFS, 1990) 



)?^ 



AT»IEVILLr , H.C 







Ta.A11,'S CABIN 



U OUl-UftlH UOiOD 



.SMART V I E \X/ 



figure 24. Drawing from the Blue Ridge Parkway Master Plan. Blue Ridge Parkway is a naiJonally significant landscape related to the 
historic context of landscape architecture designed by NPS. Blue Ridge Parkway. (NPS, 1 942) 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



51 



establish historic contexts that may be used for evaluating landscapes 
in the system (for example, Grain Production in Eastern Washington, 
i8 10- 1 942). 

While some research is required to evaluate significance, a CLR is not the 
primary vehicle for developing a historic context. However, if a historic 
context for a particular landscape does not exist, then research is 
necessary to document the contextfor which the landscape is significant. 
(See A Guide to Guiturai Landscape Reports: Appendices, "Appendix C: 
National Register Bulletins.") 

Documentation of Research Findings 

Documentation of research findings is most often consolidated into two 
formats: a narrative text and one or more period plans. 

Narrative Text 

The primaryformatfor recording historical research findings is a written 
text describing the physical development and all the landscape character- 
istics and associated features, people, and events that influenced the 
design and character of a landscape. Pertinent landscape characteristics 
and associated features are identified and documented for each historic 
period, depicting the degree to which the characteristics and features 
have stayed the same or changed. (See the insert titled, "Overview of 
Landscape Characteristics" on the following page.) 

A historian usually writes the historical narrative and includes all refer- 
ences in the form of endnotes or footnotes in compliance with 
guidelines given in the most recent edition of Tiie Cliicago f^anualof 
Style. The text is illustrated with period drawings, sketches, maps, 
photographs, and other graphic materials that supplement informa- 
tion in the narrative, and provide a visual record of the landscape 
through time. 





52 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



SITE HISTORY 



Overview of Landscape Characteristics 



Landscape charaaeristics include tangible and intangible aspects of a landscape from the historic period(s); these aspects individu- 
ally and collectively give a landscape its historic character and aid in the understanding of its cultural importance. Landscape 
characteristics range from large-scale patterns and relationships to site details and materials. The characteristics are categories 
under which individual associated features can be grouped. For example, the landscape characteristic, vegetation, may include such 
features as a specimen tree, hedgerov/, woodlot, and perennial bed. Not all characteristics are alv/ays present in any one land- 
scape. The following landscape characteristics may be documented in a CLR. 




m 


^# 




^;^^k 


: 1 


'if ' 




^^^ 












MWUMCMT 

fKoreKTY 




■* 1 




MWlNISIWnON • 
N 








Natural Systems and 
Features 

Natural aspects that often influ- 
ence the development and 
resultant form of a landscape. 

Spatial Organization 

Arrangement of elements creating 
the ground, vertical, and overhead 
planes that define and create 
spaces. 

Land Use 

Organization, form, and shape of 
the landscape in response to land 
use. 



Cultural Traditions 

Practices that influence land use, 
patterns of division, building forms, 
and the use of materials. 



Cluster Arrangement 

The location of buildings and 
structures in the landscape. 



Circulation 

Spaces, features, and materials that 
constitute systems of movement. 



Topography 

Three-dimensional configuration of 
the landscape surface characterized 
by features and orientation. 







Vegetation 

Indigenous or introduced trees, 
shrubs, vines, ground covers, and 
herbaceous materials. 



Buildings and Structures 

Three-dimensional constructs such 
as houses, barns, garages, stables, 
bridges, and memorials. 



Views and Vistas 

Features that create or allow a 
range of vision which can be 
natural or designed and controlled. 



Constructed Water Features 

The built features and elements 
that utilize water for aesthetic or 
utilitarian functions. 



Small-Scale Features 

Elements that provide detail and 
diversity combined with function 
and aesthetics. 



Archeological Sites 

Sites containing surface and 
subsurface remnants related to 
historic or prehistoric land use. 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE 



REPORT 



53 



Period Plans 

The term, period plan, describes the graphic format used to record a 
landscape during a designated period or specific date. (Historical base 
map is an old term used in early landscape research.) A period plan is 
compiled from an analysis and evaluation of all research findings, 
including site investigations. One period plan is prepared for every 
period of significance. (See Figures 25 and 26.) 



Figure 25. This period plart grapbicaHy 
documents the orchard and garden 
layout in the mid- 1 920s at Frijoie 
Ranch. Guadalupe Mountains 
Nationai Park. (NPS, 1994) 



The period plan documents the landscape characteristics and associated 
features that have influenced the history and development of a land- 
scape or are the products of its development. The information is 
recorded at a scale, or variety of scales, that are useful for analysis and 



tUPUJ^aJEKATDP- .^Tto^t*W.u 



— CPOiARD iO-MlDeM WTOUT — 




54 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



SITE HISTORY 





DETAIL OF ESTATE OF HENRY W. LONGFELLOW, circa 1882 
Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 



Uiilol Stttes D^artmoii of the lucrira 
KvUnul PukSeivice 

IHnskiD of Cvltucal Ruo<uc«s Wisagaaeat 



Noles; 

•MeaUlj'Of pluil! 'mBioui label j hM docunicniKl: 
•Hot iiModcd r« trcatnieiit ptirjiose!. 



Stones: 

•PIu! iDd fciniK lociSoo ftora KABS. 'Henry 
W, LooifcUow Usee," 1935, Dolbeo, 'Pliiii for 
Fhwa Girdea,' 1B47. and historic ptaotOEnphs, 

■Tcipojnphy loj pUnl kSentilioiIion froin 
HABS, 1935. 



Dnwnby: w. CtAE'.- 



Rgure 26. This circa 1882 period plan was developed based on research conducted on the home of Henry W. Longfellow. Longfellow 
National Historic Site. (NPS, 1993) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



55 



evaluation and development of treatment recommendations. A histori- 
cal landscape architect, with technical assistance from a historian, 
prepares the period plan. (See A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: 
Landscape Lines, "Landscape Lines 3: Landscape Characteristics" and 
"Landscape Lines 5: Graphic Documentation.") 

Existing Conditions 

Existing conditions are documented to clearly identify and describe the 
landscape characteristicsthatcomposeacultural landscape. (See Figure 27.) 
Contemporary site functions, visitor services, interpretation, park opera- 
tions, and maintenance are described to the degree they contribute to or 
influence treatment of a landscape. Also recorded, when appropriate, is 
detailed technical information, such as data on soils, floodplain, slope, 
archeological resources, or natural resources that influence or affect the 
investigation or treatment of a landscape. (See Figure 28.) In terms of 
process, documentation of existing conditions requires a site investigation, 
which usually includes two components: site research and site sun/ey. 

Site Research 

Research is an ongoing and integral part of site investigation and 
recording. Prior to field work, research of park files and a review of 
historical information related to a cultural landscape is undertaken to 
develop an overall strategy for documenting existing conditions. (See 
Figure 29.) Information is collected and consolidated into a format that 
allows easy reference and helps structure time spent in the field. For 
example, transferring site data from secondary sources directly to afield 
map allows verification of the information, without having to discover 
the feature in the field (or perhaps miss it altogether). Site research is 
usually conducted by a historical landscape architect and a historian. 
There are five general tasks in the research phase of site investigation. 
Ail are related to review of various source materials. Each task is 
discussed in the following text. 

56 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 



Hi. UWUWftV l£. 




LMVW cpeeit. 



SP&UDIW6 RESIDEWTIAL ««>. 
(>JEZ FCnCf, pe^eM/ADCN LAND AND PftNATe 0vMefi» 



Dotaboses 

A review of existing natural and cultural resources databases is a valuable 
first step in conducting a site investigation. The NPS maintains numerous 
automated inventories that provide good baseline site information on 
vegetation, archeological resources, hydrology, soils, topography, geo- 
logical features, and historic structures. Most of the databases are 
maintained in individual parks, although some are kept in central offices 
or Support offices. A few databases are kept at universities, especially 
those with Cooperative Park Study Units. Databases particularly useful 



figure 2 7. Existing Conditions 
drawing for the Spalding Unit Nez 
Perce National Historical Park. (NPS, 
1990) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



57 





Figure 28. Documenting the existing conditions at Franklin D. Roosevelt's home involved a comprehensive plant inventory. Home of 
Franldin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site. (NFS, 1 994) 



58 



A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 





for preparing a CLRare the Cultural Landscapes Inventory (CLI) and the 
List of Classified Structures (LCS), both of which are evaluated invento- 
ries. The CLI provides data about a cultural landscape's history, analysis, 
evaluation, and management, while the LCS contains the same type of 
data for historic structures, 



figure 29. Based on the complexity 
of^e cultural landscape of Lower 
Town Harpers Ferry, existing 
conditions were documented for the 
whole property and for detail areas. 
Harpers Ferry National Historical 
Pork. (NFS, 1987) 



Information found in Geographical Information Systems (CIS) and com- 
puter-aided design (CAD) databases is also useful when the scale and 
asset information is current and relevant. CIS is generally most useful for 
large landscapes where detailed information is not required. CAD 
databases usually record detailed information required for treatment and 
provide useful basemaps for needed field worl<. 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE 



REPORT 



59 




Park Files 



Figure 30. This historic photograph of 
Rosemary inr) as viewed from Lake 
Crescent was collected from park 
files durmg research on the 
landscape. Olympic National Park. 
(NFS, c. 1920s) 



Park files are agood place to initiate research before developinga strategy 
for field work. Files vary in terms of extent and condition, but generally 
include administrative files, flat (nnap) files, maintenance records, photo- 
graph collections (includingaerial photographs), a library and archives, and 
natural history collections. (See Figure 30.) For example, the park may or 
may not have a current map for a site at a useful scale and level of detail. 
If this is knov\/n during the scoping process, the time and cost to generate 
a base map can be factored into the schedule for field v^ork. Usually, 
however, park files include materials that supplement and reinforce the 
needed field work. 











60 



A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 



Park Reports and Special Studies 

In addition to park records, many NPS reports and special studies 
contain information on avahetyofresourceswithinacuitural landscape. 
Archeological suiA/eys and overviews, ethnographic overviews and 
assessments, traditional use studies, building inventories, vegetation 
management plans. National Register nominations, and Historic Re- 
source Studies all provide critical data useful in preparing a CLR. 
Management documents related to a landscape are also helpful for 
understanding the administrative and management history for a site. 
Primary park planning and management documents, such as the 
General Management Plan, Interpretive Prospectus, and Resource 
Management Plan provide both general and specific information on 
treatment decisions, site access, land use, visitor services, park opera- 
tions, and interpretive programs related to a landscape. 

Other Site Materials 

Othervaluable sources of site data include a variety of materials related 
to documentation of natural systems. Soil surveys and associated maps, 
aerial and infrared photographs, and United States Geological Survey 
(USGS) maps are among the most useful. Many of these materials are 
located in government offices, such as city or county planning depart- 
ments. If this material does not exist, collecting the information may be 
part of the scope of work related to research and site documentation. 
For example, if the research focuses on a large rural landscape, aerial 
photographs are the best source for illustrating large scale patterns of 
land use. If aerial photographs are not available, acquiring them would 
be included in the site research. 

Findings from Historical Research 

Historical information about a site is reviewed and integrated into the 
strategyfor undertaking a site investigation. This information includes the 
primary source material used to develop a site history, and the findings 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 61 



from research as analyzed and prepared by the historian. This is 
especially valuable for interpreting the potential significance of features 
in a landscape and understanding how a landscape physically appeared 
during the historic period(s). Photographs, for example, illustrate the 
location, character, and function of any number of features that may or 
may not remain in the landscape today. The feature may be recorded 
during field documentation as a foundation ruin or as an imprint on the 
ground plane, but without the historical information, the potential value 
of the landscape feature cannot be understood. 

A large number of source materials used by historians are equally useful 
for documentingasite as it exists today, such as zoning records, plat maps, 
and tax records. Some materials, such as engineering drawings, which 
depict the construction of a specific road, or deed Information that 
describes property boundaries, are quite literal in the information they 
yield. Other materials, however, may yield less obvious aspects of a 
landscape. For example, pioneer journals may describe in some detail 
how a specific area of a landscape was used, or describe the experiential 
qualities of a landscape that may not be evident at the site due to 
modifications to adjacent lands over the years. 

Site Survey 

The second component of site investigation involves conducting sys- 
tematic site surveys to document a cultural landscape. These surveys 
range from general reconnaissance and windshield surveys to detailed 
condition assessments for individual site features. Site surveys require 
on-the-ground field work to inventory and document the existing 
landscape characteristics and associated features. The goal of the site 
survey is to record the landscape as objectively as possible. 

A site survey of existing landscape characteristics and associated features 
also provides additional information aboutthe history ofa landscape. This 
is particularly true for vegetation. The age, composition, and structure of 



62 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 



vegetation communities can reveal a great deal about the historic period 
of a cultural landscape. For example, at the Moses Cone Estate alongthe 
Blue Ridge Highway, the form and spacing of the white pine plantations 
around Bass Lake provide information about the site conditions at the 
time of the planting. Given that the trees are spaced too far apart to 
produce high quality timber, the plantations may also indicate design 
intent. Additionally, the age and composition of the understory indicate 
that the ground between the trees was kept clear until 50 years ago, 
providing insight into the management history of the landscape. 

Site surveys are usually conducted by a historical landscape architect, and 
require the recording of as much information as is pertinent to and defined 
bythe project scope. (See/1 Guideto Cultural Landscape Reports: Landscape 
Lines, "Landscape Lines 3: Landscape Characteristics," and A Guide to 
Cultural Landscape Reports: Appendices "Appendix G: Biotic Cultural 
Resources," and "Appendix D: Preservation Briefs (no. 36).") 

Doaxm^nioton Techniques 

There are several techniques for documenting a cultural landscape. At a 
minimum, three types of documentation are needed: existing conditions 
plan, narrative text, and black and white photographs. 

Other methods of documentation, such as condition assessments, site 
sections, detail drawings, repeat photography, color slides, and video 
recording may also be part of the documentation for a CLR. These 
documentation techniques can be used alone, or in combination, de- 
pending on the goals and objectives of the project. 

Existing Conditions Plan 

The existing conditions plan is a graphic picture of the landscape as it 
presently exists. It facilitates the recording of information at a scale that is 
useful and relevant to the purpose of the project. An existing conditions 
plan is needed for every landscape addressed in a CLR. 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 63 




The level of detail and accuracy of an existing conditions plan varies 
depending on the type of landscape, scale of information required for 
the project, and management objectives. For example, if the scope of 
a projectfollows through to construction drawings, then a very accurate 
plan is required. In every situation, the goal is to develop an existing 
conditions plan v^ith the greatest level of detail and accuracy possible. 
There are two primary types of existing conditions plans used in a CLR: 
schematic drawings and measured drawings. Both may be hand-drawn 
or computer-generated. In addition, digitized drawings from aerial 
photography and GIS systems may be used to create an existing 
conditions plan. 

Schematic Drawings 

Schematic drawings illustrate the location of landscape character- 
istics and associated features and depict the relationships among 
them. (See Figure 3 1 .) They contain more information than simple 
sketches and diagrams, but do not include precise dimensions. 
Schematic drawings are useful for documenting landscapes when 
small-scale detail elements do not need to be addressed in treat- 
ment. They also aid in recording large-scale patterns in the land- 
scape, such as land use, circulation, and spatial organization. Sche- 
matic drawings are generated from field notes, supplementary 
graphic material, and professional interpretation of other concep- 
tual material. 

Measured Drawings 

For many landscapes, a surveyed or measured drawing, depicting 
topography, vegetation, circulation features, structures, and bound- 
aries with a high degree of precision and clarity is appropriate. (See 
Figure 32.) These drawings are generated using survey equipment 
to locate features and landforms at an appropriate scale. Measured 
drawings are needed when treatment requires a high degree of 
accuracy in relation to the level of intervention. 



64 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 









Mun£>on Gcck. 







^culptur^ 



\t4a'ceMo\Xhe, feiiidiw^^ 






SITE MAP 



figure 3 / . Schematic drawings illustrating the existing conditions at the NPS Administration Headquarters in Munson Valley. Crater Lake 
National Park. (NPSJ 99 1) 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



65 



Narrative Text 



Figure 32. A computer-generated 
survey was prepared to document 
the existjr)g conditions at the liome of 
Frederic!<. Law Olmsted. Frederick 
Law Olmsted National Historic Site. 
(Prepared by the Boston University of 
Public Archeology. NFS, 1993) 



The existing conditions narrative describes the overall character of a 
landscape and gives detailed descriptions of landscape characteristics, 
such as circulation systenns, vegetation, structures, and land use. Contem- 
porary site functions, visitor services, interpretation, park operations, 
and maintenance are described to the degree they contribute to or 
influence treatment of a landscape. The narrative is usually written by a 
historical landscape architect in compliance with format guidelines 




asuRus 

• CWlFEflOu; TREE 
eOECIDUOUS TBEE — 
OVINE 




66 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 



outlined in the most recent edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. The 
text may be illustrated with maps, photographs, and other graphic 
materials that supplennent information in the narrative. 

Photographs 

Photographic documentation of a landscape, a critical part of site record- 
ing, is integral to field work and docunnentation. Contemporary photo- 
graphs provide a concise visual record of a cultural landscape at a specific 
moment intime and are usefulfordepictingsite features and characterthat 
may be difficult to describe in the narrative. Within a CLR, photographs 
are used to supplement the text and provide detail whenever possible. 
StandardsforphotographicmaterialsusedinaCLRvar/dependingonthe 
level of investigation, management objectives, type of significance, and 
proposed treatments. For many CLKs, standard 35mm black and white 
film isadequateforfield documentation and recording existing conditions. 
Medium and large format photographs are recommended for record 
photographs of the site and for publication purposes. All photographic 
records should be labeled and referenced as part of the project. (See A 
Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Landscape Unes,''i.m6scd.^e\Jues 
5: Graphic Documentation," and /I Guideto Cultural Landscape Reports: 
Appendices, "Appendix C; National Register Bulletins (no. 23).") 

Condition Assessments 

Condition assessments may be conducted as part of the documenta- 
tion process in a CLR. They describe the physical condition of 
landscape features measured against an applicable standard or guide- 
line. Sources for establishing condition standards are found in the 
Cultural Resource Management Guideline, the Cultural Landscapes 
Inventory (CLI), maintenance requirements, laws and regulations, 
and NPS publications that give guidance about specific features, 
intended use, operational needs, historical significance, and health and 
safety issues. Condition is usually expressed as a rating of good, fair, 
or poor. Condition assessments require field inspection and often 



Defining THE 
Condition of a 
Cultural Landscape 

Good: indicates the cultural 
landscape shows no clear evidence 
of major ne^tive disturbances and 
deterioration by natural and/or 
human forces. The cultural land- 
scape's historical and natural values 
are as well preserved as can be 
expected under the given environ- 
mental conditions. No immediate 
corrective acdon is required to 
maintain its current condition. 

Fair: indicates the cultural land- 
scape shows clear evidence of 
minor disturbances and deteriora- 
tion by natural and/or human 
forces, and some degree of 
corrective action is needed within 
three to five years to prevent 
further harm to its historical and/or 
natural values. The cumulative 
effect of the deterioration of many 
of the significant characteristics and 
features of the cultural landscape, if 
left to continue without the 
appropriate correaive action, will 
cause the landscape to degrade to a 
poor condition. 

Poor: indicates the cultural 
landscape shows clear evidence of 
major disturbance and rapid 
deterioration by natural and/or 
human forces. Immediate corrective 
action is required to protect and 
preserve the remaining historical 
and natural areas. 

Unknown: indicates that not 
enough information is available to 
make an evaluation. 

{Excerpted from the Resources 
Management Plan Guideline, 1 994.) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL 



LANDSCAPE 



REPORT 



67 



employ the use of a standard recording form. (See Figure 33.) Prior to 
visiting a site, information related to specific features, sucli as location, 
material, historic condition, quantity, and unit of measure, are com- 
piled and organized. Feature condition, along with any notes or 
additional information, are documented at the site. The NPS Inven- 
tory Condition and Assessment Program provides a model for con- 
ducting condition assessments used for CLRs. (See the insert titled, 
"Defining the Condition of a Cultural Landscape" on the preceding page 
and the Bibliography later in this guide.) 

Analysis and Evaluation 

In a CLR, the analysis and evaluation is a critical step for sorting and 
integrating natural and cultural resource data so it can be used to 
develop appropriate treatment strategies. Analysis and evaluation gen- 
erally involves two major activities: defining significance and assessing 
historic integrity. Both activities use the National Register criteria. 



Figure 33. A maiiix can be useful to 
document the condition of landscape 
charocteristics and features of a 
cultural landscape. (NPS, 1983) 



INSTRUCnONS; Number BrHitf8!Cnbeiin8nioivfB3Iiires.locaBi>nsndct»Widon. Rscotit tho impact rafog fof 
oactifaaiijr8ijsinoaid«racli8tk<!rlh9teBiiifsniirifl»rinft8l>OJc.lfihBCDlumnipaceisinsutfiefenlraci!nJihe 
raiiiig under loalure lis sctipSon. See InvantmylnspacBon Pars maters shsei for complatalisi of impacts and 
rating descriptions. 


g 
1 s s 


f 


Disease 

Drainage 

DnKiglit 

Earttiqual^es 

Erosion (ivind er>d wetar) 

Fife 

Floods 

FreeteWisw cycles 

Invasive vegetation 

Moisture 

Pests/animals 

San air in ooasla] enviionrncnts 

Snow 

Soli: compaciion.fortiily 

Subsidsnce 

Violent storms 

Abandonment and negloct 

Adjacent la nduse 

AgricuHijce 

Beaiitilicalion 

Construction 

Demolifion 

Drilling: seismic disturbances 

Energy generafion 

FencinB 

fife; fLre^ghiing 

tiraB'ftj 

Mainisnanco practices 

MifNnti 

(fffltUSB 

P(rilution: airand water 

Preservation activities 

RecreationsI technoiogies 

RehabililaliDn or letrotitiing 

Sand and gravel quarrying 

Site compaction 

Slash burning 

Theft 

Timbe' cutting 

Urban sprawVdovelopmenl 

Vandalism 


FEWURE ." fCATUiiC DESCRIPTION iMPACTRATING 


*lii' 


nAHl«It- \^\M^0^ TK^fMaSC 






% 






- i.-tiw 4:vu*jiiJCT«^ -ftart'i -r.mU. . ^k fwc^ «^iv.u;. 












-/^YiiAJr ^M^ '\tc»Mt.M. wv jA*^ -*^<=^ «=• 1158 












-UX»- 






















^ffi 


f€t/(- \fJMA, 




^ 








'- .siru.U**( IZ-rft" if^»A^^ <^v«^ljt, aW^ 












'ie^j ifill (ewi^twt Vi»»hntt IP -pU^AA -pwte-h 






















































































































































































































CONDITION 
ASSESSMENT 


















— 


— 


_ 


— 



68 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION 




The analysis and evaluation compares findings from the site history and 
existing conditions to identify v^hich landscape characteristics and associ- 
ated features have historical significance. Each landscape characteristic is 
analyzed in an objective manner based on what v^as present historically 
and v^hat currently remains in the landscape. The historic integrity and 
significance of each landscape characteristic and associated feature are 
then evaluated in the context of the landscape as a whole. 

The analysis and evaluation is prepared by a historical landscape architect 
working with other disciplines, as appropriate. For example, a botanist 
may be involved to provide insight regarding changes in vegetation and 
ecological processes, or a historical architect may analyze and evaluate the 
buildings and structures in the landscape. Information is presented in a 
variety of formats, such as period plans, schematic drawings, matrices, 
and narratives. Astatement of significance forthe landscape is prepared, 
along with summary statements that consolidate the information in a 
format useful for developing treatment recommendations. The infor- 
mation from the analysis and evaluation can be used to prepare or 
amend a National Register nomination. 

Information forthe analysis and evaluation is compiled and organized for 
each historic period, allowing comparison of patterns and features through 
time. (See Figure 34.) This process establishes aframework against which 
all changes in the landscape are measured. Additionally, the physical 
condition of significant characteristics and features is also considered during 
analysis and evaluation. Although physical condition (good, fair, poor, or 
unknown) does not equal integrity (for example, poor condition does not 
mean low integrity), condition assessments do influence treatment decisions. 

Defining Significance 

A cultural landscape must possess significance in at least one of the four 
aspects of cultural heritage defined by the National Register criteria. 
Because of their complex evolution, many landscapes have significance 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 69 



k * 




^ «-*« 



LAND USE 1T7J 

MoUn'iCGnH • HlnU Mu tblicnl HiiMUlI mk 




I Saub 






LAND USE lESO 



e 










LAN1> i;£B 193^ 










LAND USE 1993 



e 



figure 34. Diagrams chronicle land use activities and patterns of the vernacular landscape, allov/ing con)parison of patterns through 
time. Minute Man National Historical Park. (NPS, 1 993) 



70 



A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION 



under several criteria. Defining the significance of a landscape involves 
relating findings from the site history and existing conditions to the historic 
context associated v^ith the landscape. Additionally, the significance of 
individual landscape characteristics and associated features is defined in 
the context of the landscape as a whole. Understanding the significance 
of a landscape is necessary to guide treatment and management 
decisions. (See the insert titled, "National Register Criteria" on this 
page, and A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Landscape Lines, 
"Landscape Lines 3: Landscape Characteristics.") 

Statement of Significance 

Every CLR has a written statement of significance that explains the 
relationship between the cultural landscape and specific historic contexts, 
National Register criteria, and period(s) of significance. If a statement of 
significance already exists in the CLI or National Register nomination 
form, it can be excerpted for use in the CLR. However, when a statement 
does not exist, or exists but is inadequate, it needs to be developed 
based on research findings in the CLR. 

Assessing Historic Integrity 

The historic integrity of a cultural landscape relates to the ability of the 
landscape to convey its significance. The National Register defines seven 
aspects of integrity that address the cohesiveness, setting, and character 
of a landscape, as well as the material, composition, and workmanship of 
associated features. Historic integrity is assessed to determine if the 
landscape characteristics and associated features, and the spatial qualities 
that shaped the landscape duringthe historic period, are present in much 
the same way as they were historically. (See the insert titled, "Seven 
Aspects of Historic Integrity" on the following page.) 

Because important aspects of the landscape change overtime, assessing 
integrity can be complex. No landscape appears exactly as it did 50 or 
1 00 years ago. Vegetation grows, land uses change, and structures 



National Register 
Criteria 

As defined by the National 
Historic Preservation Act of 1966 
and the National Register criteria, 
to be eligible for the National 
Register a cultural landscape must 
possess the quality of significance 
in American history, architecture 
(interpreted in the broadest sense 
to include landscape architecture 
and planning), archeology, 
engineering and culture. To be 
eligible, a cultural landscape must 
be shown to be significant for one 
or more of the following Criteria 
for Evaluation: 

A. Associated with events that 
have made a significant 
contribution to the broad 
patterns of our history, or 

B. Associated with the lives of 
persons significant in our past, 
or 

C. Embody the distinctive 
characteristics of a type, 
period, or method of construc- 
tion, or that represent the 
work of a master, or that 
possess high artistic values, or 
that represent a significant and 
distinguishable entity whose 
components may lack indi- 
vidual distinction; or 

D. Have yielded, or may be likely 
to yield, information important 
in prehistory or history. 

(Excerpted from the National 
Register Bulletin 15: How to Apply 
the National Register Criteria for 
Evaluation.) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



71 



Seven Aspects of 
Historic Integrity 

Location 

the place where the cultural 
landscape was constructed or the 
landscape where the historic event 
occurred. 

Design 

the combination of elements that 
create the form, plan, space, 
structure, and style of a cultural 
landscape 

Setting 

the physical environment of the 
cultural landscape 

Materials 

the physical elements that were 
combined or deposited during the 
particular period(s) of time and in a 
particular pattern or configuration 
to form the cultural landscape. 

Workmanship 

the physical evidence of the crafts 
of a particular culture or people 
during any given period in history 
or prehistory. 

Feeling 

a cultural landscape's expression of 
the aesthetic or historic sense of a 
particular period of time. 

Association 

the direct link between the 
important historic event or person 
and a cultural landscape. 

{Excerpted from National Register 
Bulletin 1 5: How to Apply the 
National Register Criteria for 
Evaluation) 



deteriorate. Historic integrity is determined by tlie extent to which the 
general character of the historic period is evident, and the degree to which 
incompatible elements obscuring that character can be reversed. For 
example, as vegetation matures, the change in tree canopy, scale, and 
massing may affect the overall character of the landscape. It is important 
not only to consider changes to the individual feature, but how such 
changes affect the landscape as a whole. (See Figure 35.) 

With some landscapes, change itself is a significant factor and is consid- 
ered in assessing integrity. Depending on the type of significance, the 
presence of some characteristics is more critical to integrity than others. 
In a large rural landscape, for example, spatial organization and patterns 
of land use are more important than individual features, such as buildings 
and fences. 

Decisions about integrity require professional judgement to assess 
whether a landscape retains the characteristics, physical attributes, 
and historical associations that it had during the period of significance. 
The historic integrity of a landscape can be documented through a 
narrative or graphics. The amount and type of documentation is 
based on the complexity of the resource, the type of significance, and 
the scale of the landscape. (See Figures 36 and 37, the insert titled, 
"Analysis and Evaluation of Landscape Characteristics — ^Two Examples," 
later in this section, and A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: 
Appendices, "Appendix C: National Register Bulletins (nos. 15, 18, 
30, 38, 40, 4 1 , and 42)," and "Appendix G: Biotic Cultural Resources.") 

Redefining Boundaries 

The boundaries of a cultural landscape are initially defined in the project 
agreement according to National Register guidelines. Boundaries gener- 
ally conform to the boundaries defined in the CLI. A boundary may 
conformto existing naturalfeatures,politicaljurisdictions, cultural elements, 
or if appropriate, historic boundaries. Based on the findings of the analysis 



72 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION 




1909-1934 



C-anof^ g^iS Area 



t 

N 




1934-1941 



Ansa 



N 



^^t 


w 




1941-1990 


^^r 


^^ 






^M 


w 








^^p 


"^s 


; 






^^^ 





Rgure 3S. Analysis of vegetation 
changes between 1 909 and 1 990 in 
this designed landscape was used to 
assess integrity. Oregon Caves 
National Monument (NPS, 1992) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE 



REPORT 



73 



Figure 36. The historic view of the 
rose garden at the Vanderbilt 
Mansion in early summer with some 
roses and edge shrubs in bloom. 
Roses also in upper beds and partial 
vine cover on the Pavilion. Vanderbilt 
Mansion National Historic Site. 
(NPS,c. late 1920s) 




Figure 37. More recent view of the 
rose garden illustrates a loss of 
integrity with the addition of invasive 
plants in the garder), and the loss the 
of garden circulation and beds. 
Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic 
Site. (NFS, 1964) 




74 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION 



and evaluation, boundaries should be reassessed to ensure that all 
significant resources and land areas are included. (See the insert titled, 
"Guidelines for Selecting Boundaries" later in this section.) 

Summary Statement 

Infornnation connpiled as part of the analysis and evaluation is summa- 
rized in a format useful for developing treatment recommendations. 
The format can be a v/ritten summary of significant resources, a graphic 
(such as a matrix or a schematic drav^ing), or it can be defined in the 
development of cultural landscape character areas and management 
zones based on specific landscape values. 

Cultural Landscape Character Areas 

Cultural landscape character areas are defined by the physical qualities of 
a landscape (such as landforms, structural clusters, and masses of vegeta- 
tion) and the type and concentration of cultural resources. Character areas 
are based on the existing condition of the characteristics and features that 
define and illustrate the significance of the landscape. (See Figure 38.) 

Management Zones 

Management zones define areas of a cultural landscape that have been 
assigned specific treatment objectives. (See Figure 39.) They are defined by 
the type and degree of historical integrity within a landscape. Management 
zones are identified in collaboration v\/ith park management v/hen there is 
a need (based on management objectives and the analysis and evaluation) 
to develop a range of treatment strategies for individual features or areas 
v^ithin a single property (such as v/hen a landscape contains features with 
different levels of significance as they relate to distinct historic contexts). In 
some parks, managementzones have been defined priorto a CLRthrough 
the park planning process. A CLK may be used to redefine these zones 
based on the significance of the cultural landscape. 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 75 



Fi^re 38. Landscape character areas 
were identified here on the basis of 
historic land use patterns. Fort 
Vancouver National Historic Site. 
(NPS, 1992) 



Figure 39. Cuhnral landscape 
management zones were defined 
based on ^e type and degree of 
historical integrity and management 
responsibilities. Spalding Unit, Nez 
Perce National Historical Park. (NPS, 
1990) 



LANDSCAPECHARACTER AREAS 



I 1 



I 

I 

- 1 



i.M 

I 
1 
1 



SERVICE 



I ___! ^,' 










CULTURAL LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT ZONES 
ZONE I 

r~j SiCMFICANT CONCEmKATiOH OF CULTURAL LANP5CAPE_ FEATURES/Fffl-ffiRN5 MD_C0MF0HE.m5 FfWM AU FIVE 



HISTORIC PERICD5; THAT fCSSESS CULTURAL VALUE; HISTtPRJC SCENES WITH [hJlEGRITf. 
SI(aMrlC/i^4T ETWCJ&fSAPH/C U1WP5CW=E5 NOT MAWASED BT THE l-ifi^lONfi-L FASI.K SERVICE 



ZONED 



[MPOKTANT CULTURAL LANPSCAPE MATURES/ PATTERNS ANP 
CCMP0t-&rO FRCM SES/EKAL hil^OfHC PERIODS. 

iMR^CTANT CULTURAL LANDSCAPE FEAIURES NOT ^ 

MANACiED Bi'TWE NOTIC"'"' "'"" '' '*" 



-\ 



lA 



TJJii^-i 



IIIB 



4"*\ 



IB 



(SPALDINa TCWN SITE, C 

ZONEm 

□ AREAS OF OXmPU, 
LANDSCAPE VALUE 
CONTRIBLTTINS TO WE 
HlSrOPJC SCENE 
ASS0CIATH3 WITH 
i6RICULTURAL USE CP 
TWE LANDSCAPE O-jmK 
Se/EPAL HISKIPJC 
FSf^CVt 

Zm AREAS (?F OJLTLIRAL 
^ LANDSCAPE VALUE, 

NOT MAWA6EP ^ 

THE NATIONAkL RiRK. ^^. 



NEZ PERCE NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK— SPALDING UNiT 



y iiic 



^ 






\ 



IIIA 



a 



\ 

V 



\ 



s 



<w 



HID 



I \ 



\ 



\ 



-^'::^ 



76 



G U 



D E 



T O 



CULTURAL 



LANDSCAPE 



REPORTS 



ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION 



Guidelines for Selecting Boundaries 



► Carefully select boundaries to encompass, but not exceed, the full extent of the significant resources and land area making up 
the cultural landscape. 

► The area to be registered should be large enough to include all historic features of the cultural landscape, but should not 
include "buffer zones" or acreage not directly contributing to the significance of the property. 

► Leave out peripheral areas of the cultural landscape that no longer retain integrity, due to subdivision, development, or other 
changes. 

► Use the following features to mark the boundaries: 

1 . Legally recorded boundary lines. 

2. Natural topographic features, such as ridges, valleys, rivers, and forests. 

3. Constructed features, such as stone walls; hedgerows; the curblines of highways, streets, and roads; areas of new 
construction. 

4. Topographic features, contour lines, and section lines marked on USGS maps (for large properties). 

► Be mindful of the following: 

Historic legal boundaries of a single property, a group of properties, or an entire political jurisdiction when the cultural 
landscape possesses continuity of landscape characteristics throughout, even when the ownership or division of land may have 
changed. 

Boundary demarcations that are relatively permanent, such as stone fences, irrigation or drainage ditches, and mature 
hedges, when such barriers are based on historic land use or ownership and encompass the concentration of related historic 
landscape characteristics and features. 

Rights-of-way, such as roads, paths, and highways, when they separate areas of land diat are historically significant from those 
that are either unrelated, insignificant, or not historic. 

Natural Features, such as rivers, lakeshores, ridges, plateaus, and contour elevations when such features limited the historic 
development of the land and continue to contain historic landscape characteristics and features. 

Changes in nature of development or spatial organization, such as the departure of a community having vast tracts of 
communally-owned ferm land from the typical Midwestern grid of 160-acre ftirms, when differences are related to significance. 

Edges of new development, such as modern housing, limited access highways, or industrial parks. 

Current legal boundaries, when they coincide with the area containing historic landscape characteristics today. Acreage 
may be the same or smaller than that within the historic boundaries. 

Lines drawn along or between fixed points, such stone vralls, shore lines, or tJie intersection of two roads, when they 
contain the area retaining historic landscape features. 

Long-standing vegetation, that is visible at all seasons, such as rows of hardwoods, when it marks the edge of the area 
containing historic landscape characteristics and features. 

{Excerpted from National Register Bulletin I6A: How to Complete the NatJona! Register Registration Form. See also A Guide to Cultural 
Landscape Reports: Appendices, "Appendix C: National Register Bulletins {nos. 15, 18, 30, 38, 40, 41, and 42.)") 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 77 



Analysis and Evaluation of Landscape Characteristics — Two Examples 

The historic integrity of a cultural landscape is documented through an analysis and evaluation of landscape characterisdcs. This 
documentation can include iaoth narrative and graphics. Follov/ing are two examples of analysis and evaluation documentation. 

Example I: Circulation 

The analysis and evaluation for the cultural landscape at Martin Van Buren National Historic Site is presented in a narrative 
organized in ^ree parts: historic, existing, and analysis. The follov^'ing is an excerpt from the Cultural Landscape Report for the 
Martin Van Buren National Historic Site, Volume I: Site History, Existing Conditions ar^d Analysis, regarding the landscape characteristic, 
circulation. 

Entry Drive 

HISTORIC: A semicircular entrance drive approached the main house, extending from Post Road from two locations and meeting 
at the front of the house. As it approached the house, the drive divided and circled the house. It was one lane and constructed 
with compacted soil. 

EXISTING: A semicircular entrance drive approaches the main house, extending from Post Road from two locations and meeting 
at the front of the house. As it approaches the house, the drive divides and circles the house. It is one lane and constructed with 
compacted soil. The south portion has crushed stone over the top of the soil. 

ANALYSIS: Existing, contributing. 

The only alteration made to the drive since the period of significance is the addition of crushed stone along the south side. The 
crushed stone is minimal and does not greatly affect the historic character. The current condition of the entry drive is very similar 
to its historic and, therefore, it is not a priority for treatment 

Roads to Farm Cottage, Carriage Barn, and Fields 

HISTORIC: A series of roads connected the different areas of the ferm to the main house. Roads extended from the main house 
to the carriage bar, farm cottage, stone house, barns, and agriculture fields. 

EXISTING: The main house is not connected to any other areas of the farm. The majority of the historic roads have been plowed 
under within the agriculture fields. Some of the roads within the fields remain, but no connection exists to the main house. Visual 
traces of some portions of these roads exist in the ground configuration with the house lot 

ANALYSIS: Not existing. 

Most of the features that were connected by these roads no longer exist, but the most important aspect of diese roads is they 
connected the main house to the remainder of the farm. Without them, that connection is lost, making them a priority for 

treatment 



Example 2: Land Use 

The analysis and evaluation for the Cant Ranch Historic District in John Day Fossil Beds National Monument is presented in a 
narrative format illustrated with sketches and photographs. The following is an excerpt from the Cultural Landscape Report Cant 
Ranch Historic District, John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, regarding the landscape characteristic, land use. 

Land use patterns at the Cant Ranch historically correspond to activities associated with the three phases of development in 
ranch operations: subsistence agriculture, sheep ranching, and catde ranching. 




78 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION 



Each of these uses was physically tied to, and was built upon, the previous development and structure at the site. In addition to 
the three general land uses, the ranch was also the home site for both the Officer and Cant femilies, occupying the south side of 
the complex. Early in the development of ^e site, a garden and orchard were established to provide some level of self-sufficiency 
prior to the establishment of a road to the ranch. Early buildings also refleaed basic needs providing shelter and accommodating 
functions of the working ranch. 

As the ranch grew during the Cant eras, these land use patterns were maintained and in some cases, expanded within the physical 
framework established during the Officer era. For example, agricultural lands along the John Day River were expanded to the east 
side doubling the amount of land under cultivation. 

The structural complex of the ranch also expanded significantly with the addition of several new buildings and corrals. Most 
significant in terms of land use is that this expansion occurred within the framework of existing land use patterns and functions, 
and these patterns are evident in the landscape today. 

Existing land uses include administration and interpretation in the house and south end of the complex, and most maintenance 
activities (workshop, work area, storage) occurring on the north side of the ranch complex. 



Officer Homestead 
/domestic J 



\l 






■.< 







Sheep Ranch 




Cattle Ranch 



• LIVESTOCK i' 
Ij (periodic use) \\ 




AGRICULTURE 



■"^aWfe^^-^Jfey^^J 






Existing 



^roposed\ 
^^s^TOR ctr| 

NPS ADMIN.r?i: 



3S WORK & 10 
-MAlNr"AREA"^^. 



^ rNTERPRE. Iv^^llrW'^'H "' G'/^ 




Interpretation (agriculture) ^ 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



79 



TREATMENT 



CLR Part 2: Treatment 

Part 2 is the treatment section of a Cultural Landscape Report (CLR). 
It articulates a preservation strategy for long-term management of 
a cultural landscape based on its significance, existing conditions, 
and use. (See Figure 40.) Part 2 considers managennent goals, such as 
public access, preservation of natural resources, contemporary use, and 
interpretation. Part 2 may address an entire landscape, a portion of a 
landscape, or a specific feature. The foundation for the preservation 
strategy is the historical research, existing conditions, and analysis and 
evaluation documentation contained in Part I of a CLR. 



Part 2 must be prepared in collaboration with park management and staff 
to ensure that management goals are addressed and that the proposed 
treatment can be implemented and maintained over time. (See the 
section titled, "Maintenance and Sustainability" later in this guide.) The 



Figure 40. A ueotment plan specifies 
actjons necessary for preservation of a 
landscape. Perry's Victory and 
International Peace Memorial (NPS, 
1994) 




~\T 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL landscape 



REPORT 



81 



Treatment 
Definitions 



Preservation: the act or process 
of applying measures necessary to 
sustain the existing form, integrity, 
and material of a historic property. 
Includes initial stabilization work, 
where necessary, as well as ongoing 
preservation maintenance and 
repair of historic materials and 
features. 

Rehabilitation: the act or 
process of making possible a 
compatible use for a property 
through repair, alterations, and 
additions while preserving those 
portions or features which convey 
its historical, cultural, or architec- 
tural values. 

Restoration: the act or process 
of accurately depiaing the form, 
features, and character of a 
property as it appeared at a 
particular period of time by 
removing features from other 
periods in its history and recon- 
structing missing features from the 
restoration period. 

Reconstruction: the aa or 
process of depicting, by means of 
new construction, the form, 
features, and detailing of a non- 
surviving site, landscape, building, 
structure, or object for the purpose 
of replicating its appearance at a 
specific period of time and in its 
historic location. 

{Excerpted from The Secretary of 
the Interior's Staridards for the 
Treatmerit of Historic Properties, 
1995.) 



content of Part 2 is prepared by a historical landscape architect working 
with other disciplines as needed. For example, a horticulturist nnay 
recommend disease-resistant cultivars to replace a particular historic 
plant; a historical architect may recommend stabilizing a structure in poor 
condition; or a natural resource specialist may prescribe methods to 
protect a threatened habitat. 



Policies, Guidelines, and Standards 

Treatment of a cultural resource must be guided by the policies, guide- 
lines, and standards contained within NFS Management Policies, the 
Cultural Resource Management Guideline, and The Secretary of the 
Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Guide- 
lines forthe Treatment of Cultural Landscapes. These documents identify 
four types of treatment: preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, and re- 
construction. (Seethe inserttitled, "Treatment Definitions" on this page.) 

Specific policies, guidelines, and standards existfor each of the fourtypes 
of treatments. Collectively, the four treatments form the philosophical 
basis for responsible preservation practice and enable long-term preser- 
vation of a landscape's historic features, qualities, and materials. The four 
treatments allow for both traditional and contemporary treatment tech- 
niques while supporting continued use. 

The goal of any treatment program is long-term preservation of a 
landscape's historic features, qualities, and materials. Generally, the 
amount of physical intervention in a landscape increases from preserva- 
tion to reconstruction . Preservation attempts to maintain a landscape in its 
existing state. Rehabilitation recommends some change to accommodate 
contemporary use. Restoration often involves removing later additions 
and reconstructing missing features to depict a landscape at a particular 
time. Reconstruction replicates a nonsurviving landscape through new 
construction. 



82 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 




As physical intervention increases, tl*ie policies, guidelines, and standards 
require more documentation and justification fortreatment actions. (See 
tine inserttitled, "Secretary of tine Interior's Standards fortlie Treatment 
of Historic Properties" later in this section, and A Guide to Cultural 
/.5/76'5C5/?e/?e/?o/t5;4open6^/ce5, ''Appendix H; Treatment Policy, Guide- 
lines, and Standards.") 



Defining a Management Philosophy 

When a CLR addresses an entire cultural landscape, it is appropriate to 
define a management philosophy for the landscape as a whole. This 
management philosophy guides long-term management and mainte- 
nance and provides a reference for future treatment decisions. The 
management philosophy consists of a narrative that clearly states the goals 
and objectivesformanagingthe landscape asacultural resource, including 
the intent of the primary treatment, specific considerations for long-term 
management, and general maintenance requirements. (See the section 
titled, "Defining a Primary Treatment" later in this section, and the insert 
titled, "Cant Ranch Historic District Management Philosophy" on the 
following page.) 



Determining Treatment 

The General Management Plan (GMP) is the primary planning document 
for determining the general treatment of all cultural resources in a park 
based on cultural and natural resource inventories. However, many 
GMPs do not specifically address the treatment of cultural landscapes. As 
a result, specific treatment of the cultural landscape may be decided in the 
Site Development Plan (SDP). When treatment of a landscape has not 
been prescribed through the planning process, a CLRmay augment or be 
combined with an SDP to determine a preferred treatment and physical 
design. 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 83 



Cant Ranch Historic District Management Philosophy 

The Cant Ranch Historic District is a valuable cultural resource within John Day Fossil Beds National Monument. Significant 
cultural landscape resources and values provide a range of options for management that are generally compatible with the 
proposed use of the site for NPS administration and visitor services as specified in the proposed Site Development Plan 
(SDR). Based on the cultural landscape evaluation, the character of the ranch ties most directly to the sheep ranch period 
from 1910 to 1946. Although the NPS has modified the landscape over the years to accommodate park operations and 
programmatic needs, key cultural landscape patterns, relationships, and individual features remain. Not all areas on the 
ranch exhibit the same type or degree of significance, so different management strategies are appropriate for specific areas 
within the district. 

From an interpretive point of view, no attempt is made to "freeze" the cultural landscape of the Cant Ranch to a single date or 
period. What makes the ranch interesting and significant is the high degree of integrity to all three periods. Each historic period 
enforced the land use patterns and overall landscape organization of the previous era, providing a cultural landscape with a 
relatively high level of integrity. Design treatments and cultural landscape management focus on the integration and interpretation 
of features remaining from all significant historic periods as a way to enhance visitor understanding of the complexity and 
continuity of the site over nearly a century of use. 

In addition, the landscape of Cant Ranch historically extended for miles beyond the physical boundaries of the existing 200-acre 
district, and the concept of designing for, or managing the landscape as a "working ranch" is not appropriate. 

Finally, many historic ranching practices had an adverse impact on natural landscape features and systems. For example, allowing 
livestock unrestricted grazing along the John Day River eroded the river bank and compacted soils. No effort will be made to 
reestablish these practices just because they are historic. Rather, the philosophy for treating the cultural landscape will be to 
retain existing historic features and patterns. However, when considering reestablishment of nonextant features, such as fences, 
or rehabilitation of biotic cultural resources, such as the agricultural fields, a more integrated and sustainable approach to 
management will be encouraged. 

(Excerpted from Cultural Landscape Report Car)t Ranch Historic District, johr) Day Fossil Beds National Monument.) 




View of Cant Ranch Historic District, 
John Day Fossil Beds National 
Monument (NPS J 993) 



84 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 



Treatment decisions are based on nnany factors, including: 

• Legislative and management factors 

► park-enabling legislation 

► policy, guidelines, and standards 

► park management objectives 

► proposed use (as defined in planning documents) 

• Resource-based factors 

► historical integrity and significance 

► level of historical documentation 

► existing conditions 

► threats and resource conflicts 

• Operational factors 

► health and safety 

► maintenance requirements 

► projected costs 

The above factors, especially those pertainingto legislation and manage- 
ment, directly influence the project agreement for a CLR. In addition, 
they help deflne a preservation strategy for long-term management of 
a cultural landscape. (Seethe section titled, "Use of Cultural Landscape 
Reports in Park Planning and Design" earlier in this guide.) 

Defining a Primary Treatment 

Defining a primary treatment for a property is important because it 
ensures consistency in treatment activities. This is emphasized in The 
Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic 
Properties In selecting a primary treatment, each treatment action is 
evaluated on the basis of the landscape's value as a cultural resource. One 

PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 85 



goal of the primary treatment is to ensure that the historic features 
contained in the landscape actually existed together. A landscape's 
"period of significance" (defined through research) provides the best 
frame of reference for evaluating the congruity of treatment actions, 
especially those related to removal and reconstruction. A recommenda- 
tion to remove or reconstruct a particular feature should be evaluated 
on the basis of whether the feature was present in the landscape at the 
end of the period of significance. 

Because of the complexity of many cultural landscapes, the primary 
treatment often serves as a general treatment for the entire landscape. 
The primary treatment is defined by the overall level of inten/ention and 
change proposed for the landscape. Take, for example, the Eugene 
O'Neill National Historic Site. Here, restoration was selected as the 
primary treatment to reestablish the courtyard design at the time of 
O'Neill's tenure. The restoration involved reconstructing the circulation 
system and terrace areas, removing lateradditions, and replantingvegeta- 
tion. (See Figures 41 and 42.) 

Certain portions of the O'Neill design were rehabilitated to accom- 
modate public access and use of the site. For example, a subsurface 
grass paver path was installed to accommodate universal accessibility. 
This required removing some historic vegetation and changing the 
grade of a secondary historic walkway. In a few cases, plantings were 
also altered. In the lower patio of the courtyard, the loss of a significant 
historic tree increased the sunlight in the area, requiring substitute, 
sun-tolerant plant material to be placed in an area that historically had 
been in full shade. (See the insert titled, "Evaluating Treatment 
Actions" later in this section, and A Guide to Cultural Landscape 
Reports: Appendices, "Appendix D: Preservation Briefs (no. 36)," 
and A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Landscape Lines, 
"Landscape Lines 13; Accessibility.") 



86 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 





Figure 4 1 . Lower terrace of courtyard 
at the Tao House, Eugene O'Neill's 
primary residence from 1937-1944. 
Historically, the lower terrace was 
heavily shaded by a large Walnut 
tree and included shade-tolerant 
plants. Eugene O'Neill National 
Historic Site. (NFS, c 1940) 




Figure 42. Lower terrace during 
project work. Restoration was 
seleaed as the primary treatment for 
the courtyard. However, certain 
courtyard features were rehabilitated 
based on changes in use and growing 
conditions. Some historic paths were 
altered to increase accessibility, and 
original plant material was 
substituted with sun-tolerant plants 
based on the loss of die adjacent tree 
(the tree will be replanted and 
original plants will be installed once 
the necessary growing conditions 
have been established). Eugene 
O'Neill National Historic Site. (NFS, 
c. 1988) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE 



REPORT 



87 



Secretary of the Interior's Standards for theTreatment of Historic Properties 



Standards for Preservation 

1 . A property will be used as it was historically, or be given 
a new use that maximizes the retention of distinctive 
materials, features, spaces, and relationships. Where a 
treatment and use have not been identified, a property 
will be protected and, if necessary, stabilized until 
additional work may be undertaken. 

2. The historic character of a property will be retained and 
preserved. The replacement of intact or repairable historic 
materials or alteration of features, spaces, and spatial 
relationships that characterize a property will be avoided. 

3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of 
its time, place, and use. Work needed to stabilize, 
consolidate, and conserve existing historic materials and 
features will be physically and visually compatible, 
identifiable upon close inspection, and properly docu- 
mented for future research. 

4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic 
significance in their own right will be retained and 
preserved. 

5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and construction 
techniques or examples of craftsmanship that character- 
ize a property will be preserved. 

6. The existing condition of historic features will be 
evaluated to determine the appropriate level of interven- 
tion needed. Where the severity of deterioration 
requires repair or limited replacement of a distinctive 
feature, the new material will match the old in composi- 
tion, design, color, and texture. 

7. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, will be 
undertaken using the gendest means possible. Treatments 
that cause damage to historic materials will not be used. 

8. Archeological resources will be protected and preserved 
in place. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation 
measures will be undertaken. 



Stand»*ds for Rehabilitation 

i . A property will be used as it was historically, or be given 
a new use that maximizes the retention of distinctive 
materials, features, spaces, and relationships. 

2. The historic character of a property will be retained and 
preserved. The removal of distinctive materials or 
alteration of features, spaces, and spatial relationships that 
characterize a property will be avoided. 

3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of its 
time, place and use. Changes that create a false sense of 
historical development, such as adding conjectural features 
or elements from other historic properties, will not be 
undertaken. 

4. Changes to a property that have acquired historic 
significance in their own right will be retained and 
preserved. 

5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and construction 
techniques or examples of craftsmanship that character- 
ize a property will be preserved. 

6. Deteriorated historic features will be repaired rather 
than replaced. Where the severity of deterioration 
requires replacement of a distinctive feature, the new 
material will match the old in composition, design, color, 
texture, and where possible, materials. Replacement of 
missing features will be substantiated by documentary and 
physical evidence. 

7. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, will be 
undertaken using the gentlest means possible. Treatments 
that cause damage to historic materials will not be used. 

8. Archeological resources will be protected and preserved 
in place. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation 
measures will be undertaken. 

9. New additions, exterior alterations, or related new 
construction will not destroy historic materials, features, 
and spatial relationships that characterize the property. 
The new work will be differentiated from the old and will 
be compatible with the historic materials, features, size, 
scale and proportion, and massing to protect the integrity 
of the property and its environment. 



88 



GUIDE 



T O 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 




10. New additions or related new construction will be 
undertaken in such a manner that, if removed in the 
future, the essential form and integrity of the historic 
property and its environment would be unimpaired. 

Standards for Restoration 

1 . A property will be used as it was historically, or be given 
a new use that reflects the property's restoration period. 

2. Materials and features from the restoration period will be 
retained and preserved. The removal of materials or 
alteration of features, spaces, and spatial relationships that 
characterize the period will not be undertaken. 

3. Each property will be recognized as a physical record of 
its time, place and use. Work needed to stabilize, 
consolidate, and conserve materials and features from the 
restoradon period will be physically and visually compat- 
ible, identifiable upon close inspection, and properly 
documented for future research. 

4. Materials, features, spaces, and finishes that characterize 
other historical periods will be documented prior to their 
alteration or removal. 

5. Distinctive materials, features, finishes, and construction 
techniques or examples of craftsmanship that character- 
ize the restoration period will be preserved. 

6. Deteriorated features from the restoration period will be 
repaired rather than replaced. Where the severity of 
deterioration requires replacement of a distinctive 
feature, the new material will match the old in design, 
color, texture, and where possible, materials. 

7. Replacement of missing features from the restoration 
period will be substantiated by documentary and physical 
evidence. A felse sense of history will not be created by 
adding conjectural features, features from other proper- 
ties, or by combining features that never existed together 
historically. 

8. Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate, will be 
undertaken using the gentlest means possible. Treatments 
that cause damage to historic materials will not be used. 



9. Archeological resources will be protected and preserved 
in place. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation 
measures will be undertaken. 

1 0. Designs that were never executed historically will not be 
constructed. 

Standards for Reconstruction 

1 . Reconstrucdon will be used to depict vanished or non- 
surviving portions of a property when documentary and 
physical evidence is available to permit accurate recon- 
strucdon with minimal conjecture, and such reconstruc- 
tion is essential to the public understanding of the 
property. 

2. Reconstruction of a landscape, building, structure, or 
object in its historic location will be preceded by a 
thorough archeological investigation to identify and 
evaluate those features and artifacts which are essential 
to an accurate reconstruction. If such resources must be 
disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken. 

3. Reconstruction will include measures to preserve any 
remaining historic materials, features, and spatial relation- 
ships. 

4. Reconstruction will be based on the accurate duplication 
of historic features and elements substandated by 
documentary or physical evidence rather than on 
conjectural designs or the availability of different features 
from other historic properties. A reconstructed property 
will recreate the appearance on a nonsurviving historic 
property in materials, design, color, and texture. 

5. A reconstrucdon will be clearly identified as a contempo- 
rary re-creation. 

6. Designs that were never executed historically will not be 
constructed. 



(Excerpted from The Secretary of the hterlor's Standards for the 
Treatment of Historic Properties, 1995.) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



89 



Evaluating Treatment Actions 



Based on the management philosophy and primary treatment 
defined for a cultural landscape, detailed treatment actions are 
outlined in the CLR. Each proposed action is evaluated, using 
the applicable policy, guidelines, and standards, to ensure 
consistency in the treatment of the landscape as a whole. The 
following basic process underlies all treatment actions and is 
followed to guide decisions about physical work in a cultural 
landscape. 

Identify, Retain and Preserve 

Basic to the treatment of all cultural landscapes is the need to 
identify, retain, and preserve the characteristics, features, and 
qualities that contribute to the significance and integrity of the 
landscape and, as such, are important in defining its historic 
character (such as topography, vegetation, circulation, spatial 
organization). 

Protect and Maintain 

After identifying the characteristics, features, and qualities that 
are important and must be retained in the process of treat- 
ment work, measures are taken to protect and maintain them 
in good condition (preservation maintenance). For example, 
proper pruning, fertilization, pest control, and tree cabling to 
maintain structural stability are measures used to protea and 
maintain the health and vigor of vegetation. 

Repair 

If the physical condidon of the identified characteristics, 
features, and qualides is poor, then repair is recommended. 
For example, limited replacement in-kind of deteriorated 
portions of a structure in the landscape and rejuvenative 
pruning of overgrown plant material constitutes repair of a 
landscape. 

Replace 

If the condidon of a feature precludes repair, then replace the 
feature. The replacement is in-kind; that is, with the same 
form, detail, character, material, etc., as the original, if 
replacement in-kind is not possible, for technical, economic, 
or environmental reasons, then a compatible substitute 
material is considered. Examples of in-kind replacement 
include replacing a brick walkway where the bricks are spalling 
and broken beyond repair, and propagating over mature 
historic plant material for eventual replacement An example 
of substitution includes replanting of an American Elm with a 
cultivar that is resistant to Dutch Elm disease. 



Design for Missing Features 

When an entire feature is missing, and it is determined 
desirable to reestablish the feature as part of the landscape's 
historical appearance, then a design for the missing historic 
feature is undertaken. If adequate historical, pictorial, and 
physical evidence exists to accurately reproduce die feature, 
then designing, constructing, and/or installing a new feature 
based on the information is appropriate. Examples include 
reestablishing an allee of trees along an entry drive or a series 
of steps leading to an overlook, based on adequate physical 
evidence. If there is inadequate information, the replacement 
reflects a new design that is compatible with the character of 
the landscape, yet contemporary so that a felse historical 
appearance is not created. 

Determining what is compatible yet contemporary is one of 
the most challenging aspects within the construct of treat- 
ment The key to designing a compatible feature is identifying 
the historic character of the feature and determining a 
contemporary design which references the historic character 
in scale, detail, composition, and materials. For example, a 
treatment recommendation is to reestablish a fence around a 
farmstead but there is insufficient evidence regarding the exact 
historic design. Based on the knowledge that picket fencing 
was historically used, the design principles that guide the 
replacement might include the siting, use of certain materials, 
and incorporation of the vertical, uniform character of a 
picket fence in the design. In order to distinguish the fencing 
fronn an accurate reproduction, a contemporary design (such 
as a square) for the top of each picket might be chosen. 

Compatible Alterations and Additions 

Alterations and additions to a landscape are often needed to. 
assure continued use. Such additions and alterations, however, 
do not radically change, obscure, or destroy significant historic 
spatial organization, materials, and features. Alterations, 
additions, or related new construction are differentiated from 
the historic fabric yet compatible with the character of the 
landscape to protect its historic integrity. Examples of 
compatible additions and alterations include locating a new 
parking area for visitors outside the historic core of a 
landscape, installing a ramp for accessibility in a manner that is 
visually compatible and does not destroy historic materials, 
and substituting unhealthy historic plant material with disease 
resistant modern varieties. 

(Derived from The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the 
Treatment of Historic Properties. 1 995.) 



90 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 




Level of Detail 

The level of detail in the treatment section of a CLR depends on the 
managennent objectives for the cultural landscape as described in the 
project agreement. When a CLR is prepared to augment park planning 
documents (such as, a Site Development Plan), the treatment section 
may define the parameters for development and preservation in the 
form of v^ritten guidelines or a schematic design, or both. When a 
CLR is prepared to implement the proposed actions outlined in park 
planning documents, the treatment section may include a detailed 
treatment plan for implementation. (See Figures 43 and 44.) 




/' ". 




■ t'ea.Uanj dfioi^ sI/oM^y 









/^ ffKC uoM ^rxjjic 



u^ 






«? 



t 



figure A3. This parking akernative 
plan provides a schematic level of 
detail for parking treavnent Beale 
House, Adams National Historic Site. 
(NPS, nA) 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



91 




EA4^ Cm^ H^A ^ 



Ei^ti^ DrAri Ki4<i TfaBi'. 



£d(^ Dr-Oil ndn Tbu' 




NWf 

1. Ai fiat btHbthrftipidti lip axst^itimiMfi. 

2. Sk ip«iB| CutdctbC- « rilBl in for pin DHM. 

I $°OAd LfeH »w a>hr»n -^ "Goctb^ -aJ 'Old Chuhb Mok' 

(l CoiBoi lod «bcr uamh (d W p« poTB fpfiffi m^ 

', Sh lbPA}iB<l4t9f dcCubQal«UlllB,IQE>iUtUdlB(. 




figure 44. T/i/s planting plan for 
garden restoration illustrates a 
detailed treatment plan based on 
historic photographs and archeology. 
Weir Farm National Historic Site. 
(NPS, 1994) 



The type of landscape resource is also a factor in the level of detail 
provided. For example, a plan to restore a formal garden at Saint- 
Gaudens National H istoric Site may involve development of a detailed 
treatment plan, detail drawings, phasing plan, and cost estimates, 
whereas a plan to preserve the agricultural character of Ebey's Landing 
National Historical Reserve may only include written guidelinesto guide 
continued use. (Seethe insert titled, "Narrative Design Guidelines — ^An 
Example" later in this section.) 



92 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL 



LANDSCAPE 



REPORTS 



TREATMENT 



Format 

RecommendationsfortreatiTient are presented in a CLR in several forms. 
Generally, treatment recommendations are presented in either a treat- 
ment plan, narrative guidelines, or both. In some cases, treatment 
alternatives are presented in a CLR. 



Treatment Plan 

Atreatment plan is a schematic or detailed design drawing that graphically 
depicts all proposed changes to a cultural landscape in a manner that 
allov^s the entire site to be viewed . (See Figures 43 through 46.) The plan 
addresses treatment of the landscape characteristics and associated 
features throughout the site. Additionally, the plan may identify various 
phases for implementing the proposed work. Detailed treatment plans 
are extremely useful for illustrating the proposed modifications or alter- 
ations to the cultural landscape, and the relationship of one treatment 
action to another within the entire property. Atreatment plan should be 
annotated and supplemented with a narrative description of the pro- 
posed actions. 



Figure 45. Treatment plat] for 
Virginius lslar]d. Harpers Ferry 
National Historical Park. (NFS, 1992) 




PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



93 



OLD WHEAT STREET 

GRAHriE CURB 




Reestablish chicken wire fence 
around bock yard (see Detail B) 

Reestoblish garden 

Remove concrete pover walk 

Mark location of shed/store for 
interpretation 

Reestablish peach tree and yellow 
flowering shrub (use forsythia) 

Preserve br ick wal 1 



Remove connecting walk when NPS 
office is vacated 

eestablish rocking chairs on front 
porch 

Reestoblish privet hedge 

Reestablish cast iron fence across 
front yord 



ENUE 
PROPOSED TREATMENT 



Preserve the existing Chinese elms 
and dogwood 



NOTES: 1. Preservotion Strategy - Rfthobllltotlon. 

2. R«inove tPS introduced feotures. 

3. Uae oral history to Interpret back yord 

4. For treotment of sidewotks see 'Auburn Ava, Streetscops 
Invrovomsnts, City of Ationta, " Conlroct No. FC-5895-d4, 
by Jack Potrick and Assoc, Inc., 2/6/1995. 



LEGEND 

-«— . Fence 
£1 Choir 
O Rooking Choir 
, Clothas 1 ina 
Flower So< 



® Flower Pot/Con \\) Tree <eKist. ) 
' Hadge/Shi-ubS /''~\ 

9 Water Uater 

4 irotar Valve 
f • Power Pole 



SITE WAP 



w 




nj 



10 



20 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

SOVTHEAST REGION - OFFICE OF CiJLTWfAL RESOURCES 

CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 
MARTIN LUTHER KING. JR.. NHS 

ATLANTA. CEOftCIA 

BIRTH-HOME BLOCK 

526 Auburn Avenue 

PROPOSED TREATMENT 

ORAWfl BY:t..LawM93 ond e.UM-rli OttKHlKO NO. 
OATE: Acrll 1995 37esS0 



Figure 46. Treatment plan for the birth home of Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin hither IQng, jr., National Historic Site. (NPS, 1 995) 



94 



GUIDE 



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CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 



Treatment drawings developed as part of a CLR comply with current 
drafting standards in Drawing Format and Drafting Practices Guideline, 
Denver Service Center computer graphic standards (CAD/GIS), and the 
graphic documentation guidelines outlined in A Guide to Cuiturai Land- 
scape Reports: Landscape Lines Drawings are developed to a scale and 
level of detail that permits pertinent information to be communicated in 
a useful manner. All supplementary text and source material is re- 
corded on the drawing, All drawings are given a NPS drawing number 
and sentto Denver Service Center Technical Information Centerto be 
microfilmed. (See A Guide to Cuiturai Landscape Reports: Landscape 
Lines, "Landscape Lines 5: Graphic Documentation," and A Guide to 
Cultural Landscape Reports: Appendices, 'Appendix D: Preservation 
Briefs (no. 36).") 

Narrative Guidelines 

Narrative guidelines provide written recommendations fortreatment of 
a cultural landscape. These guidelines supplement a treatment plan or 
constitute the treatment section of a CLR. Written guidelines are often 
used to provide a context for planning decisions made in a Site Devel- 
opment Plan. In this situation, the treatment portion of a CLR sets the 
design context (based on the significance and integrity of the landscape) 
and physical parameters for modification of the landscape based on a 
contemporary program or operational use of the site. 

Written guidelines may be the most appropriate format for prescribing 
treatment and management of specific types of landscape resources, 
primarily landscapes that are significant because of the pattern of use that 
has evolved from traditional activities, such as agriculture. Written guide- 
lines state the optimum preservation treatment and also recommend 
compatible new design when change is imminent. (See the insert titled, 
"Narrative Design Guidelines — ^An Example" on the following page.) 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 95 



Narrative Design Guidelines — An Example 



Planting Concepts 

Planting beds between Rim Village Road and the caldera have 
integrity and should be retained whenever possible in the 
redevelopment of the area. 

Plant materials within each planting bed should be evaluated to 
determine the physical condition of individual plants, and then 
stabilized, rejuvenated, or replaced in-kind, as appropriate. 

Historic planting beds that will be retained in the new design 
and have lost plant materials (due to visitor impacts and 
snow loads) should be restored following historic design 
principles, including the selection and use of native plant 
materials. 

A detailed site plan should be prepared for the plaza south of 
the lodge that addresses rehabilitation of the planting beds and 
all associated features. 



In the rehabilitation of Crater Lake Lodge, individual plant 
materials around the foundation should be salvaged and 
reused, or replaced in-kind. Special attention should be given 
to the preservation of the large trees on the southwest and 
northwest corners of the structure. 

The establishment of new planting areas at Rim Village should 
follow historic design principles including the use of native 
plant materials, massing, and a clear gradation of canopy, 
under story, and ground cover. 

Revegetation of disturbed areas should target restoration of 
the materials and visual character of the surrounding land- 
scape. Plants used along roads and walkways should be 
grouped to reflect natural associations and habitats marking 
the transition between forest and meadow. 

(Excerpted from The Rustic Landscape of Rim Village, 1927- 
1 94 /, Crater Lake Natior)al Park, Oregon.) 








Figure 47. Vegetatlor) at Rim Village, Crater Lake National Park. (NPS, 1 988) 



96 



A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 



Treatment Alternatives 

in some cases, the objective of the treatment section in a CLR is to 
provide a range of treatment alternatives based on management, plan- 
ning, and presentation requirements. Individual alternatives generally 
reflect distinct types of treatment, leading to the selection of a primary 
treatment. Alternatives may also reflect a series of phases in the imple- 
mentation of a primary treatment. (See Figures 48 and 49.) 



Cost Estimates 

Cost estimates for treatment may be a component of a CLR and 
generally will be based on Class C or B estimates. When available, costs 
should consider the following: technical reports/surveys, hazardous 
materials reports/surveys, soils or geotechnical reports/surveys, project 
site photos or video, and other reports or surveys as needed. 

Class A estimates are based on "working drawings," or final construction 
drawings and specifications. They include contractor costs for overhead, 
profit, and general conditions. 

Class B estimates are based on "preliminary plans," which include the 
following; 

• site design, including existing and proposed utilities, grading, drainage, 
and plantings 

• site design, including plans, elevations, and typical details 

• outline specifications, including cut sheets of proposed equipment, 
fixtures or specialty items that might significantly affect the estimate 

• initial quantity takeoffs for utilities, site work, and building systems 
(civil, landscape architectural, and architectural) 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 97 




TREATMENT ALTERNATE - 1886 -1899 

LAWNFIELD 

JAMES A. GARFIELD NATIONAL HISPORIC SITE 

UnlttdStileiDcpiirtmrnlof Ihelnlertor 

Nillnnll'irliSRVICE tn-10e07-DSC-!tb 91 



Figure 48. The CLR for Lawnfteld includes treatmerit alternatives. James A. Garfield NatJonol Historic Site. (MPS, 1 994) 




JMin No. 8f 




A m o r y 



Street 



figure 49. Rehabilitation was one treatment alternative considered for the Boott Cotton Mill No. 6. Lowell National Historical Park. 
(NPS, 1994) 



98 



A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 



Class C estimates are based on "similar facilities," which include the 
following: 

• anticipated acreage and landscape type 

• anticipated site development, including existing and proposed utilities 

• special environmental controls or systems 

• anticipated structural systems 

• known or anticipated unusual site conditions 

(For more information, reiertoRS. Means Bu/Mng Construct/on Cost Data 
and Denver Service Center's Class C Estimated Guide, New Construction. 
Other specific cost references are available through R.S. Means.) 

Treatment Considerations 

The greatest challenge in prescribing treatment for a cultural landscape is 
applying the philosophical basis underlying policy, guidelines, and stan- 
dards to the dynamic qualities inherent in the landscape — a resource 
where change, function, and use are as significant as design and material. 
Following are a variety of considerations to address in defining a manage- 
ment philosophy, primary treatment, and specific actions to take in 
relation to a strategy for long-term management of a cultural landscape. 

Defining Type and Degree of Change 

Because of the dynamic quality of a landscape, treatment addresses the 
type and degree of change that occurs while maintaining significant 
landscape characteristics and associated features. The appropriate level of 
change in a cultural landscape is closely related to its significance. In a 
landscape significant for its association with a specific style, individual, 
trend, or event, change may diminish its integrity and needs to be carefully 
monitored and controlled. (See Figure 50.) 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 99 



figure 50. In a historic designed 
landscape, change may diminish 
integrit/ and needs to be conuoHed. 
For example, a comparison of the 
character of the foundation plantings 
along tfte east facade of Vanderbik 
Mansion in the 1 940s (top) and the 
/ 970s (middle) illustrates how the 
planting had become overgrown, 
covering portions of^e windows, and 
no longer reflected the original design 
intent Vanderbik Mansion National 
Historic Site. (NPS, c 1940s and 
1972) 





Figure 51. Smith Farm on Ebe/s 
Prairie (bottom). As an agricultural 
landscape, land use is one of the 
primar/ characteristics that 
contributes to the significance of a 
historical reserve and, therefore, 
treatment needs to allow for change 
related to continued use. Ebe/s 
Landing NaiJonal Historical Resen/e. 
(NPS. 1990) 




100 



GUIDE 



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CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 



In contrast, in a landscape significantforthe pattern of use that has evolved, 
physical change nnay be essential to the continuation ofthe use. In this case 
the focus is on perpetuating the use v/hile nnaintaining the general 
character and feeling ofthe historic period, rather than on preserving a 
specific appearance. (See Figure 5 1 .) 

Integrity 

A prinnar/ consideration in determining treatment is the physical integrity 
ofthe landscape; that is, the ability of a property to convey its significance. 
The level of integrity influences treatment decisions regarding what 
features to preserve, where to accommodate change for contemporary 
use, and where to reestablish missing features. Integrity evaluations are 
based on a holistic assessment ofthe qualities that constitute the historic 
significance of a property. 

Cultural landscapes are not separate systems or characteristics, but 
integrated, living, dynamic constructs. Focusing on the integrity of limited 
or singular components may obscure the real meaning or value in the 
landscape as a whole. (See Figure 52.) Judging the integrity of biotic 
material is approached with an understanding that these materials are 
inherently dynamic and subject to myriad factors that affect their grov^h 
and decline. Intentional alterations and substitutions, as well as the loss of 
historic plant material due to pests, disease, or neglect, are more often the 
norm than the exception in the history of many landscapes. These 
changes may not diminish the overall integrity of a landscape. The key 
questiontoconsideriswhetherthechangeisreversible. For example, an 
open field that has been lost to succession may easily be reinstated in the 
landscape. (See Figure 53.) 

The analysis and evaluation section of a CLR should define the 
physical qualities of a landscape that are extant from the historic 
period(s). For a landscape with multiple periods of significance, it is 
important to understand the relative integrity of all periods. One 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 101 



Figure 52. Aerial view ofFruita 
Historic District The ir)tegrit/ of a 
large vernacular landscape may be 
difficuk to assess ifir)dividuai 
components are evaluated in isolation 
from the larger landscape context 
An initial evaluation determined that 
the Fruita Historic Distria v/as not 
eligible for the National Register 
based on an evaluation of the 
buildings within the district A 
subsequent reevaluation of the 
district analyzed all the landscape 
characteristjcs and found that the 
distria retained integrity of spatial 
organizaUon, land use, circulation, and 
response to natural features. Capitol 
Reef National Park. (NPS. c. 1930) 




102 



GUIDE 



T O 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 




Historic Vegetation 



figure 53. An evaluation of the 
integrity of Manassas Battlefield 
included a comparison of historic and 
existing vegetation patterns to 
determine v/hich open fields had 
been lost to succession. A CUK for this 
section of the battlefield may 
recommend restoraljon of these open 
spaces and the views they allov/. 
(NPS, 1996) 



factor that may complicate decision-making is that certain associative 
meanings or cultural values related to a particular period of time may 
be thought of as more important than other periods of significance for 
which integrity can be more readily demonstrated. For example, the 
significance of the Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site is prima- 
rily associated with the Vanderbilt family tenure. Recent research 
revealed the significance of a period predating the Vanderbilt tenure, 
as one of only five landscapes authenticated to be designed by Andre 
Parmentier, a Belgian born landscape gardener and nursery owner 
who is a very important figure in the picturesque landscape style in the 
United States. This information was clearly documented in the CLR 
and should influence future decision making and treatment proposals. 
(See Figure 54.) (See A Guide to Cu/tura/ Landscape Reports: Appen- 
dices, "Appendix C: National Register Bulletins (nos. 1 8, 30, 38, 40, 
41, and 42).") 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE 



REPORT 



103 



HUDSOK RIVER 




Hosack Property 
Period Plan (1828-1835) 



HUDSON RIVER 




Late Vanderbilt Property / 

Period Plan (1938-1941) ' 



r 

\ 



Figure 54. Prior to the CUi for 
Vanderbik Mansion National Historic 
Site, the sigr)ificar\ce of^e property 
was primarily associated with the 
Vanderbilt family. Research revealed 
the significance of an earlier landscape 
design by Andre ParmentJer. The 
period plans illustrate the integrity of 
landscape characteristics and features 
introduced by Parmentier. Vanderbilt 
Mansion National Historic Site. (NPS, 
1992) 



HUDSON RIVER 




Existing 

Property Plan (1990-1991) 



Biotic Cultural Resources 

Plant and animal connmunities associated with human settlement and 
use are considered biotic cultural resources. Within a cultural land- 
scape, biotic cultural resources are recognized either as a system (such 
as a forest or wetland) or as individual features (such as a solitary plant 
that functions as a specimen, or aggregations of plants, such as an 
orchard or woodlot) that contribute to a landscape's significance, Biotic 



104 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 



cultural resources are living materials that have a cycle of growth, 
change, and eventual death. The degree to which change contributes 
to or compromises the historic character of a cultural landscape, and 
what natural cycles influence the ecological processes within the land- 
scape, must be understood. 

In a cultural landscape, vegetation often requires constant management 
and intervention to retain the overall structure and appearance of the 
landscape. (See Figure 55.) Understanding the significance of vegetation 











Figure 55. Historic view of Lake 
Crescent Lodge (top) shows 
vegetatior) when the landscape was 
first cleared and planted (note the 
small fir tree on the right). The 
contemporary view (bottom) of the 
same landscape shows mature 
vegetation. Treatment of^e 
landscape focused on rehabilitation 
and selective tiiinning to reestablish 
the open character of the site. 
Olympic National Park (NPS, c 
1917 and 1985) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



105 



in a cultural landscape is essential to prescribingtreatmentfor maintaining 
and perpetuating it; whetherthe vegetation is associated with a significant 
event or individual, is an unusual or rare variety, or functions as part of a 
design or land use practice, will influence how it is managed and 
eventually replaced (such as exact genetic replacement, in-kind replace- 
ment with available nursery stock, substitution with compatible mate- 
rial). For example, the preservation of a single tree in a historic designed 
landscape may be critical to the integrity of the overall design. (See 
Figure 56.) In contrast, an entire woodland may have significance, so that 
preserving the ecological processes of the system ratherthan individual 
trees becomes paramount. (See Figure 57.) Determining a treatment 
strategy for the biotic cultural resources within a cultural landscape 
involves consultation with appropriate natural resource professionals. 

(See A Guide to Cu/turaf Landscape Reports: Landscape Lines, "Land- 
scape Lines 1 2: Treatment of Plant Features," A Guide to Gu/turai Land- 
scape Reports: Appendices, "Appendix G: Biotic Cultural Resources," 
and "Appendix I: Preservation Maintenance.") 

Balancing Various Resource Values 

Cultural landscape treatment involves consideration of both natural and 
cultural resource values, and decisions about treatment and manage- 
ment often involve balancing various values. All resource values related 
to a particular landscape should be understood priorto defining specific 
treatment and management goals. The relative importance and rela- 
tionship of all values are weighed to identify potential conflicts between 
preservation goals based on the significance of a cultural landscape and 
goals pertaining to other cultural or natural resources. (See Figures 58 
and 59.) 

Where conflicts exist, value judgements are made regarding what is 
preserved, compromised, or removed. An integrated approach involv- 
ing the appropriate disciplines is needed to definethe cultural and natural 

106 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 





TREATMENT 




Figure 56. The Olmsted £/m is a 
significant individual specimen 
feature that contributes to tfte 
cultural landscape ofFairsted, 
Frederick Law Olmsted's home and 
studio. (Photograph courtesy of 
Frederick Law Olmsted National 
Historic Site, n.d.) 




Figure 57. The woodland in Cades 
Cove Historic District is a significant 
plant system related to ihe 
agricultural use of the district Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park. 
(Photo courtesy of Richard 
Westmacott,l993.) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



107 




Figure 58. Natural resource 
managemer\t of the meadows at 
Paradise in Mourit Rainier National 
Park emphasizes preservation oftiie 
high alpine ecosystem, which allows the 
landscape to change over long periods 
of climate change and landscape 
dynamics. The cultiiral landscape 
values of the meadows relate to the 
open character of the meadows and 
the spectacular wildpower displays that 
historically inspired people to visit 
Paradise. Historically, trees were cut to 
maintain this open character. Today 
park staff is monitoring the rate of 
succession and infill by trees to 
evaluate the degree and rate of change 
in an effort to balance resource values. 
Mount Rainier National Park. (NFS, 
1990) 



resource values in the landscape and reconcile any conflicts. Exannples 
of conflict resolution include: providing a mechanism for allov^^ing vine 
cover on a historic structure without causing damage to the structure; 
maintaining the agricultural use of a landscape v^hile minimizing the 
negative environmental impact associated v\/ith that use; and not intro- 
ducing exotic plants that can be invasive and affect areas outside a cultural 
landscape. In certain cases, one resource value will take precedence 
over another. For example, an endangered species habitat will take 
precedence overthe cultural landscape values. (See A Guide to Cultural 
Landscape Reports: Appendices, "Appendix F: Preservation Tech 
Notes.") 




108 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 




Figure 59. Farming is a significant, 
ongoing land use at Ebe/s Landing 
Notional Historical Reserve. 
Management of the reserve involves 
minimizing the potential negative 
impaas associated with agriculture. 
Ebe/s Landing National Historical 
Reserve. (NFS, 1983) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



109 



Landscape Use and Ethnographic Value 

Many cultural landscapes are significant because their historic land use and 
practices are based on traditional activities such as mining, fishing, agriculture, 
or community ceremony or celebration. These landscapes often reflect the 
beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and values of people both past and present. 
When land use is a primary reason for significance of a landscape, the 
objective of treatment isto balance perpetuation of use with retention of 
the tangible evidence that represents its history. (See Figures 60 through 63 .) 



Figure 60. The history of dairy and 
beefrar\cbing wi^in Point Reyes 
National Seashore began in 1834. 
Many of the historic ranches ren:)ain 
in operation today. Management 
n^ust balance the preservation of 
existing historic features with new 
additions required to maintain a 
viable working ranch. Point Reyes 
National Seashore. (NPS,c. 19! 5) 





Figure 61. The historic operational 
center of Paramount Ranch. This sKe 
has been modified numerous times 
to accommodate various needs and 
still functions as an active movie set 
Management must address continual 
modification oftiie site for new movie 
sets. Santa Monica Mountains 
National Recreation Area. (NPS, 
1992) 




NO 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 



Physical change is often essential to continuation of the historic land use. 
In such cases the treatment section of a CLR should provide guidance for 
perpetuating use while maintaining the general character and feeling ofthe 
landscape. It may be less critical to preserve individual features than to 
preserve the overall structure and character of the landscape. In an 
agriculturaliandscape, for example, perpetuation of a particular crop may 
not be as important as the general character, number, and configuration 
of field patterns. 





Figure 62. A t/pical Navajo bomesite 
in Canyon de Chelly consisting of a 
hogan, ran^ada (shade structure), 
and fire pit Navajo peoples have 
lived and farmed within the canyons 
ofthe park for centuries and 
continue this actiwty today. 
Management focuses on the 
perpetuation of this use and 
protection ofthe archeologicai 
resources in the canyon. Canyon de 
Chelly NatJonal Monument (NPS, 
1995) 




Figure 63. Mission Conception is one 
offtve missions along the San 
Antonio River. The Mission is still 
actively used by the local community 
and is owned by the Catholic 
Archdiocese of San Antonio. 
Treatment and management 
decisions are made by the park in 
association v/ith the Archdiocese 
based on a cooperative agreement 
Son Antonio Missions National 
Historical Park. (NPS, 1992) 



P R E P A R 



N G 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



III 



Use of a cultural landscape takes many forms and includes ethnographic 
value when the use is associated with contemporary groups. Natural and 
cultural resources have ethnographic value when "associated peoples 
perceive them as traditionally meaningful to their identity as a group and 
the survival of their life ways." Therefore, a cultural landscape or feature 
within it "may acquire meaning according to the different cultural cor\~ 
structs of a particular group" {Cu/tura/ Resources Management Gu/cfe//ne, 
Release No. 5, Chapter 10). Treatment decisions affecting landscapes 
with ethnographic value involve cultural anthropologists to ensure that all 
cultural values are considered. 

Design Intent 

Recognition of the design intent associated with a cultural landscape is 
important in determining treatment of the landscape and the individual 
features within it. Design intent is defined as the creative objectives of a 
designer, architect, landscape architect, artist, individual, orgroup applied 
to the development of a cultural landscape. The concept of design intent 
generally is applied to historic designed landscapes; however, it is also 
applicable to historic vernacular landscapes, historic sites, and ethno- 
graphic landscapes. An understanding of design intent provides a context 
for evaluating change in the landscape (that is, what change was intended 
and planned for as part ofthe design and development ofthe site, and what 
change has altered the site relationships and intended character ofthe 
landscape). Defining design intent involves interpreting the written and 
graphic record or oral history for the landscape. Treatment decisions 
should factor in the intentions ofthe designer or individual during the 
historical period. Therefore, when applicable, the treatment section of a 
CLR interprets the design intent ofthe cultural landscape (defined in site 
history) and applies it to the proposed treatment and management 
decisions. (See Figures 64 through 67.) 



112 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 




Figure 64. The above plan illustrates the final approved design ofarchkea Eero Saarinen and landscape architect Daniel Urban IQley 
for the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. (The original design competition was awarded to Saarinen in 1 948 and Kiley was hired 
in 1957 as landscape archttea for the projea) Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. (NPS, 1 966) 




Figure 65. Construction of the park was not completed until 1 986 and several changes were made to the original design. However, the 
existing conditions plan illustrates the close relationship of the park today to the original design intent Jefferson National Expansion 
Memorial. (NPS, 1995) 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



113 






'x'-'-. 




■S&. 













figure 66. Sketch by landscape architea Daniel Urban Kiley 
illustrating the view toward the Arch at Jefferson National 
Expansion Memorial. To enframe the Arch, Kiley selected Tulip 
Poplar (Uriodendron tulipifera) based on its height and habit of 
growth. Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. (NPS, 1962) 







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Figure 6 7. Existing view toward the Arch. The NPS substituted 
the Tulip Poplar (Uriodendron tulipifera) trees with Rosehill Ash 
(Fraxinus americana) trees. However, the design intent 
iliustrated by Kiley's sketch is still achieved. Jefferson National 
Expansion Memorial. (NPS, 1995) 



Interpretation and Education 

Interpretation and education are essential aspects of landscape manage- 
ment, providingvisitorstheopportunityto experience and understand a 
landscape as it existed historically and as it has evolved to the present. The 
techniques and methods of interpretation include self-guiding brochures, 
bike and auto routes, and visual simulations. (See Figures 68 and 69.) 
Selecting a method for interpreting the landscape depends on nunnerous 
factors, but mostly on the level of integrity of the landscape and its ability 
to convey its historic significance. Landscapes v\/ith little integrity require 



114 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 





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Ebey's Landing 

A Driving and Bicycling Tour 




Figure 68. Driving and bicycling tour 
ofEbe/s Landing National Historical 
Reserve. The tour illustrates the 
Reserve's scenery, introduces the 
recreational opportunities, and assists 
a visitor in learning about the 
agricultural history of the prairies and 
uplands. Ebe/s Landing National 
Historical Resetve. (NFS, n.d.) 



more interpretation to depict their historic character. In selecting an 
interpretive technique, the effect on the physical and visual character of 
the cultural landscape should be evaluated. Additionally, the scope and 
technique for interpreting a landscape with ethnographic significance 
should be determined in consultation v^ith park-associated communities. 

A CLR provides valuable information about the history and significance of 
a cultural landscape, information that can be incorporated into the 
interpretive program for a site. Conversely, the interpretation of a site can 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



115 



Figure 69. FoHowing the rehabititaijon 
ofVirginius Island, a I'A mik tree 
identification trail was developed to 
interpret tiie historical use and 
natural adaptation associated with 
trees on the island. Harpers Ferry 
National Historical Park. (NPS, 
1994) 



Harpers Ferry 



National Historical Park 

National Park Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 



VIRGINIUS ISLAND TREE IDENTIFICATION WALK 




!, Silver Maple 

1. Eladdemul 

3. Black Walnut 

4. Sycamore 

5. Boxelder 

6. Hackberry 

7. Pawpsw 

8. Spicebosh 

9. Swoel Cherry 



10. Black Locust 
ll.Boielder 

12. American Elm 

13. Sycamore 

14. Princess Tree 

15. Gaslem Cottonwood 

16. White Mulberry 

17. Silver Maple 
IS. Red Mulbtro' 



N 



Railroad 
Trail 
Foot Path 
Bridge 
Ruins 



-1 — 1— I- 



Ml I 

' 50' ' 200' 
0' IW 



influence treatment recommendations, such as when nonextant features 
must be reestablished in orderto accurately interpret a site. The landscape 
at the Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, for example, was 
restored to its circa 1 930 appearance. Restoration was selected as the 
treatment to enhance the interpretation of the property's relationship to 
Olmsted Sr. and the Olmsted Brothers' firm at the peak of its productivity. 

Maintenance and Sustainability 

The majority of presentation work associated with cultural landscapes is 
carried out by hands-on field managers. All treatment decisions are made 
with a consideration and understanding of maintenance issues to ensure 
that the proposed treatment is accomplished and maintained overtime. 
(See Figure 70.) There are various considerations for evaluating the 
sustainability of a proposed treatment, such as the following: 

• Does the park have an existing maintenance capacity to support the 
treatment decisions, and if not, what changes are needed? 



116 



GUIDE 



T O 



CULTURAL 



LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 



Has the cost and feasibility of implementing and maintaining the 
treatment been adequately considered and discussed with manage- 
ment? 

Should priority be placed on preserving extant historic fabric over 
reconstruction of missing features? 







Cap P»* e^ervft + iort 




Figure 70. Specific pruning 
instructions for the boxwood hedge 
were developed as part of a 
landscape preservation maintenance 
guide for ttie parte Adams National 
Historic Site. (NPSJ 993) 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



17 



Figure 71. Aerial view from the south 
ofUrxJerwald, Martir} Var) Buren's 
retirement home. Based or) a CLR for 
the property, it was determined that 
the area north (above) of the house, 
which is currently a woodlot, was an 
orchard during Van Buren's tenure. 
The treaunent plan for the property 
may coll for removal of the woodlot 
and reestablishment of the orchard. 
If so, consideration of this treatment 
needs to take into account the 
expertise and expense needed to 
maintain the orchard once it is 
reestablished. MartJn Van Buren 
National Historic Site. (NPS. 1978) 



For example, Part I of the CLR for the Martin Van Buren National 
Historic Site clearly defines the significance of the landscape as both the 
country seat of a past president and as a demonstration of the impor- 
tance of the role of farming in Van Buren's views on American politics. 
Based on this association, Part 2 of the report may call for removal of an 
existing woodlot and reestablishment of an orchard. This treatment 
decision must address the maintenance involved in maintaining the 
orchard, the requried training and skills, and how the parks's operating 
budget will be affected by the addition of the orchard. (See Figure 7 1 .) 
{See A Guide to Cu/tur^/ Landscape Reports: Appendices, "Appendix D: 
Preservation Briefs (no. 36)" and "Appendix I: Preservation Mainte- 
nance.") 




118 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



TREATMENT 





Health and Safety 

Alterations to a cultural landscape are often required to meet contem- 
porary health and safety codes and regulations. The alterations may 
affect the character of a landscape. When such changes are required, 
they are designed to minimize visual impacts, damage, or loss of historic 
features and qualities. 

For example, stone guardrails along many park roads and parkways are 
significant historic features that contribute to the significance of the road 
as a cultural landscape. (See Figure 72.) Raising the height of guardrails 
meets the contemporary safety guidelines but significantly alters the 
physical materials and form of the walls, as well as the views, wayside 
developments, and scenic qualities inherent in the original design of the 
road. Therefore, alternatives must be considered that improve the 
safety of the roads and preserve the historic character. 



Figure 72. The guardrail that exists 
along Going-to-the-Sun Highway is a 
significant historic feature, and is a 
common element associated with 
historic roads in parks. However, 
proposals often call for replacing the 
walls to meet contemporary safet/ 
guidelines. Treatment of the walls 
needs to balance resource 
presetvation with current health and 
safety issues. Glacier National Park. 
(MPS. 1995) 



PREPARING 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 



ri9 



RECORD OF TREATMENT 



CLR Part 3: Record of Treatment 

Part 3 of a Cultural Landscape Report (CLR) provides an accurate 
account of the implennented treatment to be used for the historical 
record. The record of treatment describes the as-built physical 
work, including any changes between the proposed and actual treat- 
ments. The intent of Part 3 is to document treatment actions, not 
preservation maintenance. Treatment may be implemented over an 
extended time or in discrete phases. In the latter case, each action or 
phase should be documented subsequent to treatment. 

Part 3 is prepared by a historical landscape architect, project manager, 
contractor, or park staff. It summarizes the following: 

• intent of the work 

• way in which the work was approached and accomplished 

• time required to do the work 

• cost of the work 

The record of treatment contains copies of field reports, condition 
assessments, and contract summaries. The record of treatment may be 
documented in a variety of formats, including plans, details, narrative 
descriptions, photographs, and video. As-built drawings may be included 
in the scope of work for developing the construction documents needed 
to implement atreatment. The documentation developed to review and 
approve actions related to treatment for compliance with Section 1 06 of 
the National Historic Preservation Act may be sufficient to record the 
treatment, especially if treatment is implemented over an extended time. 
(See Figure 73.) 

In most cases, treatment is not implemented immediately following the 
preparation of Part 2. If a long time passes between the proposal and 
implementation. Part 3 also documents any changes that have occurred 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 121 



Figure 13. A dt%\gr\ proposal for 
restoration of the Tao House 
Courtyard was prepared as part of a 
CLR in 1986, ln)plementation of the 
design occurred over the next two 
years. The final construction drawings 
with all modifications, serve as the 
record oftreatn)ent Eugene O'Neill 
National Historic Site. (NPS, 1 995) 




in the landscape prior to treatment. Based on a record of treatment's 
content and date of preparation, Part 3 is usually included as an appendix 
or addendum to a CLR. However, it lias been identified as one of the 
three primary parts of a CLR to emphasize the importance of a factual 
account of all physical changes to a cultural landscape resulting from 
treatment. When completed, the documentation provided in Part 3 
becomes valuable for future historic research on the property. 



122 



G U 



DE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




Appendices, Bibliography, and Index 

All CLRs include one or more appendices as appropriate, a bibliogra- 
phy, and an index. Appendices are added to a CLRforthe purpose 
of including relevant information about a landscape or project- 
related documents when that information is not needed in the body of the 
report. This information may include supplemental drawings, illustrations, 
maps, photographs, technical information, or other support documenta- 
tion. This additional background data is useful for managers and others 
using the document. Regarding the research phase of a project, for 
example, a summary of all repositories visited and the range and type of 
materia! obtained from these investigations must be provided. A CLR 
includes a comprehensive bibliography, identifying the sources used in 
preparing the document. Including an index in a CLR allows readers to 
more easily locate specific information in the report. If a CLR is prepared 
in separate volumes (related to the three parts of the document), each 
volume should contain this supplemental information. 



PREPARING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORT 123 



Glossary 




Terms are defined in the context of cultural resource management and 
in particular, cultural landscape management in the national park 
system. National Park Service usage does not always follow standard 
dictionary definitions. 

Adjacent lands 

Lands that are significant to the physical, functional, or symbolic context of 
a cultural landscape, but are not owned by the National Park Service. 

Analysis and evaluation 

The study of a cultural landscape in terms of its individual landscape 
characteristics and associated features, and the determination of the 
landscape's integrity and significance based on a comparison of its site 
history and existing conditions. 

Anthropology 

The scientific study of the human condition, including cultural, biological, 
and physical adaptations over time and in various natural and social 
environments. Anthropology includes the specializations of archeology, 
cultural anthropology (including ethnography, ethnology, and applied 
anthropology), linguistics, and physical anthropology. An anthropologist is 
a scientist with advanced training in any of these subdisciplines. See also 
Archeology and Cultural anthropology. 

Archeology 

The scientific study, interpretation, and reconstruction of past human 
cultures from an anthropological perspective based on the investigation 
ofthe surviving physical evidence of human activity and the reconstruction 
of related past environments. Historic archeology uses historic docu- 
ments as additional sources of information. An archeologist is a scientist 
professionally trained to conduct such studies. 



GLOSSARY 125 



Archeological resource 

Any material remains or physical evidence of past human life or activities 
that are of archeological interest, including the record of the effects of 
human activities on the environment. They are capable of revealing 
scientific or humanistic information through archeological research. 

Architectural history 

The study of architecture through written records and the examination of 
structures in order to determine their relationship to preceding, contem- 
porary, and subsequent architecture and events. An architectural historian 
is a historian with advanced training in this specialty. 

Archival collection 

An accumulation of manuscripts, archival documents, or papers having a 
shared origin or provenance, or having been assembled around a 
common topic, format of record, or association (such as, presidential 
autographs). The term also refers to the total archival and manuscript 
holdings of a park. 

Archives 

The noncurrent records of an organization or institution presented for 
their historic value. Official records of the National Park Service are 
managed accordingtothe Records Management Guideline, NPS-i9and 
National Archives and Records Administration standards and are outside 
the scope ofthis guideline. The term, archives, is often used to referto the 
repository where archives and other historic documents are maintained. 
See also Historic document. 

Archivist 

A professional responsible for managing and providing access to archival 
and manuscript collections. 



126 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




Association 

The relationship between a historic event, activity, or person and a 
cultural landscape. 

Biotic cultural resources 

Plant and animal comnnunities associated with hunnan settlement and use, 
v^hich may reflect social, functional, economic, ornamental, ortraditional 
uses of the land. Within a cultural landscape, biotic cultural resources are 
recognized either as a system or as individual features that contribute to 
the significance of a landscape. 

Building 

An enclosed structure with walls and a roof, consciously created to 
serve some residential, industrial, commercial, agricultural, or other 
human use. 

Buildings and structures 

Atype of landscape characteristic. The elements constructed primarilyfor 
sheltering any form of human activities are considered buildings. Elements 
constructed for functional purposes otherthan sheltering human activity 
are considered structures. Engineering systems are also structures, and 
mechanical engineering systems may be distinguished from structural 
engineering systems. Mechanical engineering systems conduct utilities 
within a landscape (power lines, hydrants, culverts). Structural engineer- 
ing systems provide physical stabilization in the landscape (retaining walls, 
dikes, foundation). In certain instances the word "structure" is used 
generally to refer to buildings and structures as in the List of Classified 
Structures. 5ee 5/50 Landscape characteristics. 

Character area 

An area defined by the physical qualities of a cultural landscape and the 
type and concentration of cultural resources, 



GLOSSARY 127 



Circulation 

A type of landscape characteristic. The spaces, features, and applied 
nnaterial finishes that constitute the systems of movement in a landscape. 
Examples of features associated with circulation include paths, sidewalks, 
roads, and canals. See also Landscape characteristics. 

Cluster arrangement 

A type of landscape characteristic. The location and pattern of buildings 
and structures in the landscape and associated outdoor spaces. Examples 
of features associated with cluster arrangement include village centers, 
mining, agricultural, and residential complexes of buildings and structures 
andthe associated spacestheydefine. 5ee 5/50 Landscape characteristics. 

Condition assessment 

A method for describing the current conditions of a cultural landscape 
measured against an applicable standard or guideline, whereby condition 
is usually expressed as a rating of good, fair, or poor. 

Constructed water features 

Atype of landscape characteristic. The built features and elements that use 
water for aesthetic or utilitarian functions in the landscape. Examples of 
features associated with constructed water features include fountains, 
canals, cascades, pools, and resen/oirs. See also Landscape characteristics. 

Cost estimates 

Standardized estimates for the general cost of specific materials and labor 
required for particular projects. 

Cultural anthropology 

The scientific description and analysis of cultural systems, including 
systems of behavior (economic, religious, and social), beliefs (values, 
ideologies), and social arrangements. The field studies the lifeways of 
contemporar/peoplesbutalsodealswiththe recent past (ethnohistory) 



128 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




and with humans in ecosystems. Cultural anthropologists are social 
scientists trained to conduct such research. Applied ethnographers 
specialize in project-related research, including program assessments 
and evaluations. 

Cultural landscape 

A geographic area, including both cultural and natural resources and the 
wildlife or domestic animals therein associated with a historic event, 
activity, or person, or that exhibits other cultural or aesthetic values. The 
four general kinds of cultural landscapes are ethnographic, historic de- 
signed, historic vernacular, and historic site. 

Cultural Landscapes Inventory (CLI) 

A computerized, evaluated inventory of all cultural landscapes for which 
the National Park Service has or plans to acquire any legal interest. The CLI 
includes a description of the location, historical development, landscape 
characteristics and associated features, and management of cultural land- 
scapes in the national park system. 

Cultural Landscape Report (CLR) 

Areport that serves as the primaryguide to treatment and use of a cultural 
landscape, and that prescribes the treatment and management of the 
physical attributes and biotic systems of a landscape, and use when use 
contributes to historical significance. 

Cultural practice 

A pattern of behavior associated with a particular way of life. Cultural 
practices are often associated with particular ecosystems, the use of 
natural resources, and the use or production of sites, structures, objects, 
and landscape features. Traditional forms of house building, subsistence 
activities, religious, family, and community ceremonials, and expressive 
activities, such as musical performance, craft production, and folklore, are 
examples of cultural practices. 



GLOSSARY 129 



Cultural resource 

Atangible entity or a cultural practice of a cultural system that is valued by 
or significantly representative of a culture or that contains significant 
information aboutaculture.Tangiblecultural resources are categorized as 
districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects for the National Register 
of Historic Places and as archeological resources, cultural landscapes, 
structures, museum objects, and ethnographic resources for National 
Park Service management purposes. See also Cultural system. 

Cultural resource management 

The range of activities aimed at understanding, preserving, and providing 
for the enjoyment of cultural resources. It' includes research related to 
cultural resources, planningfor actions affecting them, and stewardship of 
them inthe context of overall park operations. It also includes supportfor 
the appreciation and perpetuation of related cultural practices. 

Cultural resource specialist 

A person professionally trained in one of the cultural resource fields. 
Included are anthropologists (applied cultural anthropologists, archeolo- 
gists, ethnographers, and ethnohistohans), architectural historians, architec- 
tural conservators, archivists, curators, historians, historical architects, 
historical landscape architects, landscape historians, and object conser- 
vators. 

Cultural system 

A group's interrelated set of learned behavioral, knowledge, and belief 
patterns in addition to social, economic, spiritual, and political arrange- 
ments for adapting to particular natural and social settings. Associated 
technology and expressive elements such as folklore and performing and 
graphic arts are included. Popular synonyms include lifeways, customs, 
and traditions. Cultural systems are parts of ecosystems. 



130 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



Cultural traditions 

A type of landscape characteristic. The practices that have influenced the 
development of the landscape in terms of land use, patterns of land 
division, building forms, stylistic preferences, and the use of materials. 
Examples of features associated v^/ith cultural traditions include land use 
practices, buildings, patterns of land division, and use of vegetation. See 
also Landscape characteristics. 

Culture 

A system of behaviors (economic, religious, and social), beliefs (values, 
ideologies), and social arrangements. 

Design 

The combination ofelements that create the form, plan, space, structure, 
and style of a cultural landscape. 

Design intent 

The creative objectives of a designer, architect, landscape architect, 
engineer, or artist that were applied to the development of a cultural 
landscape. 

Documentation 

Drawings, photographs, writings, and othermediathat depict cultural and 
natural resources. 

Earthworks 

Linear or geometric landscape structures built for military, industrial, 
agricultural, ceremonial, oraesthetic purposes. They indudefortifi cations, 
water impoundment and control structures, early field boundary ditches 
and berms, burial mounds, grass garden ramps, and raised beds. 



GLOSSARY 131 



Ecosystem 

Interrelated living entities, including humans and their physical environ- 
ment. 

Ethnic 

A group or category of people who share or believe they share similar 
characteristics based on ancestry, language, or religion. 

Ethnographic landscape 

Areas containing a variety of natural and cultural resources that associated 
people define as heritage resources, including plant and animal commu- 
nities, geographic features, and structures, each with their own special 
local names. 5ee 5/5-0 Cultural landscape. 

Ethnographic Landscape Study 

A limited field survey to identify and describe the names, locations, 
distributions, and meanings of ethnographic landscape features. It can be 
combined with traditional use studies or conducted as part of other 
cultural landscape studies. It follows or may be combined with the 
ethnographic overview and assessment when gaps in the available 
database indicate the need for detailed data on park ethnographic 
interviewing. 

Ethnographic resource 

A site, structure, object, landscape, or natural resource feature assigned 
traditional legendary, religious, subsistence, or other significance in the 
cultural system of a group traditionally associated with it. 

Ethnography 

Part of the discipline of cultural anthropology concerned with the system- 
atic description and analysis of cultural systems or lifeways, such as hunting, 
agriculture, fishing, otherfood procurement strategies, family life festivals 
and other religious celebrations. Ethnographic studies of contemporary 
people and cultures rely heavily on participant obsen/ation as well as 

132 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



interviews, oral histories, and review of relevant docunnents. Applied 
ethnography uses ethnographic data and concepts to identify contempo- 
rary issues and design feasible solutions. 

Ethnohistory 

Systennatic description (ethnography) and analysis (ethnology) of changes 
in cultural systems through time, using data from oral histories and docu- 
mentary materials. Anthropologists and historians conduct these studies. 

Ethnology 

Part of the discipline of anthropology concerned with the systematic and 
comparative analysis of cultures. 

Evaluation 

Process by which the significance of a cultural landscape is judged and 
eligibility for National Register of Historic Places is determined. 

Existing conditions 

The present physical state of a cultural landscape. 

Feature 

A prominent or distinctive quality or characteristic of a cultural landscape. 
In a cultural landscape, individual features are grouped under broader 
categories of landscape characteristics. For example, such features as 
ravines, valleys, wetlands, and cliffs are grouped under the landscape 
charactehstic, natural systems and features. 

Feeling 

A cultural landscape's expression of the aesthetic or historic sense of a 
particular period. 

Field photography 

Photography, other than large-format photography (usually 35 mm), 
intended for producing documentation. 

GLOSSARY 133 



Field records 

Notes of measurements taken, field photographs, and other recorded 
information intended for producing documentation. 

General Management Plan (GMP) 

A planning document that setsforth the basic management philosophy for 
a park and provides strategies for addressing issues and identifying 
management objectives over a 5- to 10-year period. Two types of 
strategies are presented in the GMP: those required to properly manage 
the park's resources, and those required to provide for appropriate visitor 
use and interpretation of the resources. Based on these strategies, 
programs, actions, and support facilities necessary for efficient park 
operation and visitor use are identified. 

Historian 

Specialist with advanced training in the research, interpretation, and 
writing of history. 

Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS)/ 
Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) 

Architectural and engineering documentation programs that produce a 
thorough archival record of buildings, engineering structures, and cultural 
landscapes significant in American history and the growth and develop- 
ment of the built environment. 

Historic character 

The sum of all visual aspects, features, materials, and spaces associated 
with a cultural landscape's history. 

Historic designed landscape 

A landscape significant as a design or work of art. Such a landscape was 
consciously designed and laid out either by a master gardener, landscape 
architect, architect, or horticulturist to a design principle, or by an owner 



134 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



or other amateur according to a recognized style or tradition. Historic 
designed landscapes have a historical association with a significant person, 
trend or movement in landscape gardening or architecture, or a signif- 
icant relationship to the theor/ or practice of landscape architecture. See 
a/so Cultural landscape. 

Historic district 

A geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant 
concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, landscapes, structures, or 
objects, united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical devel- 
opnnents. A district may also be composed of individual elements sepa- 
rated geographically but linked by association or history. 

Historic document 

Any recorded information in any medium — paper, digital, magnetictape, 
film, etc. — ^that has a direct, physical association v\/ith past human event, 
activity, observation, experience, or idea. 

Historic fabric 

5ee Material. 

Historic landscape 

A cultural landscape associated v^ith events, persons, design styles, or 
ways of life that are significant in American history, landscape architec- 
ture, archeology, engineering, and culture. A landscape listed in or eligible 
for the National Register of Historic Places. 

Historic Resource Study (HRS) 

A study that provides a historical overview of a park and identifies and 
evaluates its cultural resources within historic contexts. 



GLOSSARY 135 



Historic property 

(I) Adistrict, site, structure, or landscape significant in American history, 
architecture, engineering, archeology, orculture. (2) An unnbrella term for 
all entries in the National Register of Historic Places. 

Historic scene 

The overall appearance of all cultural resources and their surroundings as 
they were in the historic period. The cultural resources and their 
interrelationships that provide the context for understanding and inter- 
preting the events, ideas, or persons associated with a park. 

Historic site 

The site of a significant event, prehistoric or historic occupation or activity, 
or structure or landscape (extant or vanished), where the site itself 
possesses historical, cultural, or archeological value apart from the value 
of any existing structure or landscape. See 5/50 Cultural landscape. 

Historic Structure Report (HSR.) 

A report that serves as the primary guide to treatment and use of a historic 
structure and may also be used in managing a prehistoric structure. 

Historic vernacular landscape 

A landscape whose use, construction, or physical layout reflects 
endemic traditions, customs, beliefs, or values. The expression of 
cultural values, social behavior, and individual actions over time is 
manifested in physical features and materials and their interrelation- 
ships, including patterns of spatial organization, land use, circulation, 
vegetation, structures, and objects. The physical, biological, and 
cultural features of the landscape reflect the customs and everyday 
lives of people, 5ee 5/50 Cultural landscape, 

Historical archeologist 

Ascientist with advanced training in historical archeology and in the use of 
historical documents to reconstruct the past, 5ee 5/50 Anthropology. 

136 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




Historical archeology 

Subdiscipline of archeology concerned with the remains left by literate 
societies (in contrast to prehistoric archeology, although the distinction is 
not always clear-cut). In the United States, historical archeology generally 
deals with the evidences of Euro-American societies and of aboriginal 
societies after major cultural disruption or material change from Euro- 
American contact. 

Historical architect 

Aspecialist in the science and art of architecture with specialized advanced 
training in the principles, theories, concepts, methods, and techniques of 
preserving prehistoric and historic structures. 

Historical context 

An organizing structure created for planning purposes that groups infor- 
mation about historic properties based on common themes, time peri- 
ods, and geographical areas. 

Historical integrity 

( I )The authenticity of a cultural landscape's historic identity, evidenced by 
the survival of physical characteristics that existed during its historic or 
prehistoric period. (2) The extent to which a cultural landscape retains its 
historic appearance. 

Historical landscape architect 

Specialist in the science and art of landscape architecture with advanced 
training in the principles, theories, concepts, methods, and techniques of 
preserving cultural landscapes. 

Historical significance 

The meaning or value ascribed to a structure, landscape, object, or site 
based on the National Register criteria for evaluation. It normally stems 
from a combination of association and integrity. 



GLOSSARY 



137 



History 

Study of the past through written records, oral history, and material 
culture. Evidence from these is compared, judged for veracity, placed in 
chronological or topical sequence, and interpreted in light of preceding, 
contemporary, and subsequent events. 

Identification 

Process through v/hich cultural resources are made known. 

In-kind 

In the same manner or with something equal in substance having a similar 
or identical effect. 

Integrity 

5ee Historical integrity. 

Intensive survey 

Asystematic, detailed examination of an area designed to gather informa- 
tion about historic properties sufficient to evaluate them against predeter- 
mined criteria of significance within specific historic contexts. 

Interpretation 

Communication of the historic and cultural values of a cultural landscape to a 
visitorthroughdifferenttechniques. Interpretation is an important part ofthe 
park management process. 

Inventory 

A list of cultural resources, usually of a given type and in a given area. 




138 • A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE R.E PORTS 




Landscape characteristics 

The tangible and intangible characteristics of a landscape that define and 
characterize the landscape and that, individually and collectively give a 
landscape character and aid in understanding its cultural value. The term 
is applied to either culturally derived and naturally occurring processes or 
to cultural and natural physical forms that have influenced the historical 
developments of a landscape or are the products of its development. 
Landscape characteristics include the following: 

• Natural systems and features 

• Spatial organization 

• Land use 

• Cultural traditions 

• Cluster arrangement 

• Circulation 

• Topography 

• Vegetation 

• Buildings and structures 

• Views and vistas 

• Constructed water features 

• Small-scale features 

• Archeological sites 

Landscape historian 

A historian concentrating on the study of landscapes through written 
records and field work in order to determine their relationship to 
preceding, contemporary, and subsequent landscape events. 



GLOSSARY 139 



Land use 

A type of landscape characteristic. The principal activities in the landscape 
that have formed , shaped , or organized the landscape as a result of human 
interaction. Examples of features associated v^ith land use include agricul- 
tural fields, pastures, playing fields, and quarries. See also Landscape 
characteristics. 

Large format photograph 

Photograph taken with a 4x5, 5x7, or 8x 1 negative and means to correct 
perspective distortion. 

List of Classified Structures (LCS) 

A computerized, evaluated inventory of all historic and prehistoric struc- 
tures having historical, architectural, or engineering significance for which 
the National Park Service has or plans to acquire any legal interest. 
Included in the LCS are structures that individually meet the criteria of the 
National Register or are contributing elennents of sites and districts that 
meet the Register criteria, and structures — moved, reconstructed, and 
commemorative structures, and structures achieving significance within 
the last 50 years — ^that are managed as cultural resources because of 
decisions made in the planning process. 

Location 

The place where a cultural landscape was constructed orthe place where 
the historic event(s) occurred. 

Management zone 

An area of a cultural landscape with specific objectives fortreatment based 

on the integrity and significance of the property. 

Manuscript collection 

A group of textual, electronic, sound, or visual documents assembled 
most commonly for its historical or literary value. 



140 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



Material 

The physical elements that were combined or deposited to form a 
cultural landscape. Historic material or historic fabric is that from a 
historically significant period, as opposed to material used to maintain or 
restore a cultural landscape following its historic period(s). 

Measured drawings 

Drawings depicting existing conditions or other relevant features of 
historicstructures, landscapes, or objects. Measured drawings are usually 
produced in ink on archival-quality material, such as polyester film. 

Narrative guidelines (treatment) 

Written recommendations for a preservation strategy and actions for 
treatment of a cultural landscape, including presentation, rehabilitation, 
restoration, and reconstruction. 

National Historic Landmark 

Adistrict, site, building, structure, or object of national historical significance, 
designated bytheSecretar/ofthe Interior under authority ofthe Historic 
Sites Act of 1 935 and entered in the National Register of Historic Places. 

National Register of Historic Places 

The comprehensive list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects 
of national, regional, state, and local significance in American history, 
architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture kept by the National 
Park Service under authority ofthe National Historic Preservation Act of 
1966. 

Native American 

Pertaining to American Indian tribes or groups, Eskimos and Aleuts, and 
Native Hawaiians, Samoans, Chamorros, and Carolinians ofthe Pacific 
Islands. Groups recognized by the federal and state governments and 
named groups with long-term social and political identities who are 
defined by themselves and others as Indian are included. 

GLOSSARY Ml 



Natural systems and features 

Atype of landscape characteristic. The natural aspects that have influenced 
the development and physical form of the landscape. The following may 
be included: • 

• geomorphoiogy: the large-scale patterns of land forms 

• geology: the surficial characteristics of the earth 

• hydrology: the system of surface and subsurface water 

• ecology: the interrelationship among living organisms and their envi- 
ronment 

• climate: temperature, wind velocity, and precipitation 

• nativevegetation: indigenous plant communities and indigenous aggre- 
gate and individual plant features 

Examples of features associated with natural systems and features include 
ravines, valleys, watersheds, and wetlands. 5ee 5/50 Landscape character- 
istics. 

Period illustration 

A historic document that graphically depicts the appearance of a cultural 
landscape, or individual features, at a certain period through different 
mediums, such as line drawings, watercolors, and engravings or wood- 
cuts. 

Period of significance 

The span of time for which a cultural landscape attains historical signifi- 
cance and for which meets National Register criteria. 

Period plan 

A to-scale drawing depicting a cultural landscape and the landscape 
characteristics and associated features present during a definable historic 
period. 



• 



142 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



Prehistory 

The course of events in the period before recorded history. 

Preservation 

The act or process of applying measures to sustain the existing form, 
integrity, and material of a cultural landscape. Work may include prelimi- 
nary measures to protect and stabilize the landscape, but generally 
focuses on the ongoing preservation maintenance and repair of historic 
materials and features ratherthan extensive replacement and new work. 
For historic structures, exterior additions are not within the scope of this 
treatment; however, the limited and sensitive upgrading of mechanical, 
electrical, and plumbing systems and other code-required work to make 
properties functional is appropriate within a presen/ation project. 

Preservation maintenance 

Action to mitigate wear and deterioration of a cultural landscape without 
altering its historic character by protecting its condition, repairing whenits 
condition warrants with the least degree of intervention including limited 
replacement in-kind, replacing an entire feature in-kind when the level of 
deterioration or damage of materials precludes repair, and stabilization to 
protect damaged materials or features from additional damage. For 
archeological sites it includes workto moderate, prevent, or arrest erosion. 

Property type 

A grouping of individual properties based on a set of shared physical or 
associative characteristics. 

Protection 

Action to safeguard a cultural landscape by defending or guarding it from 
further deterioration, loss, or attack or shielding it from danger or injury. 
In the case of structures and landscapes, such action is generally of a 
temporary nature and anticipates future presentation treatment. In the 
case of archeological sites, the protective measure may be temporary or 



GLOSSARY 143 



permanent. Protection in its broadest sense also includes long-term 
efforts to deter or prevent vandalism, theft, arson, and other criminal acts 
against cultural resources. 

Reconnaissance study 

A synthesis of cultural resource information describing the kinds of 
cultural resources in a study area and summarizing their significance. 
Sometimes called a cultural resource overviev^, it may include limited field 
investigations, 

Reconstruction 

( I ) The act or process of depicting, by means of nev\^ work, the form, 
features, and detailing of a nonsurviving cultural landscape, or any part 
thereof, forthe purpose of replicating its appearance at a specifictime and 
in its historic location. (2) The resulting cultural landscape, or part thereof. 

Record of treatment 

A compilation of information documenting actual treatment, including 
accounting data, photographs, sketches, and narratives outlining the 
course of work, conditions encountered, and matenals used. 

Records 

Refers to all information fixed in a tangible form. Used by the National 
Archives and Records Administration to refer to official records (q.v.). 

Rehabilitation 

The act or process of making possible an efficient compatible use for a 
cultural landscape through repair, alterations, and additions while pre- 
serving those portions or features that convey its historical, cultural and 
architectural values. 

Repair 

Actiontocorrectdeteriorated, damaged, orfaultymaterialsorfeatures of 

a cultural landscape. 

144 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




Repeat photography 

The act of photographing a cultural landscape or landscape feature in the 
same location and view as a historical photograph in order to document 
changes over a given period, 

Replacement in-kind 
5ee In-kind. 

Restoration 

(I) The act or process of accurately depicting the form, features, and 
character of a cultural landscape as it appeared at a particular period by 
means of the removal of features from other periods in its history and 
reconstruction of missing features from the restoration period. (2) The 
resulting cultural landscape. 

Sample survey 

Sun^/ey of a representative sample of lands within a given area in order to 
generate or test predictions about the types and distributions of cultural 
resources in the entire area. 

Schematic drawings 

Drawings that graphically illustrate a cultural landscape and the location of 
landscape characteristics and associated features. They depict more 
detailed information than simple sketches and diagrams, but do not 
include precise dimensions. 

Section 106, or "106" 

Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, which 
requiresfederalagenciestotake into accountthe effects of their proposed 
undertakingson properties includedoreligibleforinclusioninthe National 
Register of Historic Places, and give the Advisory Council on Historic 
Preservation a reasonable opportunity to comment on the proposed 
undertakings, 



GLOSSARY 145 



Setting 

The physical environment of a cultural landscape or the character of the 
place in which a property played its historical role. 

Significance 

5ee Historical significance. 

Site Development Plan (SDP) 

A planning document that amplifies development decisions made in the 
General Management Plan (GMP) for a given developed area or unit of a 
park. The SDP is the intermediate step between a GMP and comprehen- 
sive design drawing. 

Site research 

A review of historical information related to a cultural landscape used to 
develop a strategy for documenting existing conditions. 

Site survey 

Documentation of the existing conditions, including the landscape 
characteristics and associated features, of a cultural landscape ranging 
fromgeneral reconnaissance surveys to detailed condition assessments. 

Sketch plan 

A plan, generally not to exact scale although often drawn from measure- 
ments, in which the landscape characteristics and associated features of a 
cultural landscape are shown in proper relation and proportion to one 
another. 

Small-scale features 

A type of landscape characteristic. The elements providing detail and 
diversity for both functional needs and aesthetic concerns in the land- 
scape. Examples of features associated v/ith small-scale features include 
fences, benches, monuments, signs, and road markers. See also Land- 
scape characteristics. 

146 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



• 



spatial organization 

Atype of landscape characteristic. The three-dimensional organization of 
physical forms and visual associations in the landscape, including the 
articulation of ground, vertical, and overhead planes that define and 
create spaces. Examples of features associated with spatial organization 
include circulation systems, views and vistas, divisions of property, and 
topography, See also Landscape characteristics. 

Stabilization 

5(Se Presentation maintenance. 

State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) 

An official within each state appointed by the governor to administer the 
state historic preservation program and carry out certain responsibilities 
relating to federal undertakings within the state. 

Statement of significance 

An explanation ofhow a culturallandscape, or part ofa cultural landscape, 
meets the National Register criteria, drawing on facts aboutthe history and 
the historic trends — local, state, national — ^thatthe property reflects. 

Structure 

Aconstructed work, usually immovable by nature or design, consciously 
created to sen/e some human activity. Examples are buildings of various 
kinds, monuments, dams, roads, railroad tracks, canals, millraces, bridges, 
tunnels, locomotives, nautical vessels, stockades, forts and associated 
earthworks, Indian mounds, ruins, fences, and outdoorsculpture, Inthe 
National Register program, "structure" is limited to functional construc- 
tions other than buildings. 




GLOSSARY 147 



Subsistence 

Thetraditional use of natural plants and wild animalsfor personal orfamily 
consumption, for the nnaking and selling of handicraft articles out of the 
nonedible by-products of fish and wildlife resources taken for personal or 
familyuseorconsumption.andforcustomar/trade.lnAlaskan and Pacific 
parks, subsistence isthe significant econonnic and cultural dependence on 
the harvest of wild natural resources by local rural residents through 
traditional hunting, fishing, and gathering activities. The legislation for 
some parks defines what constitutes subsistence there. 

Theme 

A trend or pattern in historyor prehistory relating to a particular aspect 
of cultural development, such as dairy farming or silver mining. 

Topography 

Atypeoflandscape characteristic. The three-dimensional configuration 
of the landscape surface characterized by features (such as slope and 
articulation,) and orientation (such as elevation and solar aspect). Ex- 
amples of features associated with topography include earthworks, 
drainage ditches, knolls, and terraces. 5ee 5/50 Landscape characteristics. 

Traditional 

Pertains to recognizable but not necessarily identical cultural patterns 
transmitted by a group across at least two successive generations. Also 
applies to sites, structures, objects, landscapes, and natural' resources 
associated with those patterns. Popular synonyms include ancestral and 
customary. 

Traditional cultural property 

A property associated with cultural practices or beliefs of a living commu- 
nity that are rooted in that community's history or are important in 
maintaining its cultural identity. Traditional cultural properties are ethno- 
graphic resources eligible for listing in the National Register. 



148 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



Traditional resource use 

Subsistence or other consumptive use, or ceremonial use, of natural 
resources. Ceremonial uses, involving particular places and plant and 
animal materials, may be private and individualized or restricted to 
designated groups. Use can be on-site and visible, inferred from effects, 
or off-site and referenced in traditional narratives. Traditional ceremonial 
use may also involve sites, structures, and objects. 

Treatment plan 

A plan that graphically depicts a presentation strategy and actions for 
treatment of a cultural landscape including preservation, rehabilitation, 
restoration, and reconstruction. 

Undertaking 

As referred to in Section 1 06 ofthe National Historic Preservation Act, 
any federal, federally assisted, federally licensed, or federally sanc- 
tioned project, activity, or program that can result in changes in the 
character or use of historic properties. Undertakings include new and 
continuing projects, programs, and activities that are directly under- 
taken by federal agencies, supported in whole or in part, directly or 
indirectly, by federal agencies, carried out pursuant to a federal lease, 
permit, license, approval, or otherform of permission, or proposed by 
a federal agency for congressional authorization or appropriation. 
Undertakings may or may not be site-specific. (See 36 CFR 800. 2[o] 
and Section 30 1 [7] ofthe National Historic Preservation Act.) 

Vegetation 

A type of landscape characteristic. The individual and aggregate plant 
features of deciduous and evergreen trees, shrubs, vines, ground covers 
and herbaceous plants, and plant communities, whether indigenous or 
introduced. Examples of features associated with vegetation include 
specimen trees, allees, woodlots, orchards, and perennial gardens. See 
also Landscape characteristics. 



GLOSSARY f49 



Views and vistas 

A type of landscape characteristic. The prospect created by a range of 
vision in the cultural landscape, conferred by the composition of other 
landscape characteristics, Views are the expansive or panoramic prospect 
ofa broad range of vision, v^hich may be naturally occurringordeliberately 
contrived. Vistas are the controlled prospect of a discrete, linear range of 
vision, which is deliberately contrived, iee^/^a Landscape characteristics 

Workmanship 

( I ) The physical evidence of the crafts of a particular culture or people. (2) 
The techniques and skills necessary to execute or construct a particular 
detail or feature. 



150 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



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Birnbaunn, Charles A. 1 994. Preservation Brief 36: Protecting Cultural 
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Birnbaum, Charles A. with Christine Capella Peters, eds. 1 996. The 
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154 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 155 



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. 1 987. American Gardens of the Nineteenth Century, For 



Comfort and Affluence. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. 



158 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



Lynch, Kevin. 1972. What Time is This Piacei' Cdmbndge: Institute of 
Technology Press. 

McClelland, Linda Flint. 1993. Presenting Nature: The l-iistoricai Land- 
scape Design of the Nationai Pari< Service, I9i6 to i942. Washington, 
DC; USD!, NPS, Cultural Resources, Interagency Resources Division. 

Meier, Lauren G., ed. 1 99 1 . i-iistoric Landscape Directory: A Source 
Booi< of Agencies, Organizations, and institutions Providing information 
on i-iistoric Landscape Presen/ation. Washington, DC; USDI, NPS, 
Cultural Resources, Preservation Assistance Division. 

Meier, Lauren G. and Betsy Chittenden. 1990. Preserving i-iistoric 
Landscapes: An Annotated Bibliography. Washington, DC: USDI, NPS, 
Preservation Assistance Division. 

Meinig, Donald W., ed. 1979. The Interpretation of Ordinary Land- 
scapes: Geographical Essays Nev^ York: Oxford University Press. 

■ 1986. The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective 

on 500 Years of History. Vol. I , Atlantic America, 1492-1800. Vol.2, 
Continental America, 1800-1867. New York and London; Yale Univer- 
sity Press. 

. 1993. The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective 

onSOOYearsofHlstory.yoll, Continental America, l800~l867.He\N 
York and London; Yale University Press. 

Morrison, Darrel. 1 997. Earthworks Landscape Management Field Hand- 
book. Philadelphia, PA: USDI, NPS. 

Newton, Norman T. 1 97 1 . Design on the Land: The Development of 
Landscape Architecture. Cannbridge: Belknap Press of the University of 
Massachusetts Press. 



BLlOGRAPHY 159 



Noble, Allen G. 1984. The North American Settlement Landscape. 
Vol. 1 , Houses. Vol.2, Barns and Farm Structures. Amherst: University of 
Massachusetts Press, 

Pregill, Philip and Nancy Volkman. 1993. Landscapes in History: Design 
and Planning in the Western Tradition. New York: Van Nostrand 
Reinhold Publishers. 

Price, Edward T. 1995. Dividing the Land: Early American Beginnings of 
Our Private Property Mosaic Chicago and London: University of Chicago 
Press. 

Ramsey, Charles G. 1994. The American Institute of Architects/ Archi- 
tectural Graphic Standards. Edited by John Ray Hoke, Jr., 9th ed. New 
Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. Pages 1A9-11Q make specific reference to 
Historic Preservation, and includes pp. 111-113 on "Preservation of 
Historic Landscapes." 

Rogers, Garr/ F., Harold E. Malde, and Raymond M. Turner. 1984. 
Bibliography of Repeat Photography for Evaluating Landscape Change. 
Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. 

Sloane, David C. 1991. The Last Great Necessity, Cemeteries in 
American History. Mar/land and London: Johns Hopkins University 
Press. 

Stilgoe.John. 1982. The Common Landscape of America, 1580-1845. 
New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 

Stokes, Samuel N., Elizabeth Watson, P. Genevieve Keller, and J. 
Timothy Keller. 1 989. Saving America's Countryside: A Guide to Rural 
Conservation. Maryland and London: Johns Hopkins Press. 



160 A GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



Tishler, William, ed. 1 989. American Landscape Architecture, Designers 
and Places, Washington, DC: Presen/ation Press. 

Watts, May. 1975. Reading tlie Landscape of America. New York: 
Collier-MacMillan Publishers. 

Westmacott, Richard. 1992. African-American Gardens and Yards in 
tile Rurai Soutii. Knoxvllle: University of Tennessee Press. 

Wyman, Donald. 1974. Siirubs and Vines for American Gardens New 
York: Macmillan. 

Zube, Ervin H. ed. 1970. Landscapes: Selected Writings of J. B. Jacl<son. 
Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY |6| 



NDEX 



• 



Adams National Historic Site 91, 117 
analysis and evaluation 

defining character areas 75 

defining management zones 75 

documentation examples 78 

example of circulation 78 

purpose of 68 

summary statement for 75 
Antietam National Battlefield 1 4 
Archeological Overview 

how used in site history 45 
archeological sites 

as a landscape characteristic 53 
associated features. See landscape 
characteristics 

B 

Blue Ridge Parkway 3, 51 
boundaries 

defining for a cultural landscape 72 

guidelines for selecting 77 
Buffalo National River 1 7 
buildings and structures 

as a landscape characteristic 53 



CAD. See computer-aided design 
Cant Ranch Historic District 84 
Canyon de Chelly National 
Monument 12, III 
Capital Reef National Park 102 
Carl Sandburg National Historic Site 42 



character areas 

how defined for a cultural landscape 75 
circulation 

as a landscape characteristic 53 
example of 78 
CLI. See Cultural Landscapes Inventory 
CLR 
Appendices 

description of 36, 123 
Bibliography 1 23 

description of 36 
defining scope of 5 
how used in Cultural Landscape 

Program 9 
Index 123 

description of 36 
Introduction to 37 
content of 37 
historical summary 37 
management summary 37 
scope of work 38 
study boundaries 39 
summary of findings 40 
management objectives 48 
management objectives for 5 
outline of content 36 
Part I content 4! 

analysis and evaluation 68-69 
existing conditions 56 
outline for 36 
site history 4 1 -45 
Part 2 content 81 

level of detail required for 9 1 
outline for 36 
Part 3 

outline for 36 



Part 3 content 1 2 1 

parts of 6, 35 

relationship to natural resource 

management 29-30 
relationship to park planning 20 
use of in cultural resource 
management 4 
computer-aided design 59 
condition assessment 63 

defining for a cultural landscape 67 
how used in existing conditions plans 67 
constructed water features 

as a landscape characteristic 53 
cost estimates for treatment 
Class A 97 
Class B 97 
Class C 97, 99 
Crater Lake National Park 48, 65, 96 
cultural landscape 
boundaries of 72 
character areas 75 
defining condition of 67 
definition of types 12 
evaluating historic context 50 
management zones 75 
treatment of 81 
types of 9 
Cultural Landscape Program 

overview of 7-8 
Cultural Landscape Report. See CLR 
cultural landscape research 
documentation of 63 
documentation sources for 46 
evaluating historical signficance 69 
historic context 50 
history of 13-15 



INDEX 



163 



• 



approach to early reports 1 3 

defining report content and format 

expansion of scope 1 4 

inclusion of treatment 17 
influences on 

access to source materials 49 

management objectives 48 

site complexity 48 
use of photographs in 67 
Cultural Landscapes Inventory 20, 21, 

25, 39, 59, 67 
cultural landscape boundaries 72 
bow used in Cultural Landscape 

Program 8 
relationship to CLR 22 
use in cultural resource management 

25-26 
cultural resource management 
useofCLRs 25 

useof Historic Structure Report 27 
Cultural Resource Management 

Guideline 8, 67 
NPS-28 18 
Release No. 4 19 
standards for using CLRs 4 
cultural traditions 

as a landscape characteristic 53 

D 

design intent 1 1 2 
documentation 

for historical research 52 

for record of treatment 1 22 

measured drav^/ings 64 

of treatment 121 

schematic drawings 64 

sources for research 46 



Dorchester Heights-Thomas Park 43 
Drawing Format and Drafting Practices 
Guideline 95 



Ebey's Landing National Historic 

Reserve 92, 100, 109, 115 
Ebey's Landing National Historical 

Reserve 26 
ethnographic landscape 9. 12, III--II2 
Ethnographic Landscape Study 25 
purpose of 28 
use in cultural resource 
management 28-29 
Eugene O'Neill National Historic 

Site 86, 122 
existing conditions 
purpose of 56 
site research 56 

determining historical significance 7 1 
documentation of 63 
site surveys 62-63 
source materials for 57-60, 61 
Existing Conditions Plan 
description of 63 
how used in site research 63 
measured drawings 64 
schematic drawings 64 
use of narrative text in 66 
use of photographs in 67 



Fort Vancouver National Historic Site 76 
Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic 

Site 58 
Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic 

Site 66, 107, 116 



Gateway National Recreation Area 6 
General Management Plan 21, 37, 61 

how related to treatment 83 

purpose of 22 

relationship to CLR 5, 22 
Geographic Information Systems 59 
CIS. 5ee Geographic Information Systems 
Glacier National Park 5, I 19 
Golden Gate National Recreation Area 43 
Grand Canyon National Park 42 
Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic 

Site 49 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park 1 07 
Guadalupe Mountains National Park 54 

H 

Hampton National Historic Site 1 2 
Harpers ferry National Historical 

Park 59, 93, I 16 
Harry S Truman National Historic Site 50 
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site 24 
historic context 

factors for evaluating 50 
historic designed landscape 9, 12 
Historic Ground Cover Report 18 
Historic Grounds Report 18 
historic integrity 

as factor in treatment 101 

evaluation of 7 1 

seven aspects of 72 
Historic Resource Study 21, 50, 61 

how used in site history 45 

purpose of 22 

use in cultural resource 
management 25-26 
historic sites 9, 12 



• 



164 



GUIDE 



T O 



CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 




Historic Structure Report 25 

hiow used in site Inistor/ 45 

purpose of 27 

use in cultural resource management 27 
historic vernacular landscape 9, 12 
historical research 

documentation of 
narrative format 52 
period plans 54 

for CLR Part I 41. See also Site history 
historical significance 

defining for a cultural landscape 7 1 

statement of 7 1 
historical summary 

content of 37 
HRS. See Historic Resource Study 



integrity. See also historic integrity 

affect on treatment decisions 1 1 
Interpretive Prospectus 21, 61 



J 



James A. Garfield National Historic Site 99 
Jefferson National Expansion 

Memorial 113, 114 
John Day Fossil Beds National 

Monument 84 



Land Protection Plan 2 1 
land use 

as a landscape characteristic 53 
landscape characteristics 

archeological sites 53 

buildings and structures 53 

cultural traditions 53 



historical integrity and significance 71 

how evaluated for historical 
significance 69 

natural systems and features 53 

overview of 53 

small-scale features 53 

spatial organization 53 

topography 53 

vegetation 53 

views and vistas 53 
landscape types 9 

LCS. See List of Classified Structures 
List of Classified Structures 59 
Longfellow National Historic Site 55 
Lowell National Historical Park 98 

M 

management objectives 

influence on project scope 48 

management philosophy 
example of 84 

management summary 37 

management zones 

defining for a cultural landscape 75 

Manassas Battlefield 1 03 

Marsh- Billings National Historical Park 40 

Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic 
Site 94 

Martin Luther King National Historic Site 27 

Martin Van Buren National Historic Site 1 1 8 

measured drawings 64 

Minute Man National Historicaf Park 70 

MountRainierNationalPark 51, 108 

N 

narrative text 

used in existing conditions plans 66 



used in historical research 52 
National Historic Presentation Act 1 22 
National Historic Site 

Adams 9 i , 117 

Eugene O'Neill 86, 122 

Fort Vancouver 76 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 58 

Frederick Law Olmsted 66, 107, 116 

Grant-Kohrs Ranch 49 

Harry S Truman 50 

James A. Garfield 99 

Longfellow 55 

Martin Luther King, Jn 94 

Martin Van Buren I 18 

Saint- Gaudens 92 

Vanderbilt Mansion 74, 100, 103, 104 

WierFarm 92 

William Howard Taft 1 2 
National Park Service 

Cultural Landscape Program 7 

Inventory Condition and Assessment 
Program 68 
National Register 4, 68 

definition of historic integrity 7 1 

evaluation criteria 70 

guidelines for setting boundaries 72 
Natural Resource Management Guideline 

NPS-77 30 
natural systems and features 

as a landscape characteristic 53 
Nez Perce National Historical Park 57, 76 
NPS. See National Park Service 
NPS-28. 5ee Cultural Resource 

Management Guideline 
NPS-77. See Natural Resource 
Management Guideline 



INDEX 



165 



o 

Olympic National Park 9, 60, 105 
Oregon Caves National Monument 73 



period plans 54 

Perry's Victory and International Peace 

Memorial 81 
Petroglyph National Monument 28 
photographic documentation. See 

photographs 
photographs 

how used in existing conditions plans 67 
Point Reyes National Seashore I 1 
preservation 

definition of 82 

standards for 88 



R 



reconstruction 

definition of 82 

standards for 89 
record of treatment 

purpose of 121 
regional context 39 
rehabilitation 

definition of 82 

standards for 88 
repeat photography 63 
Resource Management Plan 21,61 
restoration 

definition of 82 

standards for 89 
Rock Creek Park 16 



Saint-Gaudens National Historic 

Site 25, 92 
San Antonio Missions National Historical 

Park III 
Santa Monica Mountains National 

Recreation Area I 1 
schematic drawings 

how used in existing conditions plans 64 
scope of work 

content of 38 
SDR See Site Development Plan 
site boundary 39 
Site Development Plan 21 
how related to treatment 83 
purpose of 22 
relationship to CLRs 22-23 
Site history 
content of 44 
documentation of 
narrative format 52 
period plans 54 
purpose of 41 
research 44-45 
defining scope of 45 
historic context 50-52 
landscape characteristics 53 
materials 45 
source research materials 49 
useof period plans 54 
site investigation 56, 62. 5eea/5a existing 

conditions 
site research 
description of 56 
source materials for 
databases 57-59 
historical research findings 62 



park files 60 

park reports and studies 61 

use of photographs in 67 
site surveys 

description of 62-63 

documentation of 63 
use of photographs in 67 
small-scale features 

as a landscape characteristic 53 
source materials 

used in site histories 49 
spatial organization 

as a landscape characteristic 53 
study boundaries 

content of 39 

regional context 39 

site boundary 39 
summary of findings 

content of 40 

T 

topography 

as a landscape characteristic 53 
treatment 

considerations for 99 

biotic cultural resources 1 04- 1 05 

changes in landscape 

characteristics 99 

design intent 112 

ethnographic value I 10 

health and safety I 1 9 

interpretation and education 1 14 

landscape integrity 1 1 

landscape use 110 

maintenance and sustainability 1 1 6 

resource values 1 06- 1 08 
cost estimates for 97 

Class A 97 



• 



166 



GUIDE TO CULTURAL LANDSCAPE REPORTS 



Class B 97 

Class C 99 
defining management philosophy for 83 
defining primary methods for 86 
definitions of 82 

determining for cultural resources 83-85 
evaluating actions 90 
guidelines for drawings 95 
how documented in a CLR 8 1 
level of detail required in CLR 9 1 
narrative guidelines 

example of 96 
policies, guidelines, standards 82 
presentation formats for 93 



narrative guidelines 95 
treatment plan 93 
record of (21. See also CLR Part 3 
standards for 88 
treatment actions 90. 5eea/5-o treatment 
treatment plan 93. ieea/^o treatment 



Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic 
Site 38, 74, 100, 103, 104 

vegetation 

as a landscape characteristic 53 
considerations for treatment 1 05 



views and vistas 

as a landscape characteristic 53 

w 

Weir Farm National Historic Site 92 
William Howard Taft National Historic 
Site 12 



Y 



Yosemite National Park 30, 41 



N D E X 



167 



Introduction 



Cultural landscapes are an important cultural resource in the national 
park system. As recognition of their significance to the national 
heritage grows and as technology becomes available to aid in 
research, the need for information about how to conduct cultural 
landscape research becomes clear. In response to this need, the 
National Park Service (NPS) has published A Guide to Cu/tura/ Land- 
scape Reports: Landscape Lines. This collection of documents gives 
detailed and up-to-date technical information on cultural landscape 
research topics and techniques that directly apply to the development 
of Cultural Landscape Reports (CLK). 

The Landscape Lines collection has two companion documents: 

• A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Contents, Process, and 
Techniques provides a general history of landscape research in the 
NPS; describes the relationship ofthe CLRto park planning, design, and 
resource management; and describes the content and format of a 
comprehensive CLR. 

• A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Appendices provide ex- 
amples and general reference materials related to the information 
included in the guide. 

Landscape Linesds\(\ Process, Contents, and Techniques ^.vq available 
for purchase as a set. Contact the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government PrintingOffice, Washington, DC, 20402-9325, StockNum- 
ber 0245-005-01 187-1 . The materials included in the Appendices dive 
available from various sources. For information on how to obtain these 
materials, contact the Park Historic Structures and Cultural Landscapes 
Program, National Center for Cultural Resource Stewardship and Part- 
nerships, 1 849 C Street NW, Room NC360, Washington, DC, 20240. 



INTRODUCTION 



The technical information in Landscape Lines is presented in three 
fornnats: 

• general information highlighting the application of existing technology 
to cultural landscape research (for example, pollen analysis) 

• comprehensive information on subjects for which limited reference 
material currently exists, especially as the subjects are applied to cultural 
landscape research (for example, treatment of biotic resources) 

• procedural guidelines for subjects related to preparing a CLR (for 
example, graphic conventions) 

Each ofthe documents contained in this first release were prepared with 
input from experts in each respective area. Landscape Lines is intended 
to be expanded and updated overtime. Additional publications will be 
released as topics are refined and experts are available to develop 
content. The 14 documents contained in this first release include the 
following: 



Issue # Title 



Description 



1 


Project Agreement 


Describes how to prepare a project 
agreement, which identifies and 
describes the work to be performed as 
part of a CLR project. 


2 


Levels of 


Defines and explains three levels of 




Investigation 


investigation (exhaustive, thorough, and 
limited) used in conducting research for a 
CLR. 


3 


Landscape 


Defines the classification system to be 




Characteristics 


used to describe a cultural landscape's 
character and physical qualities. 


4 


Historic Plant 


Explains how to identify, document, and 




Material Sources 


analyze vegetation and determine its 



relationship to the history of a cultural 
landscape. 



LANDSCAPE 



LINES 



Graphic 
Documentation 



Geophysical 
Survey Techniques 



Describes methods, including line drawing and 
photography, for graphically documenting a 
cultural landscape. 

Describes survey techniques used to detect 
and locate archeological resources beneath 
the earth's surface. 



Pollers, Phytolith, 
and Macroflora 
Analyses 

Tree Coring 



Surveys 



Geographic 
Information 
Systems 

Global Positioning 
Systems 



Treatment of 
Plant Features 



Accessibility 



Cataloging, 
Printing, and 
Distribution 



Explains three archeological techniques 
used to investigate the prehistory and 
history of vegetation in a cultural landscape. 

Describes the technique of tree coring as a 
method for determining the age of a tree and 
understanding Its physical history. 

Describes different types of surveys, including 
site, topographic, ground control, utility, 
cadastral, boundary, and hydrographlc, that 
may be needed for a CLR project. 

Explains the basic concepts of geographic 
information systems and hov^/ they can be 
used in cultural landscape research. 

Describes global positioning systems as a 
surveying and mapping tool, identifies different 
types of GPS receivers and their uses, and 
gives how-to information about using GPS in 
cultural landscape research. 

Explains the process of investigating the 
historical significance of vegetation and 
determining appropriate treatment 
methodologies. 

Describes concepts and legislation pertaining 
to accessibility, gives sources of information 
about the subject, and lists requirements for 
ramps, stairs, handrails, curbs, and other 
physical structures used by visitors to cultural 
landscapes. 

Gives guidelines for preparing a CLR for 
printing and distribution. 



INTRODUCTION 



Project Agreement 






Introduction 



I I 



1/' ' establishes consensus^from two'or more individuals, offices, or 
''^ '^ organizations for project work to be completed. The term, project 
' agreement, is used in this text to define the specific issues, tasks, 
management objectives, and anticipated products involved in a 
CLR project 



Note that for work involving individuals or offices within the 
National Park Service (NPS). the term "task directive" descnbes a 
project agreement. For contracts outside the NPS, a project agree- 
ment IS often called a "scope of work " 

Content of a Project Agreement 

A CLR project agreement is developed to meet management objec- 
tives and answer specific management questions The project agree- 
ment addresses Part I of a CLR, titled "Site History, Existing Condi- 
tions, and Analysis and. Evaluation," and Part 2, Treatment." The 
project agreement may outline the scope of Part I, Part 2, or both 
parts; (See, Figure J.) .. 



The scope of a project agreement is based on the management 
objectives, which may require information on site history, existing 
conditions, and the analysis and evaluation of a landscape (excluding 
treatment). If park management has adequate information from 
former research, management objectives^ for.a CLR may be con- 
cerned only with treatment. This information is reflected in the 
project agreement. 




Figure I. The projea agreement for Volume I of the CLR for Varxierbilt Mansion involved the preparation of only Part I, titled "Site 
Histor/, Existing Conditions, and Analysis and Evaluation." Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site. (NPS, c. / 930s) 



Regardless of whether a CLR project agreement 
addresses Part I, Part 2, or both, all project agree- 
ments for a CLR should include the following: 

• description of the study site, site boundaries, 
and site context 

• description of the project's purpose and its 
relationship to management objectives 

• description of the project scope, including 
level of investigation 

• list and description of the tasks to be com- 
pleted 

• list identifying the office and staff responsibilities 

• list and description of the interim and end 
products or deliverables 



• schedule for completing individual tasks, 
products, and payments 

• statement of the project budget 

A project agreement also identifies constraints and- 
special considerations, compliance requirements, 
information and data gathering needs, and coordi- 
nation requirements, including the desired period 
for public comment if appropnate. 



Preparation of a 
Project Agreement 

A project agreement is the first step in clarifying 
management objectives and specific tasks for a 
CLR. Preparing an agreement involves conducting 



AND 



I N 



preliminary research and compiling background 
information about the cultural landscape. This task 
may require a team of individuals with different 
backgrounds and expertise. A historical landscape 
architect usually leads the project team. The 
historical landscape architect receives support 
from park staff and other professionals in allied 
disciplines, such as history, historic architecture, 
natural resources, archeology, cultural anthropol- 
ogy, interpretation, and park maintenance. 

The time required to prepare a project agree- 
ment varies from project to project. In some 
cases, a short site visit allov^s enough time to 
review park files, meet with park staff, and conduct 
preliminary site reconnaissance. Preparing a project 
agreement requires more time when the site is 
large and specific issues are complex, or the site 
has a national level of significance with numerous 
interest groups involved. 

Preparing a CLR project agreement involves 
three primary steps: I ) project initiation, 
2) preliminary research, and 3) site visit. These 
steps are described in the following sections. 

Project Initiation 

To develop a CLR project agreement, park and 
technical staff meet to define the purpose, man- 
agement objectives, and key issues to be ad- 
dressed. Management's information needs and 
specific questions should be addressed. Informa- 
tion about the availability of historical materials, 
planning documents, base maps, and specific site 
data in park collections is collected during the 
meeting. Other pertinent repositories, contacts, 



and public interest groups are also noted, along 
with information about current maintenance 
practices and park operations. Maintenance 
information may influence project logistics, such as 
scheduling, site access, and field inventory. 

Preliminary Research 

The second step in developing a project agree- 
ment involves a preliminary review of historical 
materials related to the site. Extensive informa- 
tion may be found in park files and in a variety 
of cultural and natural resources databases, 
such as the Cultural Landscapes Inventory, the 
List of Classified Structures, the Cultural Sites 
Inventory, natural resource inventories, and 
geographical information system databases. 
When reviewing historic materials, it is neces- 
sary to determine whether additional research 
is required to fully address the management 
objectives for the project. This step is critical 
for providing fundamental background informa- 
tion and clarifying what is known about the 
landscape and what additional information is 
needed. It is important to recognize that this 
research is quantitative but not extensive; 
research is conducted to identify and evaluate 
the adequacy of primary and secondary sources 
and collections, and to gather preliminary site 
information, ensuring the project agreement's 
accuracy and completeness. 

Site Visit 

The final step in preparing a project agreement 
is a site visit. The site visit provides a prelimi- 
nary assessment of the landscape characteristics 



o J 



N. T 



PRnr[:<:<; fdr Prfparim c: a PROjFrr Ar;RFFMFNT 



Activity 



Outcome 



Product 



Project 
Initiation 

Meeting between park 
and technical staff 



List of specific issues 
and questions to be 
addressed by CLR 



Preliminary 
Research 

Review of park files 
and archives 



Identify the information 
that already exists 

Identify the information 
that needs to be added 

Determine level of 
investigation for the 
historical research 



Project 
Agreement 
for CLR 



Site Visit 

Preliminary assessment 
of landscape character- 
istics and associated 
features and conditions 



Understand existing 

conditions in relation 
to management issues 

Determine level of 
investigation for the 
existing conditions 
investigation 



and associated features, as well as the physical 
condition of the landscape. The site visit may take 
the form of a windshield survey or walk-through. 
It is preferable to be acconnpanied by someone 
who is knowledgeable about the site and the 
salient issues to be addressed in the CLR. The 
purpose of the visit is to understand management 
issues and existing conditions so that the project 
agreement can accurately reflect the required 
level of effort. 



Summary 

Afthough a project agreement directs and organizes 
the scope and content of a CLR, the agreement is 
not a static document. Because the research to 
prepare an agreement is preliminary, it is not 
uncommon that additional infonnation or material 
becomes available during the course of a project, 
influencing or altering the original assumptions. In 
this case, it may be appropriate for park and 
technical staff to amend the original project agree- 
ment to respond to the new infonnation. (See A 
Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Appendi- 
ces, "Appendix J: Project Agreements.") 



The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes, 

U.S. Department of the Inferior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 

Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 




Levels of Investigation 



1^- 



It ^ ^ The Culturaf Undscape Report (CliK) has a flexible.format so that it 
"■ can be used for various lariciscape t/pes, address different nnanage- 
ment bbi^ctives, and guide treatment activities While every.CLR, / 
should be similar in format and content, not every'^CLR nee'ds to 
contain the same level of information or have the same outline of 
contents A project agreement defines the level of investigation for a 
CLR (See Landscape Lines I Project Agreement) 



Three Levels of Investigation 

jhe level of investigation refers to the type and extent of information 
gathered and processed dunng three activities conducted for a CLR 
The three activities are historical research, existing conditions investi- 
gation, and analysis and evaluation The National Park Service (NPS) 
Cultural Resources Management Guideline, defines the level of 
investigation for these activities as exhaustive, thorough, and limited 



Determining the Level of Investigation 

Within a CLR, the level of investigation required for historical re- 
•search,. existing conditions investigation,. and analysis and evaluation 
. may be different.. For example, the historical research piece of a CLR 
may warrant an exhaustive level of investigation because no previous, 
research on the landscape exists. In contrast, the existing conditions 
investigation may require only a limited level of investigation because 
reliable information is available from another source, such as a recent, 
detailed site sun/ey. (See Figure I .) 




F/gure /. Management objectives for the Andrew Johnson National Cemetery CLR influenced the level of investigation for 
both the historical research and existing conditions investigation. A limited level of historical research and a thorough level 
of existing conditions investigation were required to create management zones, which indicated a historic zone a buffer 
zone, and a development zone for new interments. Andrew Johnson National Cemetery. (NPS, 1 988) 



The level of investigation is influenced by several 
key factors: 

• legislative mandate 

• management objectives 

• resource significance 

• resource complexity 

• proposed treatment 

• operations and programs 



Legislative Mandate 

The legislative mandate or enabling legislation 
for a park describes the prinnary resources to 
be managed. In some cases, the enabling 
legislation for a park is very general with regard 
to the management of specific cultural and 
natural resources, In other cases, there is a 
clear statement that the landscape should be 
managed as a cultural resource. For example, 
the enabling legislation for Weir Farm National 



N D 



Historic Site in Connecticut states that the site 
is established for the purpose of "...maintaining 
the integrity of a setting that inspired artistic 
expression and encourages public enjoy- 
ment...." If preservation of a cultural landscape 
is identified in legislation, it may warrant an 
exhaustive level of research and documenta- 
tion. However, if the legislative mandate does 
not give specific direction for preserving a 
cultural landscape, this does not imply that an 
exhaustive level of investigation is unwarranted; 
rather, it means the process of defining the 
objectives and level of investigation is not 
directed by legislative mandate. 

Management Objectives 

A clear understanding of a CLK's management 
objectives is critical to defining the appropriate 
level of investigation for historical research, 
existing conditions investigation, and analysis 
and evaluation. When information is already 
available on the site history, management 
objectives may require only a limited level of 
historical research. When current site data 
does not exist, an exhaustive level of existing 
conditions investigation may be required. 
Other management objectives for a CLK may 
include the following: 

• determination of historic significance according 
to National Register criteria for eligibility 

• information gathering for resource manage- 
ment in the absence of a proposed treatment 
(such as preservation) 

• information gathering for park interpretation of 
the resource 



It is critical that the level of investigation of histori- 
cal research, existing conditions investigation, and 
analysis and evaluation matches the complexity of 
the management issues. 

Resource Significance 

Resource significance is a factor that influences 
the level of investigation. There are four levels of 
resource significance. 

• International: cultural landscapes that qualify as 
World Heritage Sites based on their universal 
significance. 

• National: cultural landscapes that qualify as National 
Historic Landmarks are listed in the National 
Register as nationally significant, or are determined 
to be nationally significant by an act of Congress. 

• State: cultural landscapes that qualify for the 
National Register and are determined to be 
significant at the state level. 

• Local: cultural landscapes that qualify for the 
National Register and are determined to be 
significant at the local level. 

Cultural landscapes that are nationally significant, such 
as the Blue Ridge Parkway or the grounds of the 
White House and President's Park, may warrant an 
exhaustive level of investigation because of their 
value to the nation and to ensure that management 
protects these values. Cultural landscapes that are 
significant at the state or local level, such as a 
backcountr/ homestead in Colorado, a settlement 
community in Wisconsin, or a sheep ranch in 
eastern Oregon, may not require an exhaustive level 
of investigation because they are not unique and are 
more representative of a type of historic property. 



I N 



1 O N 



Resource Complexity 

The physical scale and compiexity, as well as the 
historic complexity of a landscape, may necessi- 
tate additional time and effort in preparing Part I 
of a CLK, titled "Site History, Existing Conditions, 
and Analysis and Evaluation." Although complexity 
does not affect the type of information gathered in 
preparing a CLR, it influences the effort required to 
review all the research materials of landscapes with 
extensive site histories or to document landscapes 
that are large, have complex spatial relationships, 
or have a high density of features. 

Proposed Treatment 

Treatment for a cultural landscape is often de- 
cided through the park planning process. Treat- 
ment may or may not be decided before a CLR is 
prepared. If a proposed treatment has been 
decided, a CLR documents implementation of 
the treatment. If treatment has not been decided 
through the planning process, but management 
objectives require a CLR to recommend a 
treatment, a CLR augments, or is combined with 
a Site Development Plan to determine a pre- 
ferred treatnnent and physical design. This is 
outlined in the CLR project agreement along with 
specific questions to be answered. (See Land- 
scape Lines I: Project Agreement) 

The following two examples show how the type 
of proposed treatment can influence a CLR's level 
of investigation. 

Example I: If rehabilitation is the proposed 
treatment for a cultural landscape and the end 
product of a CLR is a new site plan or design 



illustrating the location, extent, and character of 
new development, then a thorough or exhaus- 
tive level of investigation is required. 

Take, for example, the rehabilitation of a historic 
cattle ranch landscape to accommodate a new 
visitor center with parking and interpretive 
facilities. Here, historical research must be suffi- 
cient to allow for a very comprehensive review 
and assessment of research materials. 

Existing conditions investigation and documenta- 
tion must cleariy illustrate the existing landscape, 
portray the landscape characteristics and associ- 
ated features, and identify the conditions within 
which the rehabilitation can occur. The analysis 
and evaluation must consolidate and compare 
data from various sources (programs and profes- 
sional disciplines) and from different perspectives 
to evaluate the impact of treatment activities on 
specific features within the landscape and identify 
the best option. 

Example 2: If presentation is the proposed 
treatment for a cultural landscape and the end 
product of a CLR is a list of acceptable plants, then 
a limited level of investigation may be sufficient. 

Take, for example, the replacement of plants 
around a new visitor center (which is also a 
historic building) with historically accurate 
plants. Historical research may include a review 
of primary historical records, such as drawings 
or historic photographs, for the purposes of 
identifying former plant materials. A review of 
written documents may reveal the historic 
design intent, function, or character of former 



I N 



plants, assisting in the selection of new 
plantings. An exhaustive review of all historic 
records related to the landscape is not appro- 
priate. Similarly, existing conditions investiga- 
tion and documentation may be limited to the 
examination of extant plant materials in the 
vicinity of the visitor center to identify extant 
historic plant species and document their 
condition and character. 

The proposed treatment for a landscape defines 
the level of physical inter/ention of subsequent 
treatment activities. The level of intervention 
increases from preservation, through rehabilita- 
tion, to restoration, to reconstruction. It is critical 
that the level of investigation for historical re- 
search, existing conditions investigation, and 
analysis and evaluation adequately matches the 
type of information required for the proposed 
treatment, (See Figure 2.) 

Operational and Program Factors 

Operational factors, such as time, budget, and 
staff, and program factors, such as the relationship 
of the CLRto other projects, can influence the 
level of investigation. Although operational and 
program factors have low priority in determining 
the level of investigation, they often have a 
profound impact on a project. For instance, 
funding may determine the amount of time and 
the staff available for a project, set travel limits on 
the number of repositories a researcher can visit, 
and necessitate scheduling the completion of a 
CLR so that it is available for other planning and 
construrtion projects. 



Levels of Investigation 

Historical Research 

The purpose of historical research is to develop a 
historic context that defines the significance of a 
landscape. Historical research is used to compose 
a site history, which describes and illustrates the 
appearance of a cultural landscape through each 
relevant historic period. 

Exhaustive Historical Research 

Exhaustive historical research uses all primary 
sources of known or presumed relevance, 
including the following: 

• historic publications, unpublished manuscripts, 
and historic correspondence 

• all pertinent historic graphic records, such as 
drawings, plans, and photographic materials 

• interviews are conducted with knowledgeable 
persons, regardless of their location 

Secondary sources are also reviewed, such as 
studies, reports, and topical publications. All 
gathered information is compiled and then docu- 
mented chronologically in an illustrated narrative. 

Thorough Historical Research 

Thorough historical research uses selected 
documentation of known and presumed rel- 
evance. This includes primary and secondary 
sources that are available without extensive travel 
and interviews with knowledgeable people who 
are readily available. The findings are presented in 
an illustrated narrative. 



I N 



T I 



T I 




Figure 2. A proposed treatment car) influence a CLR's level ofinvestigatior) for both historical research and existing condi- 
tions investigation. The above plan shows a proposed restoration treatment developed as a result of an exhaustive level of 
historical research and existing conditions investigation. Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site. (NFS, 1995) 



LANDSCAPE 



LINES 



Limited Historical Research 

Limited historical researcli uses available, se- 
lected, and published secondary sources and 
primary sources, if known. Research may be 
limited to sources readily accessible within or 
near a park. Brief interviews are conducted (often 
by telephone) to answer specific questions. The 
findings are presented in an illustrated narrative. 

Existing Conditions Investigation 

Documentation of existing conditions requires a 
site investigation involving two general activities: 
site research and a site survey. The purpose of 
this work is to describe and illustrate the current 
appearance and condition of a landscape, includ- 
ing all landscape characteristics and associated 
features. The documentation resulting from a site 
investigation includes an existing conditions plan, 
narrative text, and black and white photographs. 

Exhaustive Existing Corxjitions hvestigation 

An exhaustive existing conditions investigation 
involves site research, including the collection and 
review of all available site data from existing 
sources, including the following: 

• natural and cultural resource databases (such as 
the List of Classified Structures and Cultural 
Landscapes Inventory) 

• park maintenance records 

• utility records, zoning, and other political or 
legal information 

• special studies (such as archeological investiga- 
tions and ethnographic overviews) 

• building inventories 



• Vegetation Management Plans 

• National Register nominations 

• Historic Resource Studies 

• planning documents (such as the General 
Management Plan, Statement for Management, 
Interpretive Prospectus, or Resource Manage- 
ment Plan). 

• maps, plans, photographs, etc. 

Information on site access, accessibility, land use, 
visitor services, park operations, and interpretive 
programs is also reviewed. Other site-related 
documents from external sources are also exam- 
ined, including soil surveys, aerial photographs, and 
United States Geological Survey (USGS) maps. 

The site survey involves the extensive identification 
and recording of existing landscape characteristics 
and associated features. Their location, appear- 
ance, and physical condition are documented in 
the field using black and white photographs, color 
slides, sketches, and written obsen/ations. 

Additional site survey techniques may be used 
to identify and describe the appearance and 
condition of landscape characteristics and 
associated features in the field. These tech- 
niques include: 

• tree coring to determine the age of historic 
trees 

• aerial photography to identify and record 
broad patterns of landscape characteristics 
(such as natural systems and features, circula- 
tion, land use, and spatial organization) and 
associated features 



i N 



T I O N 



• topographic and hydrographic surveys to 
obtain accurate location and elevation data for 
a base map 

• archeological techniques, including geophysical 
surveys and soil analyses to locate and analyze 
buried ruins and cultural artifacts 

• computer technologies to collect and process 
field survey information, such as the global 
positioning system datalogger as an inventor/ tool 
and geographic information sun/ey as a system 
for mapping, analyzing, and managing site data 

All findings are presented in an existing conditions 
plan, narrative text, and black and white photographs, 

Thorough Existing Conditions Investigation 

The availability of recent and reliable site data may 
make it possible to conduct a thorough, rather 
than an exhaustive, existing conditions investiga- 
tion. A thorough investigation differs from an 
exhaustive investigation in the following ways: 

• more existing site data may be used, but less new 
data will be generated from the site sun/ey 

• fewer specialized technologies or techniques 
will be used in the site survey 

• technical and park staff expertise will be used 
rather than experts from other disciplines 

• less labor-intensive techniques will be used to 
collect site data 

A thorough level of investigation may obtain 
topographic information from an aerial photo- 
graph using photogrammetry, whereas an ex- 
haustive level of investigation may use a refined 



topographic suivey with a close contour inten^ai 
and include the canopy size and d.b.h. (diameter 
at breast height) of mature trees. 

The findings of a thorough existing conditions 
investigation are presented in an existing condi- 
tions plan, narrative text, and black and white 
photographs. (See Figure 3.) 

Limited Existing Conditions Investigation 

A limited existing conditions investigation may 
use available site data and generate less new 
data through the field survey than the thor- 
ough or exhaustive investigations. A limited 
existing conditions investigation may focus on 
just one discrete area of a landscape, use only 
park and technical staff expertise, and use only 
the sources of site data available in park files. 

In a limited investigation, the site survey may 
be performed from a less intimate vantage 
point (such as a motorized vehicle) and only 
discrete areas may be surveyed and docu- 
mented on foot. A limited investigation may 
use existing USGS topographic information or a 
previous topographic survey rather than contract 
for a topographic survey on the ground or through 
photogrammetry. The findings are presented in an 
existing conditions plan, narrative text, and black 
and white photographs. 

Analysis and Evaluation 

Analysis and evaluation involves comparing the 
findings of historical research with the findings of 
the existing conditions investigation. The pur- 
pose of the comparison is twofold: 



N D 



I N 




Figure 3. The Fruita Rural Historic District CLR had a thorough level ofir)vestigation for both historical research ar)d existing 
conditior)s investigation. Capitol Reef National Parl^. (NFS, c. 1 930) 



• to determine the landscape characteristics and 
associated features of a landscape from each 
significant historic period 

• to understand how the landscape characteris- 
tics and associated features contribute to and 
convey the significance of the landscape (based 
on National Register criteria) 

An analysis and evaluation shows how a land- 
scape has changed overtime. The analysis and 
evaluation may also include a statement of 



significance for the landscape and identify land- 
scape character areas and management zones. 
The findings of analysis and evaluation are 
documented in a narrative illustrated with 
graphics, such as plans, sketches, and photo- 
graphs. 

Exhaustive Ar)alysis and Evaluation 

An exhaustive analysis and evaluation uses all 
historic and contemporary site data from historical 
research and existing conditions investigation. It 



I N 



T I 



I O N 



may include park operational data, maintenance 
records, and detailed condition assessments of 
landscape characteristics and associated features. 
The analysis and evaluation may involve the 
collaboration of experts from other disciplines as 
well as representatives from the public. The 
gathered information can be used to deal with 
various issues, such as multiple periods of signifi- 
cance or areas of the landscape that may receive 
secondary treatments within the primary treat- 
ment plan. The findings are documented in a 
narrative illustrated with graphics, such as'plans, 
sketches, and photographs. 

Thorough Analysis and Evaluation 

A thorough analysis and evaluation uses relevant 
findings fronn historical research and existing 
conditions investigation, It may involve only park 
and technical staff expertise and may deal with 
less complex management issues than an exhaus- 
tive analysis. The findings are documented in a 
narrative illustrated with graphics, such as plans, 
sketches, and photographs. 

Limited Analysis and Evaluation 

A limited analysis and evaluation uses findings 
from historical research and existing conditions 
investigation that are relevant to specific 



management concerns. It involves only the 
resources and staff expertise readily available and 
deals with less complex management issues than 
a thorough analysis. The findings are documented 
in a narrative illustrated with graphics, such as 
plans, sketches, and photographs. 



Summary 

The level of investigation is influenced by a 
number of factors. Ultimately, the level of 
historical research, existing conditions investiga- 
tion, and analysis and evaluation, should match 
the level of decision making to be directed by a 
CLR. If the proposed level of intervention in a 
landscape is high, the level of investigation 
should be thorough or exhaustive. If funding and 
staffing issues limit the level of investigation for a 
CLR, the resultant level of decision making 
should be limited. 



Reference 

National Park Service. 1997. Cu/tura/ Resource 
Management Guideline, NFS 28, no. 5. Washing- 
ton, DC: USDI, NPS. 



10 



I N 



The mission of the Department of the interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes, 




U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 

Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 



Landscape Characteristics 






M^^);;^:''^<:^'\}^:' 






, « 

^ 






rNTRODUCTION 



1 / 



■/ ■" 



^As the field of cultural landscape preservation has evolved, a nne1:hod ' 
has" been developed to describe the tangible and intangible charactens- 
tics of a histoncally significant landscape Individually and collectively, ' 
^- the charactenstics give a landscape character and aid in understanding 

its cultural value 



Vanous classification systems and terms have been used to descnbe the 
cultural and natural processes and physical forms that define the appear- 
ance of a landscape The classification systems have onginated from 
several sources wrthin the National Park Service (NPS) for vanous 
preservation purposes (such as inventory, documentation, and treat- 
ment) and have addressed vanous cultural landscape types (such as 
designed and vernacular) Different titles have been given to the classifi- 
cation systems, such as "landscape components," "landscape features," 
"landscape characteristics," and "character-defining features " Each 
classification system contains a list of the cultural and natural processes 
and the physical aspects of a landscape 

In addition to providing methods for descnbing a landscape's character 
and physical qualities, the classification systems have introduced new 
terminology to the cultural landscape preservation field This has 
resulted in some confusion about terms with similar, yet slightly 
different nrieanings. 



The intent of this text is to provide a recommended classification system 
for describing the character of cultural landscapes in the national park 
system for use in research, inventory, documentation, analysis and 
evaluation, and treatment. This classification system is recommended to 
provide consistency in the terminology used in the NPS Park Cultural 
Landscape Program, and specifically in the Cultural Landscapes Inventory 



(CLI) and Cultural Landscape Report (CLR). The 
classification systenn outlined should provide a 
means for documenting all the cultural and natural 
processes and physical forms that may exist in a 
given landscape. The system is flexible and must 
be applied to each landscape according to the 
type of landscape and the nature of its historical 
development Not all landscapes will have the 
same physical character. 

The recommended classification system presented 
in this text builds upon, and has many similarities 
v\/ith, eariier efforts. It addresses the diversity and 
scope of cultural landscapes in the national park 
system. To give this recommended system context 
in the cultural landscape presentation field, the text 
first presents an overview of the classification 
systems developed to date by the NPS, along with 
the terminology associated with the systems. The 
similarities and differences between the systems 
and the terminology used are described. Finally, 
based on the recommended classification system 
and terminology, the application and use of land- 
scape characteristics and associated features in a 
CLR are described. 



Classification Systems and 
Terminology Used In the Field 

A review of the classification systems and their 
associated terminology indicates many common- 
alties. The recommended classification system 
presented in this text builds upon the following 
studies and publications: 

• In 1984, Cultural Landscapes: Rural Historic 
Districts in the National Park System, pro- 
vided the first classification system. It identified 



"landscape components" that can be used to 
identify, evaluate, nominate (to the National 
Register), and rhanage rural historic districts. 

In 1987, National Register Bulletin 18: How 
to Evaluate and Nominate Designed Historic 
Landscapes, presented a detailed list of 
"landscape features," which focused on 
describing designed landscapes for nomina- 
tion to the National Register. The list of 
features was provided for consideration in 
describing designed landscapes, but it was not 
intended to be a comprehensive classification 
system. 

In 1990, National Register Bulletin 30: 
Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting 
Rural Historic Landscapes coined the term 
"landscape characteristics" as the title for the 
classification system outlined in the publica- ■ 
tion. Bulletin SOw^s largely a revision of the 
1 984 study. Cultural Landscapes: Rural 
Historic Districts In the National Park Sys- 
tem. The classification system of landscape 
characteristics was similar to the original list 
of "landscape connponents" in the 1 984 
study. However, Bulletin 30 gzye an ex- 
panded explanation of how various land- 
scape characteristics could be meaningful in 
understanding the cultural development of 
rural landscapes, and it provided guidelines 
for their documentation. 

In 1996, The Secretary of the Interior's Stan- 
dards for the Treatment of Historic Properties 
with Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural 
Landscapes \dQn'C\f\e6 "organizational elements" 
and "character-defining features" as a classifica- 
tion system for the treatment of cultural 



I N 



Chronology of Classification Systems 



1984 

Landscape Components 

Overall Patterns of Spatial 
Organization 

Land Use: Categories and Activities 

Response to Natural Features 

Circulation Netv/orks 

Boundary Demarcations 

Vegetation Related to Land Use 

Cluster Arrangement 

Structure: Type, Function, 
Materials, Construction 

Small-Scale Elements 

Historical Views and Other 
Perceptual Qualities 



Source: Cultural Landscapes: Rural 
Historic Districts in the National Park 
System. 



1987 

Landscape Features 

Spatial Relationships and 
Orientations 

Land Uses 

Natural Features 

Circulation Systems 

Landscape Dividers 

Topography and Grading 

Vegetation 

Buildings, Structures, and Lighting 

Drainage and Engineering 
Structures 

Site Furnishings and Small-Scale 
Elements 

Water Bodies, Sculpture, and Signs 

Views and Vistas 

Source: National Register Bulletin li 
How to Evaluate and Nominate 
Designed Historic Landscapes. 



1990 

Landscape Characteristics 

Processes 

Patterns of Spatial Organization 

Land Uses and Activities 

Response to the Natural 
Environment 

Cultural Traditions 

Components 
Circulation Networks 
Boundary Demarcations 
Vegetation Related to Land Use 
Buildings, Structures, and Objects 
Clusters 

Archeological Sites 
Small-Scale Elements 

Source: National Register Bulletin 30: 
Guidelines for Evaluating and 
Documenting Rural Historic Land- 
scapes. 



1996 

Organizational Elements and 

Character- Defining Features 

Or ganizational Elements 

Spatial Organization 
Land Patterns 

Character-Defining Features 

Topography 

Vegetation 

Circulation 

Water Features 

Structures, Site Furnishings, 
and Objects 



Source: The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the 
Treatment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for the 
Treatment of Cultural Landscapes. 



1997 

Landscape Characteristics 



Natural Systems and 
Features 

Spatial Organization 

Land Use 

Cultural Traditions 

Cluster Arrangements 

Circulation 

Topography 



Vegetation 

Buildings and Structures 

Views and Vistas 

Constructed Water 
Features 

Small-Scale Features 

Circulation 

Archeological Sites 



Source: A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: Contents, 
Process, and Techniques and Cultural Landscapes Inventory 
Professional Procedures Guide. 



R I 



landscapes. (The term, character-defining 
feature, dates from the 1 978 publication of 
The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for 
Historic Preservation Projects with Guide- 
iines for Applying the Standards, where the 
term was used to describe architectural 
qualities contributing to the character of 
historic buildings). 

In referencing the publications prepared by 
the National Register, it needs to be noted 
that the National Register allows a consider- 
able degree of latitude in the way survey 
information is presented and organized in 
nominations. The classification systems out- 
lined in the bulletins were presented to 
facilitate the evaluation process, but did not 
require that information about cultural land- 
scapes be organized as such. 

There is some overlap in the definitions of terms 
associated with the classification systems, partly 
because the terms originated at different times 
by different sources, and for discrete uses. For 
instance, the term "landscape characteristic" was 
conceived primarily to apply the National 
Register criteria to cultural landscapes so they 
could be evaluated and nominated as sites or 
districts to the National Register. The term 
"character-defining feature" was conceived to 
guide the appropriate treatment and manage- 
ment of historic structures (and later of cultural 
landscapes), so that features conveying historic 
character would be retained by treatment 
activities. The term "contributing or noncontrib- 
uting feature" was conceived as a specific, 
quantifiable item that could be identified in the 



field for the purpose of the CLI and National 
Register evaluation. In all these efforts, the 
evolution of terms was influenced by the type(s) 
of cultural landscape being addressed, along with 
the range of physical conditions to which the 
terms apply. (See A Guide to Cultural Landscape 
Reports: Appendices, "Appendix C: National 
Register Bulletins (nos. 1 8 and 30)," and "Ap- 
pendix H: Treatment Policy, Guidelines, and 
Standards.") 

Landscape Characteristics 

"Landscape characteristics" is the recom- 
mended term associated with the classification 
system in this text. It refers to the processes 
and physical forms that characterize the appear- 
ance of a landscape and aid in understanding its 
cultural value. The following general points 
apply to landscape characteristics and their use 
inCLRs: 

• Landscape characteristic is defined as the 
tangible and intangible characteristics of a 
landscape that individually and collectively give a 
landscape character and aid in understanding its 
cultural value. 

• Landscape characteristic is applied to either 
culturally derived and naturally occurring 
processes or to cultural and natural physical 
forms that have influenced the historical develop- 
ment of a landscape or are the products of its 
development. The appearance of a cultural 
landscape, both historically and currently, is a 
unique web of landscape characteristics that are 
the tangible evidence of the historic and current 
uses of the land, 



N D 



p ■ E 



Terminology Used in Cultural Landscape Preservation 

Character- Defining Feature 

"A prominent or distinctive aspect, quality, or characteristic of a historic property that contributes significantly to its physical 
character. Structures, objects, vegetation, spatial relationships, vievi's, furnishings, decorative details, and materials may be such 
features." 

— Cultural Resource Management Guideline, Release No. 5 (1 997) and The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the 
Treatment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes ( 1 996) 

Contributing Feature 

"A biotic or abiotic feature associated with a landscape characteristic that contributes to the significance of the cultural land- 
scape." 

— Cultural Landscapes Inventory Professional Procedures Guide { 1 998) 

Contributing Resource 

"A building, site, structure, or object that adds to the historic significance of a property. A contributing building, site, structure, or 
object adds to the historic associations, historical architectural qualities, or archaeological values for which a property is significant 
because of the following: it was present during the period of significance; it relates to the documented significance of the property; 
it possesses historic integrity or is capable of revealing information about the period; or it independently meets the National 
Register criteria." 

— National Register Bulletin 1 6A: How to Complete the National Register Registration Form { 1 99 1 ) 

Landscape Characteristic 

"The tangible evidence of the activities and habits of the people who occupied, developed, used, and shaped the land to serve 
human needs. The beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and values of the people and processes that have been instrumental in shaping the 
land, and the processes are evident as physical components on the land." 

— National Register Bulletin 30: Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Rural Historic Landscapes { 1 990) 

Landscape Feature 

'The smallest physical unit that contributes to the significance of a landscape that can be managed as an individual element." 
— Cultural Landscapes Inventory Professional Procedures Guide { 1 998) 

Landscape Unit 

"A discrete portion of the landscape which can be further subdivided into individual features. The landscape unit may contribute 
to the significance of a National Register property, such as a farmstead in a rural historic district In some cases the landscape unit 
may be individually eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, such as a rose garden in a large urban park." 

— The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for the Treatment of 
Cultural Landscapes (1996) 

Non-Contributing Feature 

"A biotic or abiotic feature associated with a landscape characteristic that does not contribute to the significance of the cultural 
landscape." 

— Cultural Landscapes Inventory Professional Procedures Guide ( 1 998) 

Non-Contributing Resource 

"A non-contributing building, site, structure, or object that does not add to the historic architectural qualities, historic associa- 
tions, or archaeological values for which a property is significant, because: it was not present during the period of significance or 
does not relate to the documented period of significance of the property; due to alterations, disturbances, additions or other 
changes, it no longer possesses historic integrity or is capable of yielding important information about the period; or it does not 
independently meet the National Register criteria." 

— National Register Bulletin 1 6A: How to Complete the National Register Registration Form ( 1 99 1 ) 



NDSCAPE CHARACTERI 



Landscape characteristics are categories under 
which individual features can be grouped. For 
example, the landscape characteristic "natural 
systems and features" may include such individual 
features as a ravine, valley, v^etland, or cliff. The 
landscape characteristic "topography" may include 
such features as an earthwork, drainage ditch, or 
hill. The landscape characteristic "vegetation" may 
include such individual features as a specimen 
tree, woodlot, or perennial bed. 

Many landscape characteristics are common 
among cultural landscapes; however, not all 
categories of landscape characteristics occur 
in every landscape. Determining which 
landscape characteristics exist or did exist 
within the unique development of each 
landscape must be made, and only the 
landscape characteristics that exist or have 
existed in a particular landscape are identified 
in CLR. 

Landscape characteristics are valuable in 
understanding the evolution of a landscape's 
appearance overtime. They may not have 
retained integrity (that is, existed in a relatively 
unchanged state since the established 
period(s) of significance), and therefore may 
or may not contribute to the significance of a 
landscape. Some landscape characteristics 
may be completely lost, some may be recent 
additions. Understanding what remains and 
what was lost can influence the treatment of 
the landscape. 

Landscape characteristics exist primarily within 
the boundaries of a cultural landscape; how- 
ever, it is important to identify the natural, 
cultural, and political context for every 



landscape. The context provides an under- 
standing of the relationship between the 
landscape characteristics and the broader 
environment within which they exist. The 
natural context includes the naturally occurring 
physical forms that have influenced the 
landscape's development, such as dominant 
landforms, watersheds, native vegetation, 
water bodies, and wetlands. The cultural and 
political contexts include land use, zoning, 
legal restrictions, transportation, utilities, 
population, and political jurisdiction (state, 
county, city, village, or town). 



Recommended Landscape 
Characteristics 

This section recommends a classification system 
of landscape characteristics. The list of landscape 
characteristics does not necessarily apply to all 
cultural landscapes, but rather provides a basis 
from which the relevant characteristics for a 
landscape can be identified. 

Landscape characteristics must be uniquely 
identified for each cultural landscape according 
to the type of landscape and the nature of its 
historical development. In addition, it is also 
important to recognize that the list of character- 
istics is not mutually exclusive. For example, 
vegetation, buildings and structures, and views 
and vistas often assist in defining the spatial 
organization of a landscape. Determining the 
relationship among the landscape characteristics 
identified for a property is important in under- 
standing the history of a landscape and how it 
should be treated. 



N D 



Natural Systems and Features 

Natural systems and features are the natural 
aspects that have influenced the developnnent and 
physical form of a landscape. The following may 
be included: 

• geomorphology: the large-scale patterns of 
land forms 

• geology: the surficial characteristics of the 
earth 

• hydrology: the system of surface and subsur- 
face water 

• ecology: the interrelationship among living 
organisms and their environment 

• climate: temperature, wind velocity, and 
precipitation 

• native vegetation: indigenous plant communi- 
ties and indigenous aggregate and individual 
plant features 

Examples of features associated with natural 
systems and features include ravines, valleys, 
watersheds, wetlands, and rock outcrops. (See 
Figure I .) 

Spatial Organization 

Spatial organization is the three-dimensional 
organization of physical forms and visual associa- 
tions in a landscape, including the articulation of 
ground, vertical, and overhead planes that define 
and create spaces. Examples of features associ- 
ated with spatial organization include circulation 
systems, views and vistas, divisions of property, 
and topography. (See Figure 2.) 




Figure I. View of natural systems ar]d features. Cor^yor) de 
Chelly Natiorial Monument (NPS, 1988) 




Figure 2. Land use and spatial organization are made visihie in 
part by field and crop patterns. Ebe/s Landing National 
Historical Reserve. (NFS, 1983) 



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Figure 3. Cluster arrangements are visible /n this aerial view of 
outbuildings in this cattle ranch landscape. Grant-Kohrs Ranch 
National Historic Site. (NFS, 1 970) 




Ft^re 4. Grculation is a prominent landscape characteristic of^ls 
Civilian Conservation Corps development Scotts Bluff National 
Monument (NFS, 1995) 



Land Use 

Land use describes the principal activities in a 
landscape that form, shape, and organize the 
landscape as a result of human interaction. 
Examples of features associated with land use 
include agricultural fields, pastures, playing 
fields, and quarries. (See Figure 2.) 

Cultural Traditions 

Cultural traditions are the practices that influence 
the development of a landscape in terms of land 
use, patterns of land division, building forms, 
stylistic preferences, and the use of materials. 
Examples of features associated with cultural 
traditions include land use practices, methods of 
construction, buildings, patterns of land division, 
and use of vegetation. 

Cluster Arrangement 

Cluster arrangement is the location and pattern of 
buildings and structures in a landscape and associ- 
ated outdoor spaces. Examples of features 
associated with a cluster arrangement include 
village centers and complexes, mining, agricul- 
tural, and residential buildings and structures and 
the associated spaces they define. (See Figure 3.) 

Circulation 

Circulation includes the spaces, features, and 
applied material finishes that constitute the 
systems of movement in a landscape. Ex- 
amples of features associated with circulation 
include paths, sidewalks, roads, and canals. 
(See Figure 4.) 



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Topography 

Topography is the three-dimensional configura- 
tion of a landscape surface characterized by 
features (such as slope and articulation) and 
orientation (such as elevation and solar aspect). 
Examples of features associated with topography 
include earthworks, drainage ditches, knolls, and 
terraces. (See Figure 5.) 

Vegetation 

Vegetation includes the deciduous and evergreen 
trees, shrubs, vines, ground covers and herba- 
ceous plants, and plant communities, whether 
indigenous or introduced in a landscape. Examples 
of features associated with vegetation include 
specimen trees, allees, woodlots, orchards, and 
perennial gardens. (See Figure 6.) 




Figure 5. The reconstructed earthworks that form the Grand 
French Battery complex ofYorktown Battlefield are a 
feature of topography. Colonial National hlistoricai Park. 
(NFS. n.d.) 



Buildings and Structures 

Buildings are elements constructed primarily 
for sheltering any form of human activity in a 
landscape. Structures are elements con- 
structed for functional purposes other than 
sheltering human activity in a landscape. 
Engineering systems are also structures. 
Mechanical engineering systems may be 
distinguished from structural engineering 
systems as follows: 

• Mechanical engineering systems conduct 
utilities within the landscape, such as power 
lines, hydrants, and culverts. 

• Structural engineering systems provide physical 
stabilization in the landscape, such as retaining 
walls, dikes, and foundations. 







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Figure 6. Vegeta^on includes specimen plant features, such 
as the nineteenth cenUiry Saucer Magnolia in the back- 
ground, and aggregations of plants, such as the Boxwood 
hedge outlining the pathways, hiampton National Historic 
Site. (NFS, n.d.) 



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Figure 7. Lover's Lane Footbridge is a feature associated with 
the landscape characteristics, buildings and structures, ar^d 
circulation ot the Presidio. Golden Gate National Recreation 
Area. (NFS, 1993) 




Figure 8. Views are a significant landscape characteristic of the 
Blue Fiidge Parkway. This is the view from Flat Top Mountain 
toward Grandfather Mountain. Blue Ridge Parkway. (NPS, c 
1940s) 




Figure 9. Constructed water features, such as this water 
cascade, are a landscape characteristic of the historic designed 
landscape of Meridian Hill Park. Rock Creek Park. (NPS, n.d.) 



Examples of features associated with buildings 
include houses, barns, stables, schools, and 
factories. Examples of features associated with 
structures include bridges, windmills, gazebos, 
silos, and dams. (See Figure 7.) 

Views and Vistas 

Views and vistas are the prospect created by a 
range of vision in a landscape, conferred by the 
composition of other landscape characteristics 
and associated features. (See Figure 8.) Views and 
vistas are distinguished as follows: 

• Views are the expansive or panoramic pros- 
pect of a broad range of vision, which may be 
naturally occurring or deliberately contrived. 

• Vistas are the controlled prospect of a discrete, 
linear range of vision, which is deliberately 
contrived. 

Constructed Water Features 

Constructed water features are the built features 
and elements that use water for aesthetic or 
utilitarian functions in a landscape, Examples of 
features associated with constructed water 
features include fountains, canals, cascades, pools, 
and resen/oirs. (See Figure 9.) 

Small-Scale Features 

Snnall-scale features are the elements providing 
detail and diversity for both functional needs and 
aesthetic concerns in a landscape. Exannples of 
small-scale features include fences, benches, 
monuments, signs, and road markers. (See 
Figure 10.) 



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Archeological Sites 

Archeological sites are the ruins, traces, or 
deposited artifacts in a landscape, evidenced by 
the presence of either surface or subsurface 
features. Examples of features associated with 
archeological resources include road traces, 
structural ruins, irrigation system ruins, and 
reforested fields. 



Use of Undscape Characteristics 
IN Cultural Landscape Reports 

Landscape characteristics are a useful framework 
for preparing CLR5 because they provide a 
system for: I ) gathering, organizing, and under- 
standing information about the site histor/ and 
existing conditions of a cultural landscape, and 2) 
documenting the changing appearance of a 
landscape overtime. Landscape characteristics 
can be used in all sections of a CLR, including the 
following: 

• Site History 

• Existing Conditions 

• Analysis and Evaluation 

• Treatment 

• Record of Treatnnent 

The organization of landscape characteristics 
throughout the sections of a CLR should be 
considered. A hierarchical or nested arrange- 
ment may be useful for organizing and empha- 
sizing the interrelationships of landscape charac- 
teristics. The manner in which they are pre- 
sented in a CLR may not be the order in which 
landscape characteristics are recognized and 




Figure 1 0. The gatepost of the Presidio Boulevard Gate is 
small-scale feature of the Presidio laridscape. Colder^ Gate 
National Recreatior) Area. (MPS, 1993) 



identified in the field. For example, it may be 
necessary to identify which landscape character- 
istics give structure to spatial organization, such 
as vegetation and topography, before spatial 
organization can be recognized and identified as 
a landscape characteristic. 

Site History 

The site history describes the landscape through 
every relevant historic period until the present. 
Landscape characteristics are used as a system for 
organizing the documentation describing the 
chronological development of the landscape and 
recording the physical changes, events, and 
persons integral to the evolution. The appearance 



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of landscape characteristics over time is commu- 
nicated graplnicaiiy in a CLK through a series of 
period plans, in a narrative format, and in histori- 
cal photographs and other documents. 

Existing Conditions 

The existing conditions identify and describe the 
landscape characteristics that define the existing 
appearance and character of a landscape. Land- 
scape characteristics are identified and docu- 
mented during field surveys and through the use 
of site investigation techniques, such as tree 
coring, archeology, and aerial photograph analy- 
sis. Landscape characteristics are geographically 
located and their physical condition is assessed. 
Existing landscape characteristics are graphically 
documented in an existing conditions plan and in 
the narrative text of a CLR. Landscape character- 
istics are also documented in black and white 
photographs and color slides. 

Analysis and Evaluation 

The analysis and evaluation-compares the findings 
of the site history v^ith the existing conditions to 
identify the landscape characteristics that retain ' 
integrity and contribute to the significance of a 
landscape. (Landscape characteristics that have 
existed since an established historic period are 
determined to retain integrity.) If not already 
determined, the analysis and evaluation section 
states the significance of the landscape (according 
to National Register criteria A-D), and the historic 
period(s) of significance. 



Treatment 

Treatment prescribes how the landscape should be 
treated and managed, based on its significance, 
existing conditions, and use. Although the treatment 
of cultural landscapes is directed by policy, guidelines, 
and standards, knowledge of landscape characteris- 
tics as they existed overtime influences the selection 
of a primary treatment and development of a treat- 
ment plan for the entire landscape. The extent of 
written evidence of the historic appearance of land- 
scape characteristics is considered during treatment 
planning, and the physical condition of characteristics 
influences specific treatment. Atreatment plan may 
be described in a CLK using narrative guidelines, a 
schematic drawing, or a detailed plan. 

Record of Treatment 

The record of treatment is an appendix or adden- 
dum to a CLR that describes treatment activities 
in the landscape as implemented. Landscape 
characteristics may be used to organize the 
continued documentation of a landscape during 
the physical changes involved in implementing the 
treatment plan. A record of how treatment 
activities affected landscape characteristics is 
presented in a narrative description of construc- 
tion work, "as-built" construction drawings, and 
photographs. These records become primary 
sources of the continued evolution of landscape 
characteristics and add to the archived historic 
records of a landscape. 

In each section of a CLR, landscape characteristics 
provide a valuable framework for understanding 
and organizing the chronological development of 
a landscape, describing the existing conditions. 



12 



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and outlining a treatment plan. Each landscape 
characteristic represents a broad category of 
processes or physical fornns that interrelate and 
can be used to illustrate patterns through time. 



References 

Curry, George, W., Regina Bellavia, and David 
Uschold. Unpublished report, 1993. Landscape 
Features: Character-defining Features for the 
Documentation of Cultural Landscapes. Available 
from George Curry, Faculty of Landscape Archi- 
tecture, State University of New York, College of 
Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, 
New York. 

Other useful references from the SUNY Syracuse, 
landscape architecture program, using the same 
classification system of landscape features. 

Bellavia, Regina, M. 1994. Cu/tura/ Land- 
scape Report: Sagamore Hill National 
Historic Site, Oyster Bay, New Yorl<. Massa- 
chusetts: USDI, NFS, North Atlantic Re- 
gional Office. 

Uschold, David, L 1994. Cultural Land- 
scape Report: Martin Van Buren National 
Historic Site, Kinderhook, New York. 
Massachusetts: USDI, NFS, North Atlantic 
Regional Off[ce. 

Birnbaum, Charles, A. 1 994. Preservation Brief 
36: Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, 
Treatment and Management of Historic Land- 
scapes Washington, DC: USDI, NFS, Presenta- 
tion Assistance Division. 



, Charles A., with Christine Capeila 



Peters, eds. 1996. The Secretary of the Interior's 
Standards for the Treatment of Historic Proper- 
ties with Guidelines for the Treatment of Cuf 
tural Landscapes.\N^%h\r^^or\, DC: USDI, NFS, 
Heritage Preservation Services. 

Keller, TimothyJ., and Genevieve Keller 1987. 
National Register Bulletin 18: How to Evaluate 
and Nominate Designed Historic Landscapes. 
Washington, DC: USDI, NFS. 

Keller, TimothyJ., Genevieve Keller, Linda Flint 
McClelland, and Robert Z. Melnick. 1990. 
National Register Bulletin 30: Guidelines for 
Evaluating and Documenting Rural Historic 
Landscapes Washington, DC: USDI, NFS. 

Melnick, Robert, Z. March 1 980. Preserving 
Cultural Landscapes: Developing Standards. 
CRN Bulletin, yo\. 3, r^oA. 

Melnick, Robert, Z., Daniel Sponn, and Emma 
Jane Saxe. 1984. Cultural Landscapes: Rural 
Historic Districts in the National Park System. 
Washington, DC: USDI, NPS. 

Page, Robert R. 1998. Cultural Landscapes 
Inventory (CLI) Professional Procedures Guide. 
Washington, DC: USDI, NPS, Park Cultural 
Landscapes Program. 

National Park Service. 1997. Cultural Resource 
Management Guideline, no. 5. Washington, DC: 
USDI, NPS. 



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National Park Service. \^^\. National Register National Park Service. 1995. Ttie Secretary of 

Bulletin I6A: How to Complete the National the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of 

Register Registration Form. Washington, DC: Historic Properties. Washington, DC: USDI, 

USDI, NPS, Interagency Resources Division. NPS, Preservation Assistance Division. 



14 LANDSCAPELIN 



The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. 




U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 

Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 



Historic Plant Material Sources 



i<V INTRODUQTION^ 



/ / / 



In a cultural landscape, a common landscape characteristic is the 
' vegetation that'is either associated with the historical development of 
the landscape or resulted from cultural activities on the land. Vegeta- 
tion that can bejinked to an established penod of significance and 
that has remained relatively unchanged over time adds to the overall 
significance of the landscape The features associated v\/ith vegetation 
include individual plants and aggregations of plants and plant com- 
munities (See Figure 1 ) 



Identifying, documenting, and analyzing vegetation is a prerequisite to 
prepanng a Cultural Landscape Report (CLR) Knowledge of the 
vegetation allows a site history to be developed, the existing conditions 
of a landscape to be understood, and a treatment plan to be devel- 
oped Plants are identified through a site survey or plant inventory and 
histonc photographs of plants in the landscape. (See Figure 2 ) Archeo- 
logical techniques, such as pollen, phytolith, and macroflora analyses, 
may be used to identify nonexistent plants that were integral to cultural 
activities in the landscape Plant identification data may already be 
available as, a result of a plant, inventory conducted prior to a CLR. 
jriistorical research on cultivated plants may be. necessary. to accurately, 
identify and date.a particular plant. For example, a historic nursery . 
catalog may contain a description of aplant variety or cultivar and a 
date of introduction into cultivation. In other cases it may be necessary 
to use.horticulture.or botany experts to identify, particular plants. 



To determine the significance of vegetation to the history of a land- 
scape, othersite investigation techniques can be used. Tree coring is a 
technique used to identify the age of trees to determine whether they 
date from a historic period. Historical and contemporary field and 
aerial photographs may be analyzed to understand how vegetation has 




Figure I. This Ginko tree was planted in the early nineteenth century and is an individual plant feature. Vanderbik Mansion National 
Historic Site. (NFS, 1995) 



changed. Existing conditions investigation data is 
integrated with historical research data to thor- 
oughly understand the significance and integrity of 
the vegetation in a landscape, 

Intrinsic to the dynamic quality of cultural landscapes 
is the concept that plants which once existed have 
died and those that still remain will eventually die. 
Therefore, in selecting a landscape treatnnent or 
describing treatment guidelines in a CLR, it is 
important to consider the replacement of significant 
plant material, including the method of replacement 
and plant availability. The following section addresses 
in-kind replacement of historic plant material and 
highlights sources of both historic plant material and 
historic plant expertise. 



iN-KiND Replacements of 
Historic Plants 

Depending on a plant's significance in a cultural 
landscape, it may be replaced with the following: 

• Exact genetic clone of the original. This is 
appropriate for rare plant varieties having a 
significant association with an individual or 
event, (See Figures 3 and 4.) 

• Exact taxonomic replacement. This is appropri- 
ate for plants with a significant cultural use or 
function in a landscape. 

• Comparable substitute for the plant's form and 
character. This is appropriate to address known 
diseases or environmental changes in a land- 
scape. (See Figure 5.) 



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Figure 2. Plant identificaJJon is a prerequisite to an analysis and 
evaluation of vegetation for a CLR and can be performed 
during a plant inventory. Longfellow National Historic Site. 
(NFS, 1993) 



In-kind replacements of historic plants vary in 
availability within the nursery trade, from relatively 
common to rare. Availability depends in part on 
the particular species of plant being replaced; that 
is, whether the desired replacement is a straight 
species or a lower taxon, such as a cultivar (a 
cultivated variety or a naturally occurring variety). 
Straight species are identified only by a generic and 
specific binomial Latin name, whereas man-made 
cultivars are typically identified by the genus or 
species name followed by an English name in single 
quotation marks. Naturally occurring varieties are 
identified by the species name followed by a Latin 
name with no quotation marks. 




Figure 3. These histonc apple trees are associated v/ith Presidents 
John Adams and John Quincy Adams. Therefore, in-kind, genetic 
replacement of these old varieties is an appropriate treatment 
Adams National Historic Site. (NFS, 1 995) 




Figure 4. Apple fruit from old varieties of apple trees. 
Minuteman National Historic Site. (NFS, 1 994) 



Cultivars 

Many cultivated varieties of plants created histori- 
cally by plant breeders have been rendered extinct 
either through hybridization (to create "improved" 
cultivars), or lack of perpetuation through vegeta- 
tive propagation. Some cultivated plant varieties are 
highly ephemeral, existing in the nursery trade for 
several years or a decade and then being 



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figure 5. Due to the devastating effects of Dutch Bm Disease, the American Elm is often not replaced in-kind, but instead vv/th a 
disease resistant cukivar, such as Princeton, or Liberty Bell. The young tree in the foreground is a Libert/ Elm cultivar, which replaces a 
missing American Bm. A mature straight species American Elm can be seen to the left in the background. Longfellow National Historic 
Site. (NPS, 1989) 



superseded by another cultivar. Cultivars have 
come and gone like fashionable styles throughout 
the last several centuries of intensive ornamental 
plant breeding and nursery production. To sonne 
extent, the first plant species to be introduced into 
the United States or collected for cultivation have 
had the most cultivars created overtime. Particu- 
larly popular and common genera or species of 
garden plants are most likely to have been "im- 
proved" horticulturally overtime, and many 
cultivars have been created from them. 

Cultivars are typically variants on the species of 
flower and fruit characteristics, plant size, form, and 
disease resistance. Many cultivars no longer exist, 



while others are only found in cultivation in a few 
historic gardens. Some historic ornamental plant 
cultivars and species can be found in botanical 
gardens and cultural landscapes, while others are 
preserved as germplasm in seed banks. Of great 
concern to ecologists and plant experts is the 
reduction in plant genetic diversity that results from 
the extinction of cultivars, varieties, and species. 
Genetic diversity is viewed favorably in the health of 
ecosystems, promoting stability and the ability to 
resist natural and cultural disturbance. In edible plant 
breeding, thousands of varieties have been lost 
during the twentieth century in the standardization of 
crop plants, particularly for their suitabilit/ to mecha- 
nized production and for increased crop yield. 



Straight Species 

Straight species of plants (nonhybridized plants) 
may be among the more difficult to find commer- 
cially. This is due to the emphasis on plant breed- 
ing in commercial horticulture to improve the 
visual characteristics of ornamental plants for sale. 
A nonhybridized American Ash (Fraxinus 
americana), for example, may not be available 
from tree nurseries, though numerous cultivars of 
the species can be found. 

Depending on the relative cultural value or impor- 
tance of a plant and its significance in a cultural 
landscape, the in-kind replacement of a particular 
straight species of plant may or may not be impor- 
tant. For straight species of plants that are native to 
the United States, native plant nurseries may be 
the best source. For rare and endangered native 
species, the Center for Plant Consen^/ation (CPC) 
is a potential source of plant propagules, The CPC 
is a consortium of 25 United States botanical 
gardens and arboreta, which conserve listed rare 
and endangered native plant species. The CPC at 
Missouri Botanical Garden can be contacted at the 
following address; 

Center for Plant Conservation 
Missouri Botanical Garden 

P.O. Box 299 

St. Louis, MO 63 1 66 

343-577-9450 



Plant Sources and Plant 
Expertise 

The following list gives sources of both historic 
plant material and historic plant expertise. Scott 
Kunst, a landscape historian, is an expert on 
historic ornamental plant materials. Kunst has 
compiled a comprehensive list of commercial 
sources for historic ornamental plants throughout 
the United States. To obtain the complete Source 
Listfor Historic Seeds and Plants, contact Scott 
Kunst at: 

Old House Gardens 

536 Third Street 

Ann Arbor, Ml 48 1 03-4957 

313-995-1486 

The following is an abbreviated list of commercial 
sources of historic plant material that Kunst 
recommends. (The focus of the list is on garden 
ornamentals and not on plants used in kitchen 
gardens, orchards, or agriculture.) 

Flower and Herb Exchange 

3076 Nori:h Winn 
Decorah, IA52I0I 
319-382-5990 

Old Sturbridge Village 

I Sturbridge Village Road 
Sturbridge, MA 01 566 
508-347-3362 



Perennial Pleasures 

2 Brickhouse Road 
E.Hardwick,Vr 05836 
802-472-5104 



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Select Seeds 

1 80 Stickney Road 
Union, CT 06076 
203-684-9310 

Thomas Jefferson Center for 
Historic Plants — l^onticello 

P.O. Box 3 1 6 
Charlottesville, VA 22902 
804-984-9816 

If a particularly important or culturally valuable 
historic plant species or cultivar is difficult to 
identify, the services of a historic plant expert 
may be necessary. Historic plant experts exist 
v^tthin horticultural and historical societies, 
botanical gardens and arboreta, research 
institutions, herbaria, commercial horticulture, 
and the cultural landscape preservation field. In 
the National Park Semce (NPS), the Olmsted 
Center for Landscape Preservation may have 
the botanical or horticultural expertise to 
identify historic ornamental plant species and 
cultivars. For more information, contact: 

Olmsted Center for 
Landscape Preservation 

99 Warren Street 
Brookline, MA02I46 
617-566-1689 

Straight species of historic plants may be the easiest 
to identify, while the most hybhdized plants (in 
which the species lineage is so complex that the 
cultivar name is given immediately following the 
genus name) may be the most difficult. However, in 



some cases old cultivars can be identified using 
"origination lists" and "cumulative checklists." These 
lists deschbe the names, appearances, and com- 
nnercial dates of old cultivars, and they typically 
contain all known cultivars of a plant species along 
with dates of introduction (or registration) and brief 
descriptions. 

To replace a plant with a particular cultivar, it may 
be necessary to search specialized nurseries, 
collectors, botanical gardens, and other cultural 
landscapes. It is advisable to examine nursery 
plants to determine whether the historic cultivar is 
what the label claims it to be. Some cultivars have 
been inadvertently substituted overtime and 
others are simply misidentified. A bibliography of 
origination lists and cumulative checklists of 
ornamental plants is included at the end of the 
text. The reference section is largely derived from 
an article by Scoti: Kunst and Arthur Tucker that 
appeared in the APT Bulletin, vol. xxi, no. 2, in 
" 1 989: Where Have All the Flowers Gone?" 

The Sourcebook of Cultivar Names, an ex- 
panded list of cultivars and pertinent informa- 
tion, has been compiled by Scott Kunst. The 
Sourcebook can be obtained through Arnoldia 
of the Arnold Arboretum, at the following 
address: 

Arnoldia 

Arnold Arboretum 

1 25 Arborway 
Jamaica Plain, MA 02 1 30 
617-524-1718 



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The following is a list of sources of further exper- 
tise and information on historical plants: 

Alliance for Historic 
Landscape Preservation 

82 Wall Street, # 1105 
NewYork, NY 10005 

American Association of 
Botanical Gardens and Arboreta 

786 Church Road 
Wayne, PA 19087 
610-688-1120 

American Daffodil Society 
Mary Lou Gripshover 

1 686 Grey Fox 
Milford, OH45I50 

Garden Conservancy 

P.O. Box 21 9 

Cold Spring, NY 10516 

914-265-2029 

Heritage Rose Group 
l^iriam Wilkins 

925 Galvin Drive 
El Cerrito.CA 94530 
510-526-6960 

Historic Iris Preservation Society 
Ada Godfrey 

9 Bradford Street 
Foxborough, MA 02035 
508-543-271 I 



National Council for the Conservation of 

Plants and Gardens 

The Pines — Wisley Garden 

Woking, Surrey, GU23 6QB 
United Kingdom 
44-0483-21 1-465 

New England Garden Society 

300 Massachusetts Avenue 
Boston, MA 02 1 55 
617-536-9280 

Southern Garden History Society 

Drawer F, Salem Station 
Winston-Salem, NC 27 1 08 

Wakefield and North of 
England Tulip Society 

70 Wrethorpe Lane 
Wrethorpe, Wakefield 
West Yorkshire, WF2 OPT 
United Kingdom 



Historic Plant References 
(Origination Lists and 
Cumulative Checkusts) 

American Daffodil Society. Daffodil Data Bank. 
Unpublished list available from Ms. Leslie Ander- 
son, A.D.S., Route 3, 2302 Byhalia Rd., 
Hernado, MS 38632. 

American FHemerocallis Society. Hemerocallis 
Checklist, 1893 to July I, 1957. A.M.S., Mrs. 
Geneva Archer, 1 522 Nevada Street, Houston, 
TX 77006. 



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Australian Geranium Society. Checklist and 
Register of Pelargonium Cultivar Names. Mrs. P. 
Sladek, Publication Sales Officer, 76 Jocelyn 
Street, Chester Hill, NSW, 2 1 62 Australia. 

Bardorf, Lynn R. 1 987. Boxwood Bulletinie: 76-8 1 . 



Eisenbeiss, G.K. 1973. International Checklist of 
Cultivated Ilex, Part I, llexopaca. Contribution 
No. 3. New York: National Arboretunn. 

Elliston Allen, David. 1969. The Victorian Fern 
Craze. London: Hutchinson & Co. 



Beales, P. 1985. Classic Roses. New York: Holy, 
Kinehart and Winston. 



Ewart, R. 1982. The Fuchsia Lexicon. Heyj^ovk: 
Van Nostrand Reinhold. 



Boullemier, L.B. 1985./ Check List of Species, 
Hybrids and Cultivars of the Genus Fuchsia. 
England: Poole, Blandford. 

Conard, H.S. 1 905. 77?^ Waterlilies. Washington, 
DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Coombs, R.E. 1981. Violets. Kent, England: 
Croom Helm. 

Cumming, R. 1964. The Chrysanthemum Book. 
New York: Van Nostrand. 

Delano McKelvey, S. 1928. 777e /.fc. New York: 
Macmillan. 

Den Ouden, P,, and B.K. Boom. 1 978. Manual of 
Cultivated Conifers Hardy in the Cold- and 
Warm- Temperature Zone. Netherlands: 
Martinus Nijhoff. 



Fairchild, Lee. 1953. A Complete Book of the 
Gladiolus. New York: Farrar, Straus and Young. 

Fenderson, G.K. 1 986. A Synoptic Guide to the 
Genus Primula. Lawrence, KS: Allen Press. 

Galle, F.C. 1987. Azaleas. Portland, OR: Timber 
Press. 

Gelderen, D.M., andJ.R.P. van Hoey Smith. 
1 986. Conifers. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 

Genders, R. 1959. Primroses. New York: St. 
Martins Press. 

Goudey, C.J. 1985. Maidenhair Ferns in Cultiva- 
tion. Portland, OR: Lothian Publishing Co. 

Griffiths, T. 1983, The Book of Old Roses. 
London: Michael Joseph. 



Dobson, B.R. Combined Rose List. Updated 
yearly. Beverly R. Dobson, 2 1 5 Harriman road, 
Irvington, NY 10533. 

Durrant, Tom. 1 982. The Camellia Story. New 
York: Heinemann. 



. 1987. The Book of Classic Old 



Roses NewYork: Viking Penguin. 

Haring, P.A. 1 986. Modern Roses 9. Shreveport, 
l_A: American Rose Society. 



LANDSCAPE 



LINES 



Harrison, C.R. 1975. Ornamental Conifers. H^\n 
York: Hafner Press. 

Hecker, W.R. 1 97 1 . Auriculas and Primroses. 
London: B.T. Batsford. 

Heieck, Ingobert. 1980. Hedera Sorten. Heidel- 
berg, Germany: Gartneri der Abtei. 

Holly Society of America. 1953. Bulletin No. 6, 
The Preliminary Holly Check List Holly Society 
of America. 

Holly Society of America. 1983. llexCultivar 
Registration List, 1958-1983. Holly Society of 
America. 



Krussmann, Gerd. 1984. Manual of Cultivated 
Broadleaved Trees and Shrubs 3 vols. Portland, 
OR: Timber Press. 

. 1985. Manual of Cultivated Conifers. 



Portland, OR: Timber Press. 

Leach, D.G. 1 96 1 . Rhododendrons of the World 
and How to Crow Them. New York: Charles 
Schribner's Sons. 

Lee, P.P. 1965. The Azalea BookM^^N^ovV:. 
Van Nostrand. 

Mastalerz, J.W. 1971. Ge/'a/7/i//??5. University 
Park, PA: Pennsylvania Flower Growers. 



Hu, Shiu-ying. ?\\'\-^<\&\^\\w%. Journal of the 
Arnold Arboretum, 1954-1956 35: 275-333; 36: 
52- 1 09, 325-368; 37: 15-90. 



North American Gladiolus Council. 1975. Gladi- 
olus Variety Percentages. Vincent A. Sattler, 49 1 9 
Angola Road, Toledo, OH 436 i 5. 



Jefferson, R.M. 1970. History, Progeny and 
Locations ofCrabapples of Documented Authen- 
tic Origin. Contribution No. 2. New York: 
National Arboretum. 

Jefferson, R.M., and Kay Kazue Wain. 1982. The 
Nomenclature of Cultivated Japanese Flowering 
Cherries(PRUNUS): TheSato-zakura Group. Contri- 
bution No. 5. New York: National Arboretum. 

Kessenich, G.M. 1976. Peonies: History of the 
Peonies and Their Origination. American Peony 
Society. 

Krauss, H.K. 1955. Geraniums for Home and 
Garden. New York: Macmillan. 



Peckham, S. 1 939. Alphabetical Iris Checklist 
Baltimore: American Iris Society. 

R.H.S. Enterprises Ltd. 1969. Tentative Classified 
List and International Register of Dahlia Names 
England: R.H.S. Garden, Wisley, V/oking, Surrey 
GU23 6QB. 

R.H.S. 1982. The International Lily Register 
1982. England: R.H.S. Garden, Wisley, Woking, 
Surrey GU23 6QB. 

. 1983. The International Dianthus 



Register 2nd ed. England: R.H.S. Garden, 
Wisley, Woking, Surrey GU23 6QB. 



H I 



O R I 



ANT 



OUR 



985. Handbookon Orchid Nomen- 



clature. 3rd ed. England: R.H.S. Garden, Wisley, 
Woking, Surrey GU23 6QB5. 

. \3^3. Sanders Orchid Addenda 



i96i-i985. England; R.H.S. Garden, Wisley, 
Woking, Surrey GU23 6QB. 

. 1986. The internationai Dianthus 



Register First to Third Supplements (1 984- 1 986). 
England: R.H.S. Garden, Wisley, Woking, Surrey 
GU23 6QB. 

Rogers, M.O. Tentative Internationai Register of 
Cuitivar Names of the Genus Syringa. The 
International Lilac Society. 



Stout, A.B. 1 986. Da/lilies Reprint of 1 934 
edition. Millwood, NY: Sagapress. 

Smith G.F, B. Burrow, and D.B. Lowe. 1 984. 
Primulas of Europe and America.^wrciwi'^djm, 
England: Alpine Garden Society. 

Smith, W.W., G. Forrest, and H.R. Fletcher. 
1 977. The Genus Primula. Vadu, Liechtenstein: J. 
Cramer. 

Swartley,J.C. 1984, The Cultivated l-lemlocks. 
Portland, OR: Timber Press. 

Tucker, A.O., and KarelJ.W. Hensen, 1985. 
BaiJeyall: 168-177. 



Royal General Bulbgrowers' Association. Classi- 
fied List and International Register of Hyacinths 
and Other Bulbous and Tuberous-rooted Plants. 
Koninklijke Algemeene Vereeniging voor Bloem- 
bollencultuur, Parklaan 5, Hillegom, Holland. 



Welch, H. 1978. Manual of Dwarf Conifers. 
Rhode Island: Little Compton, Theophrastus. 

Wennyss-Cooke, jack. Primulas Old and New. 
North Pomfret, Vermont: David and Charles. 



Royal General Bulbgrowers Association, 1 98 1 . 
Classified List and International Register of Tulip 
Names Koninklijke Algemeene Vereeniging voor 
Bloembollencultuur. 

Salley, H., and H. G\-eQv. 1986. Rhododendron 
Hybrids: A Guide to their Origins. Portland, OR: 
Timber Press. 

Schaepman, Henri K.E. Preliminary Checklist of 
Cultivated Hedera. Part I. ■juvenile Varieties and 
Cultivars of Hedera Helix. The American Ivy 
Society. 



Wister, j.C 1962. 777e/^eo/7/e5. Washington, 
DC; American Horticultural Society. 

Wyman, D. 1974. Shrubs and Vines for American 
Gardens. New York: Macmillan. 



Plant Identification References 

Bailey, Liber/ Hyde. 1 976. Hortus Third: A Concise 
Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States 
and Canada. New York: Macmillan. 



10 



I N 



Bean, William Jackson. 1970. Trees and Shrubs 
Hardy in the British Isles. 8th ed., fully revised. 
London; J. Murray. 

Dirr, Michael A. 1990. f^anual of Woody Land- 
scape Plants: Their Identification, Ornamental 
Characteristics, Culture, Propagation and Uses. 
4th ed. Illinois; Stipes Publishing. 

Phillips, Roger. 1978. Trees in Britain, Europe 
and North America. London: Ward Lock. 

Wyman, Donald. 1974. Shrubs and Vines for 
American Gardens. New York: Macmillan. 



Olmsted Center for Landscape Presentation. 
1 997. A Guide to Inventorying Plants at Historic 
Properties Massachusetts. Available in January 
1 997 from the Olmsted Center: 99 Warren 
Street, Brookline, MA 02 1 46, 6 1 7-566- 1 689. 

Tankard, Judith, K. q6. Journal of the New England 
Garden History Society. ISSN 1 053 26 i 7. A 
benefit of membership of the New England 
Garden History Society of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, published annually. Membership 
and purchase address; Librarian, Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, 300 Massachusetts Avenue, 
Boston, MA 02 1 1 5. 6 1 7-536- 9280. 



Other Useful References 

Available from The Historical Gardener, i 9 1 N. 
35th Place, MT. Vernon, WA 98273-898 i , 206- 
424-3 1 54. 

McClelland, Kathleen, ed. The Historical Gar- 
dener: Plants and Practices of the Past ISS N 
1067-5973. Quarterly newsletter, includes 
sources of historic plant seed and nursery stock. 



Whealy, Kent, ed. The Garden Seed Inventory. 
Iowa: Seed Savers Exchange, Kent Whealy 
Director, P.O. Box 70, Decorah, Iowa, 52 1 1 , 
1 985. An inventory of all nonhybrid edible plant 
seed and sources in the United States between 
1 982 and 1984. 



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R. I 



U R 



II 



The mission ofthe Department ofthe Interior isto protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultur;al heritage and honor ourtrust responsibilities to tribes. 




U,S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 

Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 



Graphic Documentation 



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5 ^i' 



IntroductIBnV; 






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3hotography/and videography are technique^ for 



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nnique's ft 
&^ " * graphicallf documenting^culturai, landscapes 'Line drawings, such as 
^/ I'j^ iTieasured plans,' s'ections, and e!evati3as, ancl black apd whrte photo- 
graphs are 'the l^^pes of graphics used rn a Cultural Landscape Report 
(CLR) to accurately record tlie appearance of -a landscape at a particu- 
lar time Other graphics, such as diagrams, sketches, perspectives 
maps and charts — reproduced from contemporary or historic materi- 
als — may also be used in a CLR Additional forms of graphic docu- 
mentation, such as color slides and video, are also valuable tools for 
recording the landscape and may be used to supplement other 
documentation 



Throughout a CLR, different formats and vanous scales of graphics 
are used to supplement narrative descnptions and documentation of 
the landscape In the site history, penod plans are used to illustrate 
landscape change through every relevant historic penod (See Figure 
I ) These graphics are created by analyzing histonc matenals or 
reproduced from existing histoncal documents In the existing 
conditions, an existing conditions plan is generated based on site 
research and investigations This drav^ing in addition to photo 
graphs, provides a contemporary record of a landscape's appear- 
ance and 'the.condition. of landscape characteristics and associated 
features. In the analysis and evaluation, elevations, plans,. and sche- 
. matic diagrams are used to show the relationship between historical 
research and the findings of existing conditions investigations. In the 
treatment section, a diagram, schematic, or detailed treatment plan 
illustrates a proposed treatment as it relates to a whole site, charac- 
ter areas, or management zones. 





1919 



1948 




1963 



Inner Cote 




Old Orchard Estate 
Woodlands 




1993 



Figure I . Diagrams are useful for quickly cor)veying certair) types ofinformaUon. These serial diagrams corwey chariges in spatial 
orgariizatiof) from 1919 through 1 993. Sagamore Hili NationolHistoric Site. (NPS, 1993) 



LANDSCAPE 



LINES 



Line Drawing Documentation 

Line drawings, particularly measured plan draw- 
ings, are a prinnary graphic technique used to 
accurate!/ record the appearance of a landscape at 
a particular time. Line drawings may be hand- 
drawn or computer-generated, and in all cases 
must be accurate, clear, consistent in style, repro- 
ducible, and durable. 

Accuracy 

The purpose of line drawings is to objectively 
record in a durable medium the appearance of a 
landscape, and the landscape characteristics and 
associated features. It is important that line draw- 
ings accurately depict cultural landscapes because 
each graphic will become a historical record and a 
primary source of information. Accuracy is not, 
however, absolute; some inaccuracy results from 
graphically representing three-dimensional spaces. 
Although line drawings should be as accurate as 
' possible, their accuracy is influenced by the 
following: 

• management objectives for the CLR 

• level of investigation required by the project 
agreement 

• proposed treatment of the landscape 

• accuracy of available site data, field surveys, and 
other sources used to prepare the line drawings 

Depending on management objectives, park and 
technical staff should define the acceptable degree 
of accuracy in line drawings in the project agree- 
ment for a CLR. 



Clarity 

The clarity of a graphic refers to its legibility; 
that is, how easy it is to see the information 
presented in the graphic. All plans representing 
an entire landscape should have the same scale 
and use the same base map or base plan layer 
for clarity. (See Figure 2.) For example, a 
period plan and an existing conditions plan 
drawing should be generated from the same 
base plan and at the same scale to allow direct 
comparison. If a plan represents only an area 
of a landscape (such as landscape character 
areas or management zones), it should be 
clearly referenced to a base map of the entire 
landscape to indicate its specific location. A 
diagram key may appear on the drawing to 
indicate the location of the area represented 
by the larger plan. 

Plans belonging to a series should have the 
same sheet size, title block, orientation, and 
scale. To determine the sheet size for a plan, 
consider the following: 

• management objectives for the CLR 

• the size and character of the landscape 

• the final page size of the plan reproduced in 
the formatted CLR 

For documentation and analysis purposes, a 
landscape may need to be represented at 
multiple scales. The following table suggests 
scales for various uses. 



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figure 2. Th/s /926 period plan is one of a set of five. The plan has clarity and consistency with the other plans so direct 
comparisons can be made. Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site. (NPS, 1 993) 



Current National Park Service (NPS) policy 
regarding tlie use of metric or English scales is 
given by Preparation of Design and Construction 
Drawings, NPS- 10. It requires only that metric 
and English scale conversions are indicated on a 
cover sheet to a set of drawings. Either .metric or 
English scales can be used for individual drawings, 
but only one scale convention should be used 
throughout a CLK. 



SCALES 


USE 


l" = 200' 


Landscape plans depicting an 




entire landscape 


l" = 400', 


Large landscapes 


l" = 500',or 




l"= 1,000' 




Asehesofl"= 200' 


If a landscape is too large to be 


plans with match-lines 


represented on one sheet using 


show connectivity 


a l" = 200' scale 


between plans 




l"= 100' and 


Small landscapes 


l" = 50' 




l" = 20' 


Tree and shaib identification and 




small landscapes (about two acres). 


l"= 10' or 


Planting plans and construction 


1/4"= 1' 


drawings 



Contours should appear on all plans. A contour 
interval that clearly depicts the landscape topogra- 
phy and serves the CLR's management objectives 
should be used. The desired contour inten/al may 
vary in different areas of the landscape, depending 



N D 



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pHiJ<n 



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Figure 3. Loose sketches are useful for quickly recording field observations or conceptual ideas. This perspective sketch ofAlcotraz Island 
conveys a concept plan for the future use of this historic site. Golden Gate National Recreation Area. (Sketch by Lawrence Halprin, NPS, 
1988) 



on the range of topographic relief, the com- 
plexity of landscape characteristics and associ- 
ated features, or specific nnanagement objec- 
tives in different areas. The contour interval 
used on line drawings may be increased or 
decreased in particular areas of the landscape 
as long as the change makes the plan more 
readable or enhances the information. (See 
Landscape Lines 9: Sun/eys) For information 
on contracting computer-generated topo- 
graphic plans from aerial photographs, see the 
section titled "Photogrammetry," later in this 
document. 



Consistency 

Numerous references exist for landscape 
architectural graphic standards, many of which 
are identified in the reference section of this 
text. Preferably, one graphic standard should be 
used throughout a CLR, but it may be necessary 
to use more than one standard where omis- 
sions exist. For example. Preparation of Design 
and Construction Drawings, NPS-iO does not 
have a symbol for a property line. For consis- 
tency and clarity, all symbols should be identified 
in a legend on each drawing. The legend should 
show the symbol and define its meaning. 



U M 



N T A 




1897 




1905-1907 



r^ ^"%. 




1922-1923 




^\l L-^,^ 




y-icrt^^rar 



y' ^j./ / /\j . ./ : .j r vj - / i' 




1981 



Figure 4. These serial axoriometric perspective drawir^gs were useful /n documer)tir)g the evolutior) of the formal gardens from 1 89 7 
through l98I.Vanderbih:Mansior) National Historic Site. (NFS, 1981) 



LANDSCAPE LINES 



The following list of standards and guidelines is 
arranged in descending order of comprehension 
and refinement: 

• The Annerican Institute of Architects' Architec- 
tural Graphic Standards and Guidelines 

• Historic American Building Survey and Historic 
American Engineering Record Standards and 
Guidelines 

• NPS Design and Construction Documents 
Guideline 

• National Register Documentation Guidelines 

• United States Geological Survey, Topographic 
Map Symbols 

For computer aided design (CAD) drawings 
it may be necessary to use graphic standards 
established by an NPS Region or Support 
office. Regardless of the level of refinement, 
acceptable degree of accuracy, or graphic 
conventions used for line drawings, the style 
of each CLR drawing should be consistent. 
The following list gives the information re- 
quired to appear on each plan. Examples are 
given in parenthesis. 

• project title ("Cultural Landscape Report: 
Lower Town, Harper's Ferry National Historic 
Park") 

• project location ("Harper's Ferry National 
Historical Park, West Virginia") 

• drawingtitle ("Period Plan: 1815-1865") 

• NPS drawing number: numbers are used and 
controlled by designated offices, and consist of 
the park code plus a number assigned by a NPS 



Region or Support office (see Drawing and Map 
Numbers Guideline, NPS 29, revised edition) 

• graphic bar scale and statement of scale 

• north arrow oriented towards the top of the 
sheet 

• date of drawing 

• illustrator's name and title 

• legend of symbols 

• sources of information (metadata) used to 
prepare drawing ("Based on CLI field survey, 
3/4/96, not a measured drawing") 

Computer-generated drawings should include all 
the above information. If multiple layers are used 
(such as topography, boundaries, and structures), 
they should be individually classified within the 
drawings. Standards for graphic file formats may 
exist within an NPS Region or Support office, and 
these should be used when naming and saving 
computer-generated graphics files. 

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) may be an 
alternative computer technology to computer 
graphic programs (such as CAD). For many years 
the quality of cartographic output available 
through GIS software could not equal that 
achieved with manual methods or computer 
graphic programs. But this is no longer the case. 
Numerous mapping tools are now available in 
most GIS packages, including desktop systems, 
which offer the added benefit of being easy 
enough to learn and use for novice GIS users. 
(See Landscape Lines 10: Geographic Information 
Systems) 



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Reproducibility 

The preferred media for hand-generated draw- 
ings is waterproof black ink on 3mm or 4mm 
polyester film, such as mylar. Double-sided, 
rather than single-sided film, with texture on both 
sides of the sheet, may be useful for particular 
visual effects, such as shading on the back side. 
Pin-bar registered multiple sheets of film may be 
used to separate layers of information. Film 
sheets can be obtained in the following precut 
sizes: 1 8" x 24", 24" x 36", and 34" x 44-'. 

When deciding what film sheet size to use, 
consider both the final image size of the reduced 
original in the CLR and the preferred scale of 
the plan. An early decision (preferably during the 
project agreement phase) should be made about 
whether 8/2" x I I ", or 1 I " x 1 7" pages of 
reduced drawings will be placed within the body 
of the CLR or whether full-sized drawings will 
be folded into a pocket at the back. The page 
size of graphic images depends on the scale or 
complexity of site information to be conveyed. 
Greater landscape scale and greater complexity 
of information (such as close contour inten/als 
and dense or diverse plantings) limits the extent 
to which an image can be reduced and still be 
legible. Full-size, folded drawings have the 
disadvantage of being bulky at the back of the 
document and the possibility of being lost, but 
have the advantage of being useful for easy 
access and reference alongside the CLR text. 

The printing cost of a CLR with a back pocket for 
folded plans tends to be more expensive than a 
CLR with reduced plans integrated within the body 
of the document. Pages that are M " x ! 7" can be 



folded to create a pull-out page with a larger image 
size than the 8 '//x I T'page. 

A graphic bar scale is required on any plan or 
section drawing so that the scale of the plan can 
be understood regardless of the percent reduc- 
tion. The following guidelines apply to legibility of 
text for reduced plans. 

• For a 34" x 44" original plan to be reduced to 
an SY2 X M " page, the minimum font size on 
the original plan should be no less than 1 8 
point (3/ 1 6" high). 

• For an 1 8" x 24" or 24" x 36" original plan to 
be reduced to a 8/2" x I 1" page, the minimum 
font size on the original plan should be no less 
than 1 4 point (1/8" high). 

• The minimum font size on any reduced plan 
(8 1/2" X 1 i " or M " X 1 7") should be no less than 
9 point. 

Computer drawing programs allow for excellent 
line quality at almost any scale on many types of 
paper (limited by the capability of the printer). 
The preferred paper for computer-generated, 
line drawing originals is acid-free bond paper. The 
legibility of the text needs to be considered when 
reducing computer-generated drawings. Consid- 
eration should be given to preparing two sets of 
computer-generated drawings: one for full-scale 
and one for reduced-scale production. 

Durability 

Waterproof, black ink on polyester film is the 
most durable media for hand-generated draw- 
ings. Other media, such as graphite pencil or ink 



I N 



pen on vellunn, reproduce well, but are less 
durable. All graphic innages used in a CLR — 
whether line drawings, diagrams, or charts — 
should be equally durable. The use of sticky-back 
or adhesive lettering is not recommended on 
hand-generated drawings; these media tend to 
bubble up or flake off overtime. (Where sticky- 
backs are used, photomylars of the originals 
should be created to insure durability of text in 
archival conditions.) Drawing text is most durable 
as ink on film, hand lettered, or traced with a 
Leroy template. 

In processing a camera-ready copy of a CLR, 
the United States Government Printing Office 
(GPO) or printer may photograph each page of 
the document to create proofs from which the 
document will be printed. Ideally, all line 



drawings that are part of a CLR should be 
supplied to the printer as photometallic trans- 
fers or PMTs (a photographic reduction pro- 
cess). PMTs are highly durable and are pro- 
duced on 8 /a" X I I " or I I " X 1 7" size paper. 
Copies of full-size line drawings can be sup- 
plied to the printer as original artwork with 
special instructions, such as location, position, 
and percent reduction. 

Full-size drawings larger than M"x 17", which 
are to be folded into a pocket at the back of the 
document, are direaly photocopied onto acid- 
free bond paper by the printer. Blueprints, 
which are created through the diazo process, 
are not recommended for full-size drawings 
because they become unstable with prolonged 
light exposure. 



SECTION A - A 





SECTrON B - B' 




Figure 5. These section drawings siiow the existing topography, vegetation, circulation, and character of buildings and struaures in 
Lower Town. Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. (NPS, 1991) 



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Angular Ledge Sock Coping Stone - 
Varies 




ILLUSTRATIVE SECTION 

Ocean Drive 

Completed 1934 

PRA-ACAD 4AI0 St^ons 282+33 to 350+00 and 355+00 to 380+10 
1 8' Traveled Way with Curve WidcniPF 



Bitaminous Suifcce Treatment with Series of Overlays Should*^ 

Crown Ifi' per Foot-y^ . 



Waterways Vegetated or 
Uned mth Itabble Masonry 



^ •" — ' — 'Ti^iiii=ii"~as. = "'^^ 

— „ = = am = =m¥ 






Reinforced Concrete Culvert 




air=illf*!TpffT»% 




111^ 



Figure 6. This illustrative section drawir^g of the historic roadbed at Ocean Drive iilustrates a typical construction detail of the road /n 
/ 934, Arcadia National Park. (NPS, 1 993) 



Computer-generated drawings can be archived 
as electronic files on disks, compact disl<s (CDs) 
and tapes. Since the durability of these storage 
media has yet to be established, some archivists 
believe acid-free paper is still the most durable 
medium for storing information. Other archivists 
believe electronic files on disks, CDs, and tapes 
are durable for 1 00 years, under climate-con- 
trolled conditions. 

Upon completing a CLK project, original line 
drav^ings, other graphic materials, including elec- 
tronic files, and film negatives and positives, should 
be submitted to the park for inclusion in park 
archives. (See landscape Lines 14: Preparing, 
Cataloging, Printing, and Distribution.) 



References 

Annotated Graphic 
Documentation References 

Anderson, Richard K. December 1994. (-land- 
bool< for Recording l-listoric Structures and Sites 
forttie l-iistoric American Engineering Record. 
Washington, DC: USDl NPS, Cultural Re- 
sources, Historic American Engineering Record, 
Draft. Pages 77-87 are a good reference for field 
photography. 

Balachowski, Joseph D. December 1993, l-land- 
bool< for Recording Structures with treasured 
Drawings. Washington, DC: USDl NPS, Cul- 
tural [Resources, Historic American Buildings 
Survey and Historic American Engineering 
Record, Draft. Pages 58-63 offer procedural 
guidance on landscape documentation with 
sections on research, measuring and drawing. 



10 



Burns, John A. 1989. Historic American Buildings 
Survey and Historic American Engineering 
Record. Recording Historic Structures. Washing- 
ton, DC: The American Institute of Architects 
Press. Pages 206-2 1 9 include a case study of 
Meridian Hill Park in Washington, DC, to illus- 
trate a section on "Recording Historic Land- 
scapes." 

National Park Service. 1 99 1 . National Register 
Buiietin I6A: i-iow to Compiete tiie National 
Register Registration Form. Washington, DC: 
USD! NPS, Interagency Resources Division. 
Pages 60-67 offer preliminary guidance on 
graphic documentation: geographical and sketch 
maps and photographs. 



Division, Denver Sen/ice Center. The emphasis is 
on architectural construction drawings, small-scale 
construction projects, with landscape documenta- 
tion at the low level of resolution of mapping. 

Ramsey, Charles G. 1994. Ttie American 
institute of Architects' Arciiitecturai Graphic 
Standards. 9th ed. Edited by John Ray Hoke, Jr. 
New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. Pages 749- 
778 make specific reference to Historic Preser- 
vation, and include the section titled, "Preserva- 
tion of Historic Landscapes." Other sections 
relevant to landscape architecture are: Sitework, 
Concrete, Masonr/, Metal, Wood and Plastics, 
and the section on Universal Design in General 
Planning. 



National Park Service. 1980. Drawing and i^ap 
Numbers Guideiine, NPS-29, no. I . Denver: 
USDI NPS, Technical Information Center. This is 
the guideline for assigning NPS numbers to 
drawings and maps. Revised edition in progress 
that incorporates changes due to restructuring. 
For further information call TIC 303-969-2 1 30. 

National Park Service. 1 99 1 . CAD System Manual. 
3rd ed. Washington, DC: USDI NPS, National 
Capital Region, Design Services Division. This is an 
example of a regional CAD Manual, which estab- 
lishes standards for consistent and compatible files 
within a NPS region. The standards apply to 
internal graphic documents as well as those 
created by contractors. 

National Park Service. 1995. Preparation of Design 
and Construction Drawings, NPS- 10, no. 3. 
Revised ed. Denver: USDI NPS, Graphic Systems 



Supplementary Architectural 
Drawing References 

Ambrose, James. 1993. Construction Revisited: 
An Illustrated Guide to the Construction Details 
of the Early 20th Century. New York: John 
Wiley and Sons. 

Callendar, John. 1982. Time-Saver Standards for 
Architectural Design Data. McGraw-Hill. 

Ching, Frank. \9'^S. Architectural Graphics 2nd 
ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 

Cullinane, John J., AIA. 1993. Understanding 
Architectural Drawings: A Guide for Non- 
Architects. Washington, DC: Preservation 
Press. 



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II 



Kliment, Stephen, ed. 1 984. Architectural Sketch- 
ing and Rendering: Techniques for Designers and 
Artists. New Jersey: Whitney Library of Design. 

Lorenz, Albert, and Stanley Salzman. 1 99 1 . 
Drawing in Coior: Rendering Techniques for 
Architects and Illustrators New Jersey; Whitney 
Library of Design. 

Nashed, Fred. 1993. Time-Saving Techniques 
for Architectural Construction Drawings Van 
Nostrand Keinhoid. 

Ramsey, Charles G., and Harold R. Sleeper. 1 99 1 . 
Architectural Graphic Standards for Construction 
Details. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 



Reid, Grant W., ASLA. 1987. Landscape Graphs 
ics New Jersey: Whitney Library of Design. 

Walker, Theodore D., and David Davis. 1990. 
Plan Graphics 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 

Wiggins, Glenn E. 1 989. A Manual of Construc- 
tion Documentation. New Jersey: Whitney- 
Library of Design. 




12 



Photographic Documentation 
AND Analysis 

Contemporary and historical photographs and 
slides are used in preparing a CLR. Photographs 
are graphic documents used to: 

• document a landscape at a particular time 

• analyze and evaluate the chronological devel- 
opment of a landscape 

The technical considerations for using photography 
for the above purposes are described in the 
following text. 

Photographic Documentation 

Photography is a rapid technique for graphically 
documenting a cultural landscape. Black and white 
photographs are used to illustrate the appearance 
of a cultural landscape over time, to update the 
graphic documentation of a landscape, and to 
record treatment activities in the landscape. 

Because photographs can capture fine textures 
and realistic contexts, photographs have an 
advantage over line drawings of conveying an 
experiential understanding of a landscape. How- 
ever, photographs also have the potential to 
portray a landscape with greater subjectivity than 
line drawings. This subjectivity may be exploited 
to convey experiential qualities (such as those 
conferred by diurnal, seasonal, or climatic 
changes), to describe the articulation and quality 
of space (such as complexity, density, or vacancy) 
and to emphasize the current state of condition 
(from well maintained to derelict). Without a clear 
understanding of the pnmary intent of a photo- 



graph, the subjectivity inherent in the process of 
making the photograph may lead to inaccurate, 
misleading, or unrepresentational photographs. 

The Purpose 

The art and science of photography involves 
many variables, including cameras, lenses, filters, 
lighting, film, camera position, and the creativity of 
the photographer. For cultural landscape re- 
search, the purpose of photography is to objec- 
tively record, in a durable medium, the physical 
and visual qualities of a landscape. Photography 
should not try to evoke emotional reaction 
through special effects; this may lead to misinter- 
pretation. 

The value of photographic documentation 
depends largely on how well informed the 
photographer is about the subject and purpose of 
the project. Additionally, photographic documen- 
tation is made more meaningful if the photogra- 
pher keeps an accurate record of subject, loca- 
tion, and vantage points. Photographs used in a 
CLR should have captions and both should be 
included in the park archives. 

Durability 

Black and white photography (small, medium, 
or large format) is the most durable medium 
for photographic documentation in a CLR. 
Color film is less stable photochemically over 
time. Due to the visual limitation of black and 
white images, color slides are often taken to 
supplement the data provided by black and 
white photographs (Kodachrome is the most 
stable color film). Black and white infrared, and 



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color infrared films are very useful for analysis 
and evaluation because these films reveal 
information beyond the surficial appearance of 
landscape characteristics. 

Color image processing has been advanced 
through photo-CD technology to allow color 
slides to be digitally incorporated into desktop 
publishing. Although not definite, color photo- 
graphic images may be more durable as digital 
files on photo-CDs or disks than as color film 
negatives or positives. The color hard copy 
(paper printout) produced by color printers is 
currently not as durable as archival quality black 
and white photographs. 

Archival quality photographic negatives are those 
that have undergone an extended washing 
process to completely remove processing 
chemicals. The addition of Selenium toner to 
the rinse solution allows complete removal of 
processing chemicals. Archival quality prints are 
also printed on fibrous contact paper rather than 
resin-coated paper. Giving negatives and prints 
archival quality increases developing and printing 
costs by about 25 percent. (See "Archiving 
Photographs" later in this section for more 
information on storage.) 

Forms of Photography 

Landscape photography may be broadly divided 
into two categories: aerial and field (terrestrial). 
For both aerial and field photography, the 
orientation of the camera can be perpendicular 
or oblique. 



Perpendicular orientation achieves orthographic 
elevation in field photography and plan shots in 
aerial photography. Perpendicular field photogra- 
phy is used to record structures, objects, and 
landscapes with axial arrangements of spaces or 
formal geometry (for example, bilateral or radial 
symmetry). (See Figure 7.) 

Oblique orientation achieves perspective shots in 
both aerial and field photography. Oblique field 
photography and perpendicular aerial photography 
are most commonly used in the graphic documenta- 
tion of cultural landscapes. (See Figures 8, 9, and 1 0.) 

Small, Medium and Large Format Cameras 

Oblique and perpendicular field photography can 
be performed using small, medium, or large 
format cameras. Generally speaking, small format 
cameras use 35mm wide film, medium format 
cameras use 220-size (6cm x 7cm) or 1 20-size 
(6cm X 6cm, or 2/4" x IVa') film, and large format 
cameras use 4" x 5," 5" x 7," and 8" x 1 0" size 
negatives. The cost of these various sizes of film is 
directly proportional to a unit price of film. A 
single 5" x 7" exposure of film within a large 
format camera is approximately equivalent in 
price to a 36 exposure roll of 35mm film. 

Small format, 35mm cameras are the least 
expensive and most portable cameras to operate. 
They are particulariy useful in capturing multiple 
black and white photographs and color slides of 
cultural landscapes for reference material. Once 
enlarged, 35mm negatives can become grainy, 
and as a consequence may have inadequate 
clarity for use in a publication. 



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Figure 7. A perpendicular field photograph of a curb and retainir)g wall. Blue Ridge Parkway. (NPS, n.d.) 




Figure 8. Ar) oblique field photograph. Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site. (NPS, 1 995) 



GRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION 



15 




Figure 9. A perpendicular aerial photograph. Var)cierbih Mar)sior) Natior)al Historic Site. (Photograph courtesy of Dutchess County 
Offices, 1990) 




Figure 1 0. An oblique aerial photograph. Perry's Viaor/ and International Peace Memorial. (NPS, c. 1 925) 



16 



LANDSCAPE LINES 







Figure 1 1. Large format photograph show'mg Sherrick Farm. Note the high resolution of detail in the photograph. Antietam Notional 
Battlefield (jock Boucher, HABS, NPS, 1992) 



Medium format cameras have greater portability 
and are less expensive to use than large format 
cameras. They also provide a large negative 
(6cm X 7cm) that can be proportionately en- 
larged from a contact print directly to a 8" x 1 0" 
image without cropping. 

Large format cameras record images in much 
greater detail and their photographs are well 
suited for publication because they can be 
enlarged without clarity degradation. (See 
Figures I I and 1 2.) Large format cameras also 
allow for parallax adjustment because the lens 
can be tilted to correct for perspective. On the 
down side, large format cameras are bulky and 
heavy to transport and require considerable 
expertise to operate. In most cases, contracting 




figure 12. Small format photograph ofEbey's innding National 
Historical Reserve. Note the lower resolution of detail in the 
photograph. (NPS. 1983) 



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the services of a professional photographer is 
recommended for large format photographic 
documentation. 



Digital images must be archived as electronic files 
on computer disks, photo-CDs, or tapes. The 
durability of these media is undetermined. 



Digital Cameras 

Digital cameras are a recent photographic tech- 
nology. A digital camera can produce color and 
black and white digital images. One advantage to 
using a digital camera is that the photographs can 
be more easily integrated into desktop publishing. 
The images are screened (composed of dots, like 
a newsprint photograph) and can be transferred 
via cable from the camera to a computer. There 
is no need to scan the photographic image before 
moving it to the computer. Using image process- 
ing software, the photographic images can be 
manipulated and inserted into a document. 

Digital cameras are compact and convenient to 
use, but they have the following disadvantages, 
which should be considered when preparing to 
use a digital camera for field survey: 

• The photographic quality produced by a digital 
camera may be lower than a 35mm camera 
and the images may not be clear enough to 
convey details well. 

• Some digital cameras may not accept as many 
lenses or filters as a 35mm camera. 

• There is a limit to the number of photographs 
that can be stored in a digital camera before 
they must be downloaded to a computer. 
Typically, digital cameras can store 36 photo- 
graphs at a lower level of resolution (that is, 
fewer dots per inch) or 1 8 photographs at a 
higher level of resolution (more dots per inch). 



Lenses, Filters, and Tripods 

The standard lens on a 35mm camera is 50mm. 
The focal length (the magnification) of a 50mm 
lens is approximately the same as the human eye 
and is suitable for graphic documentation of 
cultural landscapes. In addition to the standard 
50mm lens, wide-angle lenses, telephoto and 
zoom lenses, and filters can be used for specific 
purposes. 

Wide-angie Lenses 

A wide-angle lens with a 24mm-35mm focal 
length is less magnifying than a 50mm lens and 
provides the photographer a broader view of 
the landscape from a given vantage point. Wide- 
angle lenses are particularly useful when space is 
limited and the photographer must position the 
camera close to the subject of the photograph. 
However, wide-angle lenses cause distortion, 
and the wider the angle the greater the distor- 
tion (straight lines tend to curve, and parallel 
lines converge). Perspective-correcting lenses 
(PC lenses), also called architectural lenses, can 
be used to remedy the parallax distortion of 
wide-angle lenses. PC lenses are moderate 
wide-angle lenses (28mm or 35mm) that shift 
side to side or up and down. Some perspective 
correcting lenses also tilt, like a large format 
camera. PC lenses are available for small and 
medium format cameras and should be used 
with a tripod for best results. 



18 



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Telephoto and Zoom Lenses 

A moderate to long telephoto or zoom lens is 
useful for photographic documentation of land- 
scapes when access near the subject is restricted 
or limited by physical obstacles. Telephoto lenses 
with a focal length between 1 00mm-400mm are 
more magnifying than a 50mm lens. Telephoto 
lenses have minimal distortion, yet their depth of 
field is small (that is, telephoto lenses tend to 
flatten the resultant image). Telephoto lenses also 
reduce light interception through the lens. To 
compensate for the lower light level, the f/stop 
may need to be manually adjusted (some cam- 
eras automatically make this adjustment). Zoom 
lenses are a common feature on 35mm cameras, 
and have focal length that can be adjusted from 
20-60mm through 200-500mm. (The most 
common are 35-70mm and 70-200mm.) The 
versatility of zoom lenses makes them convenient 
for field photography. 

Filters 

High quality filters improve black and white 
photographic documentation by enhancing 
details that may otherwise be undiscernible. 
One of the most useful filters for black and white 
photography is a medium yellow. This filter 
eliminates the presence of blue in natural light 
and enhances contrasting values of grey tones, 
black and white. Orange and deep yellow filters 
enhance contrast and differentiate textures even 
more. Green filters emphasize foliage, while a 
red filter dramatically enhances the contrast 
between dark and light areas. A polarizing filter 
reduces or eliminates refraction of light in 
situations of considerable glare, which may be 



encountered in photographing water features on 
a sunny day, or shooting through the windows 
of a car or light aircrafl:. A polarizing filter in- 
creases contrast and can darken blue skies in 
black and white photography. 

Filters are mounted over the camera lens, reduc- 
ing light interception through the lens. Better 
quality filters cause less light reduction, but all 
filters require exposure compensation. Cameras 
with built-in light meters automatically make 
aperture adjustments for a filter. Cameras with 
hand-held light meters must be manually adjusted 
to compensate for light reduction. The "filter 
factor" (light reduction factor of a filter) is usually 
engraved on the metal filter ring. A filter factor of 
2X(such as that of a medium yellow filter) means 
the f/stop must be increased by two stops, from 
f/8 to f/4 (that is, the aperture size and shutter 
speed are increased). 

Tripods 

A tripod stabilizes the camera, allowing a 
sharper image to be captured. It also enables 
the photographer to create a variety of stable 
camera orientations and carefully plan the 
composition before taking the shot. Tripods are 
useful in the following situations: 

•- When photographing with a telephoto lens of 
focal length greater than 1 35mm. The thpod 
will reduce camera shake and produce a 
clearer photograph. 

• To correct for image distortion from a tilting 
camera plane taking a perpendicular shot. A 
trapezoid is one result of a perpendicular shot 
of a structure taken with an upwardly tilting 



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camera (perspective correcting lenses, as 
formerly mentioned, make a similar adjust- 
ment). 

• When photographing historic maps, photos, 
and other historic documents, The camera 
lens needs to be positioned parallel to the 
plane of the document to avoid image distor- 
tion. A light standard can also be used to 
position a camera lens in parallel alignment to a 
historic document (a magnifying lens should be 
used v^hen photographing historic documents). 

A tripod is essential to the technique of repeat field 
photography, where an earlier or historic photo- 
graph is re-shot from the same vantage point. 
(See "Repeat Photography" later in this section for 
further information" on this analytical technique.) 

Further Considerations 

Field photography should be timed with respect 
to the altitude (elevation above the horizon) and 
azimuth (cardinal position) of the sun to avoid 
deep, obscuring shadows. A light meter is essen- 
tial for accurate exposures. Large format cameras 
require the use of a hand-held light meter. If the 
scale of the subject in the photograph is impor- 
tant, a scale-stick painted with alternating black 
and white foot increments may be positioned 
within the frame. A more refined method for 
scaling the subject of a photograph is to use a 
scaled grid situated in front of the camera lens. 
This is particularly useful for planar features 
(without usingphotogrammetry). Regardless of 
how much the image size of the photograph is 
subsequently enlarged or reduced, the scale of 
the subject can be calculated from the imposed 



grid. (See A Guide to Cultural Landscape Re- 
ports: Appendices, "Appendix C: National Regis- 
ter Bulletins.") 

Archiving Photographs 

Photographs provide a record of a cultural 
landscape's appearance at a particular moment in 
time and they become primary sources for future 
reference and historical research. It is important, 
therefore, to ensure the longevity of photographs 
by archiving them properly. 

All photographs printed in a CLR should be 
archived, but not all photographs taken during 
CLR preparation need to be archived. The 
expense of archival materials and equipment may 
preclude all photographs being archived, and it 
may not be necessary to archive the photographs 
taken as supplemental records. The decision to 
render certain film and prints archival quality can 
be made at the time of film processing. Contact 
sheets are a useful tool for reviewing all the 
photographs and selecting which ones to be 
developed as archival quality. 

Special processing techniques are applied to 
photographs selected for archiving. The nega- 
tives and prints are washed for a longer period 
of time to ensure that the chemicals that de- 
velop and fix the image are completely removed 
so that the image does not continue to develop. 
Negatives and fiber-based contact prints (as 
opposed to resin-coated prints) are y^ashed with 
hyporemover as one of the last steps in dark- 
room processing. Selenium toner is added to 
the hyporemover to increase archival stability. 



20 



Archival quality negatives and prints should be 
deposited with the park upon completion of a 
CLR. Negatives should be stored in archival 
plastic sleeves and clearly labeled with location 
name and the date shot. Field records are used 
to create a descriptive caption list, classified 
according to the numbers on the negatives. The 
caption list should be printed on acid-free bond 
paper and attached to the negative sleeve for 
storage. Large and medium format negative 
sleeves are large enough to be captioned directly 
on the sleeve. The Library of Congress' standards 
for archiving contact prints require prints to be 
inserted into photo mount cards, which are 
labeled and captioned. Each photo mount card is 
separated from its neighbor by a sheet of acid- 
free (neutral pH) bond paper. They are then 
housed in acid-free, lignin-free, high alpha cellu- 
lose folders stored horizontally inside map 
cases or flat file boxes. Vertical storage is not 



recommended, as this may lead to curling. The 
archival storage containers are then kept in a 
dim ate- control led environment. 

Aeriai Photographs 

Aerial photographs are used for graphic documentation 
and analysis and evaluation of cultural landscapes. (See 
Figure 1 3 .) Aerial photography makes use of large lens 
cameras mounted on aircraft or ori^iting satellites to 
shoot images ofthe earth surfece. if aerial photography 
is used in the analysis and evaluation of a landscape, 
black and white and color infrared films may be used to 
elicit more infonnation from the photograph. As a 
graphic documentation tool, aerial photographs 
provide objective records ofthe appearance of a 
landscape at a specific moment. Aerial photographs are 
particulariy effective in documenting broad landscape 
patterns, such as land use, spacial organization, settle- 
ment, vegetation, and circulation ne1wori<s. 




Figure 13. High-akitucie, oblique aerial photograph of Fort Scott in ihe Presidio, ir]dicatir)g broad patterr)s of spatial orgar)izatior), 
topography, land use, ar)d vegetation. Colder^ Gate National Recreation Area. (NFS, 1 993) 



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The graphic record of aerial photographs may be 
important in the documentation of landscapes for 
which a topographic survey is not available. 
Graphic information from an aerial photograph 
may be transferred by hand to a plan drawing of 
the landscape or captured digitally by using com- 
puter aerial photogrammetry to produce a com- 
puter-generated plan. Relatively low altitude, aerial 
photographs can be flown and shot at a scale as 
detailed as I inch = 200 feet, depending upon the 
scale of the landscape and the type of information 
to be recorded. Clear skies are essential for 
shooting effective aerial photographs. Depending 
on documentation objectives, other factors may be 
important in scheduling aerial photography ser- 
vices, such as the amount of leaf coverage on 
vegetation and minimal shadow length. Exact 
location and timing may be important where an 
aerial photograph is taken as a repeat photograph; 
that is, to serve as a matched pair with a historic 
photograph for direct comparison of landscape 
characteristics and associated features. 

See "Aerial Photography Analysis" later in this 
text for more information on aerial photography. 
For more information on computer-generated 
plans from aerial photographs, see "Computer 
Aerial Photogrammetry." For more information 
on taking a contemporary photograph to match a 
historic photograph for analysis and evaluation of 
landscape change, see "Repeat Photography." 

Photogrammetry 

Photogrammetry combines perpendicular pho- 
tography, either field or aerial, with geometry. 
Photogrammetry makes use of stereophotograph 



pairs to create orthographically rectified, mea- 
sured drawings (perpendicular to the plane of the 
subject). These drawings may be in the form of 
elevations (terrestrial) or plans (aerial). 

Traditional drawings are created by hand-tracing 
the "optical model" produced by overlapping 
paired stereophotographs within a plotting 
instrument. These stereophotographs are devel- 
oped from plate glass negatives and printed on 
resin-coated contact paper. The durability of 
fibrous contact paper is substituted for measur- 
able accuracy (resin-coated contact paper is not 
subject to the stretching or distortion possible 
with fibrous paper). However, plate glass nega- 
tives, especially when prepared with extra wash- 
ing, are the most durable photographic media. 
Photogrammetry can now be performed by 
computer technology using digitizing equipment 
and CAD. Photogram metric stereophotographs 
can be archived as digital files on disks, photo- 
CDs, or tapes. The durability of these storage 
media is yet to be established. 

Computer Aerial PhotograrDmetry 

Perpendicular aerial photographs can be trans- 
formed into accurately georeferenced base maps 
using photogrammetry. A photogrammetric 
camera lens corrects radial distortion to produce 
an orthographically rectified photograph. Tradi- 
tionally, photogrammetry involved tracing an 
ortho-rectified photograph to obtain a scaled 
drawing. Current photogrammetric technology 
consists of digitizing equipment and CAD soft- 
ware that turns photographic images into CAD 
drawings. (See Figure 14.) 



22 



AND 



In geographic regions with predominantly decidu- 
ous vegetation, the most revealing time of the year 
to perform aerial photogrammetry is during the 
dormant season. At this time more of the earth's 
surface is exposed due to the absence of vegeta- 
tion canopies and a higher resolution is possible. 
Generally, the v^indow of opportunity is from eariy 
December to early April, v^ith mid-March often 
being the optimal time for clarity. In March, 
shadov^s are smaller and dead leaves are no 
longer clinging to trees. A quality photogramme- 
try product is also dependent on clear, sunny 
weather conditions. 



Contracting Computer Aerial 
Photogrammetry Services 

Commercial photogrammetry services can be 
contracted. The end product is delivered in the 
form of a digital file on disk or as a hard copy on 
paper or other media. Preparing a project 
agreement (scope of work) for contracting aerial 
photogrammetry services to create a base map 
may require knowledge of the following: 

• Location of base map. The location is prefer- 
ably given by Universal Transerve Mercator 
(UTM) coordinates or latitude and longitude 




Figure 1 4. Topographic survey map generated by computer aerial photogrammetry. Weir Farm Nal/ond Historic Site. (NFS, 1 992) 



GRAPHIC DOCUMENTATIO 



23 



coordinates with a vertical reference point (that 
is, a control point of known elevation). The 
requirement for a vertical reference point may 
not be necessary for aerial photography, but is 
essential to photogrammetry. Vertical refer- 
ence points can be white crosses painted on 
the ground, utility poles, or even traffic arrows 
on roads of known elevation. 

• Scale of base map. It may not be necessary to 
specify the scale of the aerial photograph for the 
base map, or the flight altitude to the contractor. 
The contractor should have the expertise to 
determine the most efficient method to pro- 
duce a base map of the desired scale. 

• Contour interval. This is determined according 
to the scale and extent of topographic relief of 
a landscape and the potential use of the infor- 
mation (for example, the management objec- 
tives of a CLR). 

• Additional information to be mapped. Addi- 
tional information required, such as property 
boundaries, structure footprints, roads, drives 
and footpaths, hydrologic features, vegetation 
types, trees over 6-inch caliper, and major 
shrubs may be indicated. 

• Product format. The base map-product should 
be in hard copy form or as a digital file on 
CAD. If CAD is used, the contractor will need 
further information about the configuration of 
layers and layer classification (for example, 
vegetation, topography, hydrology, bound- 
aries, and structures may be organized as 
different CAD layers). In either case, the 
degree of vertical and horizontal accuracy 
should be specified. 



Photographic Analysis and Evaluation 

Photographs are used in cultural landscape 
research to analyze and evaluate a cultural 
landscape's chronological development and to 
graphically document its appearance. (See 
Figure 15.) In analysis and evaluation, photo- 
graphs are used for comparison, to verify other 
data, to understand the influences that have 
shaped a landscape, and to measure the extent 
to which change has taken place. Other 
sources of data, such as historic records, maps, 
and other photographs, are used with contem- 
porary or historic photographs to interpret the 
history of a landscape. 

Both field and aerial photographs are useful in 
photographic analysis and evaluation. Contempo- 
rary aerial and field photographs can be shot from 
the same vantage point as a dated historic photo- 
graph, thereby serving as a matched pair of repeat 
photographs for direct comparison of changes 
since a known period. 




Figure 1 5. Notionat Park Service staff persor), Troy Siefert, 
examining an aerial photograph. (NPS, 1 993) 



24 



LANDSCAPE 



N E S 



Repeat Photography 

Repeat photography is the technique of locating 
the site of a dated, historic photograph, reoccupying 
the original camera position, and shooting a 
contemporary photograph of the landscape, 
landscape characteristics and associated features 
from the same vantage point. Preferably, the 
photographer uses the same focal length camera 
lens and shoots the photo at the same time of 
day as the original photograph. This provides 
the best conditions for comparing the contem- 
porary and historic photographs. 

The pair of photographs is referred to as a 
matched pair of repeat photographs. Depending 
on the objectives of the analysis and evaluation, the 
time inten/al between matched photographs may 
be decades, seasons, or even seconds (as in the 
case of photographing landscape change during a 
volcanic eruption). Matched pairs of photographs 
are more directly comparable when the direction 
and length of shadows in each photograph Is 
similar, though valid interpretations can be made 
from photographs that are matched less closely. 
(See Figures 1 6 and 1 7.) 

Repeat photographs can be used to interpret the 
nature, rate, and direction of change in a cultural 
landscape, to evaluate the cause(s) of perceived 
change, and to establish new photographic 
records for future analysis of change. 

Sources of Inaccuracy 

Old photographs can be misleading and should 
be used cautiously for analysis and evaluation. 
Photographs taken before the advent of pan- 



chromatic film in the 1 930s can be unrealistic in 
depicting the conditions of the time. Early films 
were not sensitive to red light and overly sensi- 
tive to blue light. As a result, red is not distin- 
guished from black, and the sky in historic 
photographs may appear white, with the distant 
landscape appearing faint, or not being repre- 
sented at all. 

Historic photographs taken with artistic motives 
may also be misleading due to tricks in the use of 
perspective or depth of field, or the creative use of 
lighting. Historic photographs may also be unrepre- 
sentative of the typical condition of the time, which 
may have been the photographer's motive in 
taking the photograph. To counter the effects of 
inaccuracy due to the personal biases of photogra- 
phers, it is best to use historic photographs from a 
variety of sources. 

Performing the Technique 

Matched pairs of repeat photographs are most 
directly comparable if they are taken at the same 
time of year, at the same time of day, are the 
same size photograph, and encompass the same 
area. Matched photographs taken with the same 
focal length of lenses will encompass the same ■ 
area with the same resolution. If a different focal 
length lens is used for the contemporary photo- 
graph, the photographs may be rendered similar 
by enlarging or reducing and cropping during the 
printing process. 

To repeat a historic photograph, position the 
camera lens at the same location as the historic lens 
and aim the lens at the same subject. (See Figures 



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Figure /6./..-":.-_-,_ ■ ■'■■ '■"■-■■■// . )tograpb. John Day Fossil Beds Nationat Monument (NPS, 1893) 




Figure 1 7. A repeat piiotograph of the landscape siiown in Figure l6.johr) Day Fossil Beds National Monument (NPS, 1 992) 



26 



LANDSCAPE LINES 




Figure 18. A photograph of the lower meadows ofVanderbilt 
Mansion National Historic Site. (NPS, c. 1 950s) 



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■ 



Figure 19. A repeat photograph of the landscape in shown 
Figure 1 8. This later photograph indicates some encroachment 
of woody growth into the meadow. Vanderbilt Mansion 
NationalHistoric Site. (NPS, 1991) 



1 8 and 1 9.) Do not attempt to frame the new 
photograph to match the outline of the old; this will 
result in error in the position of the camera lens. 
The correct position and aim of the camera lens is 
found by using the parallax apparent in the historic 
photograph (that is, the apparent distortion due to 
the effect of perspective). A copy of the historic 
photograph must be taken into the field. The 
foreground features that exist in the center of the 
field of view of the historic photograph can be used 
to align the camera, Near and distant features in the 
center of the field of view are aligned through the 
camera as in the historic photograph. The photogra- 
pher then moves the camera toward or away from 
the field of view, so that peripheral features are 
aligned and parallax is correct with their appearance 
in the historic photograph. If no foreground features 
exist or none are close enough to use the parallax 
method, the historic camera position must be found 
by comparing the ratios of horizontal and vertical 
distances in the historic photograph with the image 
through the camera lens. To make the comparison 



more direct, a negative of the historic photograph 
may be placed beneath the mirror of a 35mm 
camera so that the historic image can be seen 
through the viev/finder. 

If it is important to reproduce the historic condi- 
tions as closely as possible, astronomical tables 
can be used to estimate the altitude and azimuth 
of the sun in historic photographs. The altitude 
and azimuth of the sun affect the character of 
shadows and highlights in historic photographs, 
Therefore, when taking repeat photographs of 
structures, geologic formations, landscape archi- 
tectural details, and topographic relief, it may be 
important to match the length and direction of 
shadows in the historic image. This may be 
unimportant for historic photographs taken on a 
cloudy day, or at noon on a sunny day. 

It is useful to create a permanent record of the 
camera station for future repeat photograph 
analysis. The camera station is directly below 



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27 



the camera lens and is determined by suspend- 
ing a plumb bob beneath the camera tripod. 
Photographers use steel rods driven into the 
ground, or star-shaped drill holes in rocks to 
mark camera stations. A record of the camera 
station should be noted on the archival sleeve 
of the negatives of repeat photographs, along 
v^ith captions. This should include the angle and 
inclination of the camera lens at the cannera 
station. 

Aerial Photograph Analysis 

Aerial photograph analysis is a well-developed 
discipline. Experts can be found in the professions 
of landscape architecture, geography, forestry, 
anthropology, and archeology. Aerial photography 
has been used for observation of earth processes 
and environmental analysis for more than 60 years. 
It is a technologically advanced form of photogra- 
phy that uses large-lens cameras mounted on 
either low or high altitude aircraft or orbiting 
satellites to shoot images of the earth surface. 

Aerial photography analysis is a form of remote 
sensing, examining earth features from a distant 
platform situated above a target area. Aerial photo- 
graphs are also valuable research tools for providing 
a graphic record of the appearance of a cultural 
landscape during a particular period. In analysis and 
evaluation, aerial photographs from known, succes- 
sive periods can be compared and interpreted to 
verify and expand on the historical record. 

An expert in aerial photograph analysis can derive 
highly refined information on natural resources 
(such as soils, geology, geomorphology, hydrologic 



patterns, climate, and vegetation), as well as 
cultural resources. (See Figure 20.) C^urrent aerial 
photographs may be used to create a base map 
of existing conditions. (See Figures 2 1 and 22.) If 
an aerial photograph is used to create a base 
map, a lower altitude photograph (that is, larger 
scale, such as I inch = 200 feet) is usually flown. 
If aerial photographs are used to analyze changing 
physical conditions overtime, higher attitude, 
archival photographs obtained fronn the United 
States Geological Survey Earth Resource Obser- 
vation Systems (EROS) Data Center may be 
useful. 

Computer aided technologies that build on 
traditional aerial photography include computer 
aerial photogrammetry and geographic infor- 
mation systems (CIS). Computer aerial photo- 
grammetry represents the most current tech- 
nology in deriving base maps from aenal photo- 
graphs. (Refer to "Computer Aerial Photogram- 
metry" eariier in this text for more informa- 
tion). As a form of spatial data, aerial photo- 
graphs are now implicitly related to the devel- 
opment of geographic information systems. GiS 
takes aerial photograph analysis to a new level 
of resolution in which aerial photographs are 
scanned into a computer and georeferenced 
with other layers of data sources, such as 
traditional cartographic maps, geology maps, 
soil surveys, and historic property maps. Di- 
rect comparison of multiple spatial data layers 
enables a more comprehensive understanding 
of the physical nature of cultural landscapes and 
the change that has occurred overtime. (See 
Landscape Lines 10: Geographic Information 
Systems) 



28 




Figure 20. Aerial photograph of land near the Black Hills, South Dakota. Analysis of the photograph reveals information about drainage 
patterns, geology, geomorphology and climate. (NPS) 



Aerial photographs may reveal the dynamics of 
change in landscape characteristics, such as the 
manipulation of topography, change in hydrologic 
patterns, the introduction of a particular land 
use, the settlement and development of a 
landscape, and modifications to a historic de- 
signed landscape throughout the twentieth 
century. Aerial photographs can also reveal 
patterns of physical disturbance and evidence of 
former human occupation that may not be 
apparent in the field, such as road traces, tree 
locations, and field patterns. Information derived 
from the analysis and evaluation of historic aerial 
photographs may be transcribed on a base map 



to create a sequence of period plans. (Refer to 
"Line Drawing Documentation" earlier in this text 
for guidelines on plan drawing.) 

Obtaining Archival Aerial 
Photographs for Cultural 
Landscape Analysis and Evaluation 

The Earth Resources Obsen/ation Systems (EROS) 
Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, is the 
United States Geological Survey (USGS) archive 
center for federal agency aerial photographs. The 
photographs, dating from 1940, represent the 
collection of twenty federal agencies and programs. 



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Figure 2 1 . Aerial photograpfi documenting Presider)t Theodore Roosevelfs home in 1 992 during ieaf-off conditions. Sagamore Hill 
National Historic Site. (NPS, 1992) 




Figure 22. Existing conditions plan (I inch = 200 feet scaie) generated in AutoCAD using the 1 992 aerial photograph of the property. 
Sagamore Hill National Historic Site. (NPS, 1 993) 



30 



LANDSCAPE 



LINES 



The photographs range in film type from color- 
infrared, black and white, and natural color, to ■ 
black and white infrared. The federal government 
recently standardized aerial surveys to avoid 
repetition and achieve uniform quality and 
coverage. Before federal aerial surveys were 
standardized, photographs were shot in geo- 
graphic locations where studies were being 
conducted. Photographs were taken from different 
altitudes using various types of film. As a result, 
coverage of the states is uneven among the older 
acquisitions in the collection. 

The 1 987- 1 99 1 National Aerial Photography 
Program (NAPP) produced cloud-free aerial 
photographs with color infrared film of the 48 
contiguous states at a scale of 1 :40,000 (I inch 
= 0.6 miles). Each photograph shows an area of 
5x5 miles. Black and white photographs, 
derived from the color- infrared film, can be 
ordered. Prior to the NAPP program, between 
1 98 1 and 1 987, the National High Altitude 
Photography Program (NHAP) generated most 
aerial photographs for the USGS. The NHAP 
program shot black and white aerial photo- 
graphs at a scale of 1 :80.000 ( I inch = 1 ,26 
miles), with each photograph showing an area of 
11x11 miles. The NHAP program also shot 
color-infrared film with a scale of 1 :58,000 (I 
inch = 0.9 miles). Each photograph shows an 
area of 8x8 miles. 

The EROS Data Center also receives, processes, 
and distributes data images from the National 
Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA) 
Landsat satellites. These data include aerial photos 
in the scale range of 1 :30,000 to 1 : 1 20,000. The 



film coverage varies from color- infrared to black 
and white. These Landsat photographs can also be 
purchased from the center. 

The, availability of specific NAPP and NHAP photog- 
raphy can be detennined using a microfiche- based 
indexing system keyed to areas of USGS 
I ;250,000-scale maps. Either microfiche or en- 
larged paper copies of the microfiche are available 
for the particular geographic area of interest. 

Sources of Archival Aerial Photographs 

Customer Services - NAPP 
USGS - EROS Data Center 

Sioux Falls, SD 57 1 98 

Aerial Photography Division (East) 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 

45 French Broad Avenue 
Asheville, NC 28802 

Aerial Photography Division (West) 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 

2505 Parley's Way 

Salt Lake City UT 84 1 02 

Aerial Photography Field Office 
Agricultural Stabilization and 
Conservation Service 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 

2222 West 2300 South 
Salt Lake City UT 84 1 25 

Cartographic Archives Division 
National Archives 

Washington, DC 20408 



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The National Archives contains federal aerial 
surveys conducted by the Agricultural Stabilization 
and Consen/ation Service, Soil Conservation 
Service, Forest Service, Geological Survey, and 
Bureauof Reclamation between 1 935 and 1942. 
The guide, titled Aerial Photographs in the 
National Archives {SpeG3\ List No. 25). 1 973, is 
available from the National Archives. 

Contracting Aerial Photography 
Services 

In preparing a project agreement (scope of work) 
for contracting aerial photography services, the 
following information may be required. 

• Scale of aerial photograph. I" = 200' is ap- 
proximately the largest scale — ^the lowest 
altitude — ^that an aircraft can fly (due to aviation 
law). Although the level of resolution of the 
image is set by the scale at which the original 
photograph is taken, the scale of the image can 
be subsequently enlarged. 

• Location of the aerial photograph. The location 
is most accurately denoted by UTM boundary 
coordinates. A contractor may accept bound- 
aries drawn on a USGS 7.5 minute topographic 
quadrangle as an adequate guide to location. 

• Lens size. The frame size of the photograph is 
determined by the camera lens size. Lens sizes 
in common use range from 6 to 1 2 inches, 
with 12 inches producing the larger frame. A 

1 2-inch lens may be more appropriate for a 
large scale photograph. 

• Type of film. Aerial photography film ranges 
from color-infrared, black and white, and 
natural color, to black and white-infrared. 



Natural color photographs are grayer than 
natural color is ordinarily perceived. Color 
infrared and black and white infrared photos 
may be more revealing for environmental 
analyses than natural color, Infrared photo- 
graphs may reveal different ecosystem or 
vegetation types more cleady than natural color 
photographs, and infrared can provide addi- 
tional information on biomass production and 
ecosystem health. 

Type of shot — stereo or spot shot. If a rela- 
tively small landscape or area of a landscape; 
can fit within a single aerial photograph frame, a 
spot shot may be most appropriate. However, 
for large landscapes, a series of photographs 
may be taken. A series of stereophotographs 
have the additional benefit of being useful for 
analysis purposes. Stereophotographs have 58- 
65 percent overiap between frames. Conse- 
quently, paired stereo frames can be observed 
through stereo glasses for three-dimensional 
analysis of the aerial photographs.. 

Orientation of shot — vertical or oblique. It is 
assumed that aerial photographs are taken 
vertically (that is, oriented perpendicular to the 
earth's surface) unless otherwise specified. 
Vertical shots have the least horizontal distor- 
tion of the earth's surface. Oblique shots are 
taken for illustrative effects to expose the 
verticality of such elements as building facades 
and trees. 

Product format. Aerial photographs can be 
delivered as film negatives, film positives, 
contact prints, or as electronic files on com- 
puter disk or photo CD, and reproduced or 
enlarged onto mylar, blueprint, or bond paper 



32 



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media. The form of product may depend on 
management objectives (tliat is, how the 
aerial photograph will be used) and archive 
considerations. 



References 

Photographic Documentation and 
Analysis References 

Adams, Ansel. 1983. The New Ansel Adams 
Photography Series. yo\%. 1-4. Massachusetts: 
Nev/ York Graphic Society. 



. 1 988. A Record in Detail: The 



Architectural Photographs of Jack E. Boucher 
Missouri: University of Missouri Press. (Available 
from University of Missouri Press, 200 Lev\/is 
Hall, Columbia, MD 6521 I.) 

Burns, John A. 1989. Recording Historic Struc- 
tures. Historic American Buildings Survey and 
Historic American Engineering Record. Washing- 
ton, DC: The American Institute of Architects 
Press. (Available from AIA Order Department, 9 
Jay Gould Court, P.O. Box 753, Waldorf, MD 
20601.) 



_. 1983. Examples: The Making of 40 



Photographs. Massachusetts: Little, Brov/n. 



995. Ansel Adams: The National 



Park Sen/Ice Photographs. New York: Artabras. 

Athearn, Frederic j. 1994. /4 Wlndowtothe 
Past— A View to the Future: A guide to 
Photodocumentlng Historic Places. Denver: 
Bureau of Land Management. 

. \^^G. National Register Bulletin 23: 



How to Improve the Quality of Photographs for 
National Register Nominations. Denver, Colo- 
rado: Bureau of Land Management. 

Borchers, Perry, E. 1977. Photogrammetrlc 
Recording of Cultural Resources Wash i ngton , 
DC: USDI, MPS. 

Boucher, Jack, E. Suggestions for Producing 
Publlshable Photographs. Washington, DC: 
National Trust for Historic Preservation. 



Chambers, H., AIA 1973. Rectified Photogra- 
phy and Photo Drawing for Historic Preserva- 
tion. Washington, DC: USDI, MPS. 

Dean, Jeff. 1 98 1 . Architectural Photography, 
Techniques for Architects, Presen/atlonlsts, 
Historians, Photographers and Urban Planners. 
Nashville: American Association of State and 
Local History. 

Drager, D.L., and T.R Lyons. 1985. Remote 
Sensing: Photogrammetry In Archeology: The 
Chaco Mapping Project, Supplement No. 1 0. 
Supplement to "Remote Sensing: A Handbook 
for Archeologists and Cultural Resource Manag- 
ers." New Mexico: USDI, NPS, Cultural Re- 
sources Management Division. 

Eastman Kodak Company. 1985. Consen/atlon of 
Photographs. New York: Kodak, 



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33 



Historic American Buildings Survey/ Historic 
American Engineering Record. 1984. Specifica- 
tions for the Production of Photographs (for the 
use and guidance of contract photographers). 
Washington, DC: USD!, NPS, Cultural Re- 
sources, HABS/ HAER. 

Lowe, John "Jet." 1987. Industrial Eye. Photo- 
graphs by Jet Lowe from the Historic Americar) 
Engineering Record. Washington, DC: National 
Trust for Historic Presen/ation. (Available from 
Decatur House Museum Shop, 1 600 H Street 
NW, Washington, DC 20006. Publication #ISBN 
0-89133-124-7.) 

May, Linda L. 1993. History Through the 
Camera's Eye: Preserving America's Architectural 
and Engineering Heritage. Photo Bectronic 
Imaging 36 (6). 

Rogers, G., Malde, H., and R. Turner. 1984. 
Bibliography of Repeat Photography for Evaluating 
Landscape Change. Utah: University of Utah Press. 

Rothenberg, Jeff. 1 995. Ensuring the Longevity of 
Digital Documents. Scientific American Qanuar/): 
42-47. 

Schaefer, John Paul. 1992. 6os/c Technique of 
Photography: An Ansel Adams Guide. 1st ed. 
Massachusetts: Little, Brown. 

Wilhelm, Henry. 1993. The Permanence and 
Care of Color Photographs. Iowa: Preservation 
Publishers, 



Aerial Photography References 

Avery, Thomas Eugene. 1 985. Interpretation of 
Aerial Photographs. 4th ed. Minnesota: Burgess 
Pub. 

. \ 992. Fundamentals of Remote 



Sensing and Airphoto Interpretation. 5th ed. 
New York: Macmilian. 

Blan, J. !985. An Aerial Photogrammetrical 
Analysis of the Hopeton National Historic 
Landmark, Ross County, Ohio. Cultural Re- 
sources Research Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Prepared for the Archeoiogical Services Depart- 
ment, Ohio Historic Preservation Office, Colum- 
bus and the Midwest Archeoiogical Center. 
Nebraska: USDI, NPS. 

Bridges, Marilyn. 1990. The Sacred and the 
Secular: A Decade of Aerial Photography. New 
York: International Center of Photography. 

Caylor, Jule A. 1985. Basic Aerial Photograph 
Utilization Techniques: Course Workbook and 
Manual. USDA, Forest Service. 

Cox, Chns. 1992. Satellite Imagery, Aeriai Photog- 
raphy and Wetland Archeology: An Interim Report 
on an Application of Remote Sensing to Wetland 
Archeology: The Pilot Study in Cumbria, England, 
World Archeology 24(2): 249-267. 

Lyons, T.R., and T.E. Aver/. 1977. Remote 
Sensing: A Handbook for Archeologists and Cultural 
Resource Managers. Includes supplements nos. 
1-10(1978-1985). Washington, DC: USDI, NPS, 
Cultural Resources Management Division. 



34 



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Paine, David. 1 98 [ . Aerial Photography and 
Image Interpretation for Resource Management. 
New York: Wiley. 

Palmer, Rog, and Cox. 1993. Uses of Aerial 
Photography in Archeological Evaluations. 
Technical Paper No. 1 2: Institute of Field Arche- 
ologists, University of Birnningham, England. 

Sever, T. , and D. Wagner. 1 99 1 . Analysis of 
Prehistoric Roadways and Settlement Hierarchies 
in the New World Edition C, 42-52. Trombold. 
England: Cambridge University Press. 



Way, Douglas, S. 1978. Terrain Analysis: A Guide 
to Site Selection Using Aerial Photographic 
Interpretation. 2nd ed. Pennsylvania: Dowden, 
Hutchinson and Ross. 



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The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. 

U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 




Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 



Geophysical Survey Techniques 






>A 









/ 



; '■' 



JNfRO'DUCTlbN " < . 

'Geophysical sutyey techniques indirectly measure the presence of re- 
s' sources concealed wrthin the earth's subsurface as a result of geologic 
processes or human disturbances Geophysical survey techniques detect 
subsurface contrasts, including mass-densrty relationships, ionic or electncal 
potentials, nnagnetic susceptibilrties, and elemental decay The surveys can 
reveal the location of archeological resources and lead to their identification 



Geophysical sun/ey equipment is used to investigate buned prehistonc 
and histonc structures and artifacts The use of geophysical survey 
equipment and computer aided interpretation has increased the accu- 
racy of archeological surveys to the point v^here potentially destructive, 
random excavations can be minimized 

Geophysical survey techniques cannot positively identify a buned cultural 
resource, but they can provide data for interpretation from which strong 
inferences can be made Geophysical sun/eys use remote sensing 
techniques, v/hich examine earth features from a distant platform 
situated above a target area and usually employ high altitude aircraft or 
satellites From a platform situated on or just above the earth's surface, 
geophysical sun/ey equipment remotely sense earth features in a target 
arealocated beneath the earth's surface. 



Applying Geophysical Survey Techniques to 
Cultural Landscape Research 

Geophysical survey techniques are either passive or active. Passive 
techniques measure naturally occurring earth-related processes, such 
as the earth's electromagnetic or gravitational field. Magnetometry is 
a passive geophysical survey technique. Active techniques involve 
transmitting an electrical, electromagnetic, or acoustic signal into the 



subsurface. Interaction of the input signal witli 
subsurface nnaterials produces a modified return 
signal that can be measured. A familiar, amateur 
active technique is the metal detector. Other 
active geophysical techniques include ground 
penetrating radar, electrical resistivity, and elec- 
tromagnetic conductivity. 

Geophysical techniques were used in an archeologi- 
cal sun/ey of Virginius Island, a nonextant, nineteenth 
century industrial comnnunity in Harpers Ferry 
National Historical Park. (See Figure I .) Geophysical 
services were contracted to determine the location 
of twelve, nineteenth century residential structures 
and their associated outbuildings, buried within four 
acres of river terrace landscape. (See A Guide to 
Cu/tura/ Landscape Reports: Appendices, "Appendix 
J: Project/^reements.") The general location of . 
these residences was derived from historical docu- 
mentation, maps, and photographs, but the precise 
location of the outbuildings and their yards was 
unknown. The project agreement for the geophysi- 
cal survey specified ground penetrating radar and 
electromagnetic conductivity, but allowed for the 
possibility of using additional techniques to verify the 
location of a feature. The results of the geophysical 
sun^/ey led to the excavation or "ground-truthing" of 
specific sites to produce an accurate site plan of 
Vir;ginius Island. Results of the sun^ey facilitated 
development of a treatment plan, which included 
an interpretive program. (See Figures 2 and 3.) 

Passive Geophysical Survey Techniques 

Passive geophysical survey techniques measure 
naturally occurring, local, or planetary fields 
created by earth processes. Passive techniques 



Implementation and Limitations of a 
Geophysical Survey 

Successful implementation of a geophysical survey depends 
on the following: 

• A comprehensive survey design that specifies the set of 
techniques chosen for a survey (multiple techniques are 
requisite for a thorough site investigation), the order in 
which the techniques are implemented, the size and 
location of the survey grid applied, and the compatibility of 
the techniques with the site {that is, compatible with 
geology and physical access). 

• An experienced geophysicist contractor who is skilled in 
multiple geophysical methods and knowledgeable about 
the physical and historic context of the survey and the 
nature of the expected results. 

Possible limitations of geophysical surveys include the 
following: 

• Geophysical surveys are equipment-intensive and may be 
expensive to conduct. 

• Geophysical survey equipment cannot distinguish between 
cultural and geologic anomalies. 

• Geophysical survey techniques are limited to near-surface 
detection. There are limits to the depth and scale of 
resolution. 

• Geophysical survey equipment may not detect subtle 
contrasts or weak signals. If the contrast between the 
sought-after archeological material and incubating soil is 
small, detection is hindered. 

• Erroneous readings may occur as a result of distortion 
from nearby cultural entities with physical or electromag- 
netic properties, such as subterranean utilities, powerlines, 
metal fences, transmission towers, buildings, roads, 
railroads, aircraft, and two-way radios. 



include magnetic surveying with a magnetometer 
and gravity sun/eying using a gravitometer. A 
magnetometer measures the earth's total mag- 
netic field. It is useful for detecting buried ferrous 
objects or magnetic anomalies in soils. A 
gravitometer measures the anomalous accelera- 
tion of gravity due to mass/density relationships of 
buried features. Currently, the technique has 
limited use because detection is very subtle. 



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Figure I. This photograph ofVirginius island shows the proximity of the former industrial community to the Shenandoah River. The 
nineteenth centur/ buildings were largely destroyed by successive floods by the turn of the century. A geophysical survey of selected 
areas of the island yielded information about the location of ruined residences and outbuildings. This information was used in 
developing a treatment plan for the cultural landscape. Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. (NFS, I $65} 



Magnetometry 

Magnetometry is used within a large landscape 
area to detect the presence and location of 
archeological resources with magnetic properties. 
It is useful for a preliminary level of a subsurface 
investigation and is particularly suitable for detect- 
ing brick structures and metallic artifacts. 

Magnetometry, or magnetic surveying, uses the 
proton magnetometer to measure the magnetic 
susceptibility of buned materials. The earth's total 
geomagnetic field can be measured and used as a 
control point of reference to compare local 
magnetic interferences. When compared to the 
total geomagnetic field, local disturbances or 
anomalies can indicate the position of ferrous 
objects, displaced soils, and earthen structures. 



The magnetonneter is a highly sensitive instru- 
ment, capable of measuring perturbations or 
anomalies with an accuracy of one part in 
1 00,000, The proton magnetometer is one of the 
simpler, less expensive, and more accurate 
geophysical instruments, and consequently is used 
frequently for geophysical surveys. Acquisition of 
spatial data over large areas is relatively easy, and 
qualitative interpretations can be made rapidly 
with relatively less geophysical experience. (See 
Figure 4.) 

Active Geophysical Survey Techniques 

Active geophysical survey techniques involve 
transmitting electrical currents, electromagnetic, 
or acoustic energies into the earth's surface. 



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Figure 2. Proposed treatmer)t plan for the cultural lar)dscape ofVirginius Island. Data from geological surveys, archeotogical site 
investigations, and historical research contributed to the development of this plan. Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. (NPS, 1 992) 









s 







Figure 3. Proposed management zones for Virginius Island. The management zones are based upon historic land uses on the island, 
which were identified through historical research and archeological site investigation. Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. (NPS, 
1992) 



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Active techniques include ground penetrating 
radar, electrical resistivity, and electronnagnetic 
conductivity. Earthen material, such as soil or 
rock, are generally considered to be relatively 
poor conductors of energy. Much of the 
energy that geophysical equipment introduces 
is dissipated into the subsurface. Often geo- 
physical receivers magnify the return signal to 
compensate for the poor conduction of en- 
ergy. A comparison of amplitude, frequency, 
wavelength, and time delay between the input 
and return signals leads to the detection of 
buried cultural resources. 

Ground Penetrating Radar 

Ground penetrating radar (GPK) is used to 
determine the depth and physical properties of 
buried cultural and geologic features. It can 
effectively map soil layers, depth to bedrock, 
cavities, buried stream channels, burial sites, 
underground utilities, structures (including con- 
crete structures), and metallic objects. 

GPR is most often used to measure reflected 
low frequency electromagnetic energy, which is 
introduced into the subsurface via a surface- 
contact, transmitting antenna. (See Figure 5.) As 
the energy passes through the earth, it may 
encounter buried materials of varying electrical 
properties. At these electrical interfaces, energy 
may be either reflected or attenuated. A receiv- 
ing antenna on the earth's surface detects 
reflected energy. The receiving antenna is 
positioned in close proximity to the transmitting 
antenna. Comparison of the return signal time 
delay with the input signal (in billionths of a 
second) is a function of the speed of the signal as 







1* R.-'wrtJ*^"'' ■■ 







Figure 4. A magnetic survey using o GEM 1 9 n)agnetometer. 
Fort Laramie National Historic Site. (NFS, 1 993) 



it passes through the buried material. This 
comparison can be used indirectly to calculate 
the depth of the buried material. A comparison 
of the amplitude and frequency of the reflected 
signal with the input signal provides information 
about the physical properties of the buried 
material. 

Site-specific conditions may limit the success of 
GPR in geophysical surveys. The presence of 
highly conductive clay soils in proportions of 1 
percent or more is probably the greatest limiting 
factor affecting radar signals. Highly^ conductive soil 
conditions result in the attenuation of electromag- 
netic energy, a reduction in signal velocity, and a 
decrease in depth of signal penetration. Water- 
saturated soils also produce a highly conductive 
environment. Seasonal groundwater level varia- 
tions may be relevant in timing a ground penetrat- 
ing radar survey. 



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Figure 5. A ground per)etratir}g radar behg pulled across the 
grouted. Lockwood Stage Stop, Pinon Canon Maneuver Site, 
Colorado. (NPSJ 99 1) 

Electrical Resistivity 

Electrical resistivity uses electrical resistance 
(poor conductivity) properties to identify buried 
cultural resources. A highly refined electrical 
resistivity survey may be the most revealing 
geophysical technique, but it is expensive to 
perform because it requires a high number of 
readings per unit area. 

Resistivity experts interpret electrical resistivity 
patterns to identify the presence of nearly all 
forms of constructed features, such as founda- 
tions, paths, and roads, The technique can also 
reveal compacted soils, indicative of a former 
pathway, and disturbed soils, such as those found 
at burial sites and cultivated fields. Electrical 
resistivity is useful for measuring depth to bedrock 
and is often performed before GPR in geophysi- 
cal surveys involving multiple techniques. Depth 
to bedrock measurements are useful in calibrating 
GPR equipment. 



Electrical resistivity uses current electrodes to 
introduce into the soil an electrical current of 
known amplitude (amps) and frequency (volts), 
and potential electrodes with an ohmmeterto 
measure resistance changes in the soli, vertically 
and horizontally. (See Figure 6.) Measurements of 
vertical changes in resistivity are called "sound- 
ings" and measurements of horizontal changes in 
resistivity are called "profiling." The technique 
requires at least three individuals to move two 
current electrodes and two potential electrodes 
along a sun/ey grid. It is assumed that the incubat- 
ing soil has a homogeneous resistivity (due to an 
assumed even distribution of soil and water) and 
that buried cultural resources can be identified as 
anomalous readings of resistance. 

Along survey gridlines, changes in resistance 
readings are used to create "contour maps" of soil 
resistivity. On the map, concentric contours 
emanating from a location (called a "spot eleva- 
tion") represent material of lowest conductivity, 




Figure 6. An electrical resistivity survey using a Gossen resistivity 
meter. Scott Air Force Base. (NPS, n.d.) 



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or conversely, greatest resistance. Because soil 
conductivity is directly related to the presence of 
water, locations measuring the greatest resistance 
will have a lower soil-water content. Nonsat- 
urated soil conditions reveal more contrasts 
between potentially buried cultural resources 
(that have lower water content) and native soil 
material (having higher water content). 

Ideally, electrical resistivity tests should be 
performed in more than one season with 
varying soil-water conditions. In some geologic 
conditions the native soil may have a lower 
water content and therefore higher resistivity 
than buried cultural resources. Because resistiv- 
ity is directly related to permeability, degree of 
saturation, and the-chemical nature of entrapped 
fluids, prior knowledge of indigenous geologic 
conditions is requisite to accurately interpret 
resistivity data. 

Electromagnetic Conductivity 

Electromagnetic conductivity, also called EM and 
induction, is used to detect and differentiate 
metallic artifacts buried near the earth's surface. 
The technique locates near-surface cultural 
features (structures, compaction, excavation, and 
habitation sites) by their various water saturations 
(their conductivity). A conductivity measurement 
is the reciprocal of resistivity, so in theory the 
results of a lateral conductivity sun/ey should 
mirror the results of a resistivity profile. 

The nnain advantage to using conductivity over 
resistivity is that the measuring instrument does 
not require surface contact. Two individuals are 
required to perform the technique, but the 



conductivity instrument can be moved from 
station to station by one operator. Resistivity 
requires a crew of at least three to move and 
place electrodes in the ground along a survey line. 
(See Figure 7.) 

Electromagnetic conductivity uses a nonsurface 
contacting radio transmitter and receiver. The 
transmitter induces an electromagnetic field in 
the earth, causing an electrical current to flow. 
The electrical current generates a secondary 
magnetic field that causes the flow of an electri- 
cal current signal in the receiver. The receiver 
signal is measured for conductivity by a voltme- 
ter incorporated in the EM instrument. The 
voltmeter is calibrated to measure the soil as 
having a homogeneous level of conductivity. It is 
assumed that buried cultural resources cause 
anomalies in the homogenous level of conduc- 
tivity detected along sun/ey lines. Large fluctua- 
tions in conductivity are indications of highly 
conductive subsurface materials, such as buried 











^' 






figure 7. An electromagnetic conductivity survey using a Geonics 
EM38 soil conductivity meter. Fort Laramie National Historic 
Site. (NPS, 1993) 



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utilities. Observing the physical extent and orien- 
tation of the anonnaly can provide clues to its 
identification. 



Sources of Geophysical 
Prospecting Equipment 
AND Surveyors 

United States Governmental Agencies 

United States Geological Survey 

United States Bureau of Reclamation 

United States Bureau of Mines 

Environmental Protection Agency 
State Agencies 

Geologic Surveys 

Health & Environmental Agencies 
Universities and Colleges 

Geological Departments 

Geophysical Departments 

Engineering Departments 
Private and Nonprofit Organizations 
Private Concerned Citizens 
Geophysical Equipment Manufacturers 
Geophysical Equipment Rental Companies 
Geophysical Consultants 

For access to the last five groups, acquire a 
copy of the Geophysical Directory, published 
each March. This directory provides the most 



comprehensive listing of sources of equipment 
and geophysical survey experts available. 

The Geophysical Directory 

2200 Welch Avenue 
RO. Box 130508 
Houston, TX 772 1 9 
Phone 7 1 3-529-8789 
Fax 7 1 3-529-3646 



References 

Contracting Archeological 
Services Reference 

Jameson, J.H. Jr. et al. 1 990. Federal Archeologi- 
cal Contracting: Utilizing the Competitive Pro- 
curement Process. Technical Brief, uo. 7, ISSN 
1057-1574. Georgia: USD!, NPS, Interagency 
Resources Archeological Services Division, 
Southeast Regional Office. 

General References 

Lyons, T.R., andj.L. Elbert, eds. 1977. Remote 
Sensing: A l-landbooi< forArciieologists and Cukura! 
Resource i^anagers.\NdsHv\^ov\, DC: USDI, NPS, 
Cultural Resources Management Division. 

Lyons, T.R., R.K. Hitchcock, and W.H. Wills. 
1 978. Remote Sensing: Aerial Anttiropological 
Perspectives: A Bibliography of Remote Sensing 
in Cultural Resource Studies, Supplement No. 3. 
Supplement to "Remote Sensing: A Handbook 
for Archeologists and Cultural Resource Manag- 
ers." Washington, DC: USDI, NPS, Cultural 
Resources Management Division. 



N D 



I N 



Morain, S. A., and T.K. Budge. Remote Sensing: 
Instrumentation for Non-destructive Exploration 
of Cultural Resources, Supplement No.2. Supple- 
ment to "Remote Sensing: A Handbook for 
Archeologists and Cultural Resource Managers." 
Washington, DC: USD!, NPS, Cultural Resources 
Management Division. 

Wood, W.R., R.K. Nickel, and D.E. Griffin. 
1 984. Remote Sensing: The American Great 
Plains, Supplement No. 9. Supplement to "Re- 
mote Sensing: A Handbook for Archeologists 
and Cultural Resource Managers." Washington, 
DC: USDI, NPS, Cultural Resources Manage- 
ment Division. 

Magnetometry References 

Barrows, L., andJ.E. Rocchio. Summer 1990. 
Magnetic Surveying for Buried Metallic Objects. 
Ground Water Monitoring Review. 204-209. 

Bennet, C.B., and J.W. Weymouth. 1 982. 
Magnetic Reconnaissance Program In the 
Dolores Archeological Project: Interpretation of 
Data Collected During the Field Season 1980. 
Colorado: University of Colorado Dolores 
Archeological Program. 

Burns, P.K. 1 98 1 . Magnetic Reconnaissance in 
the Dolores Archeological Program. Master's 
thesis. Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 
Lincoln, Department of Anthropology. 

Burns, P.K., R. Huggins, and J.W. Weymouth. 
1983. Study of Correlation Between Magnetic 
Reconnaissance and Excavation in the Dolores 



Program. Dolores Archeological Program 
Technical Reports Report No. DAP-078. Utah: 
USDI, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt Lake City. 

Heimmer, D.H. 1992. Near Surface, High 
Resolution Geophysical Methods for Cultural 
Resource Management and Archeological 
Investigations. Denver: USDI, NPS, Rocky 
Mountain Regional Office, Interagency Archeo- 
logical Services. 

Huggins, R. 1981 . Magnetic Reconnaissance 
Program in the Dolores Archeological Program: 
Interpretation of Data Collected During Field 
Years 1981 and 1982. Colorado: University of 
Colorado Dolores Archeological Program. 

. 1983. Magnetometer Results. 

Dolores Archeological Program: Field Investiga- 
tions and Analysis— 1978. 193-251. Edited by 
D. A. Bretevnitz. Denver: USDI, Bureau of 
Reclamation. 

Kaczor, J., and J. Weymouth. 1 98 1 . Magnetic 
Prospecting: Preliminary Results of the 1 980 
Field Season at the Toltec Site, 3LN42. South- 
eastern Archeological Conference Bulletin 24: 
118-123. 

Mason, R.J. 1 984. An Unorthodox Magnetic 
Survey of a Large Forested Historic Site. Histori- 
cal Archeology 1 8(2): 54-63. 

Tabbagh, A. 1 984. On the Comparison Between 
Magnetic and Electromagnetic Prospection 
Methods for Magnetic Features Detection. 
Archaeometry 26(2): 1 7 1 - 1 82. 



H I 



H N I 



Von Frese, K.K.B. 1 984. Archeomagnetic Anoma- 
lies at Midcontinental North American Arclneologi- 
cal Sites. Historical Archeology ! 8(2): 4- 1 9. 

Von Frese, R.R.B., and V.E. Noble. 1984. Magne- 
tometryfor Archeological Exploration of Historical 
Sites. Historical Archeology 1 8(2): 38-53. 

Von Frese, R.R.B,, and B. Bevan. 1983. Conn- 
bined Magnetic and Ground Penetrating Kadar 
Survey of an Archeological Site in OI<lahoma. 
International Geoscience and Remote Sensing 
Symposium. San Francisco, digest, vol. I, section 
WP.3. New York; IEEE. 

Ground Penetrating Radar References 

Amato, L., and G. Di Maio. 1990. Ground 
Penetrating Radar for the Identification of the 
Volcanoclastic Sequence of AD 79 Vesuvian 
Eruption — Pompeii — Southern Italy. Third 
International Conference on Ground Penetrating 
Radar, Lal<ewood, Colorado. 

Annan, A.P., J.L Davis, and D. Gendzwill. 1 988. 
Radar Sounding in Potash Mines, Sasl<atchev^an, 
Canada. Geophysics 53(12); 1556-1564. 

Bevan, B,, D.G. Orr, and B.S. Blades. 1984. 
The Discovery of the Taylor House at the 
Petersburg National Battlefield. Historical Arche- 
ology \'^Q.)\ 6^-7^. 

. 1 979. A Ground Penetrating Radar 

Sun/ey at the Deer Creek Site. Report prepared 
for the US Army Corps of Engineers, Tulsa 
District, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 



980. A Second Season at Deer 



Creek: Radar and Electromagnetic Surveys 
Report prepared for the US Army Corps of 
Engineers, Tulsa District, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

. 1 99 1 . The Search For Graves. 



Geophysics 56; 13 10-13 19. 

Bevan, B., and J. Kenyon. 1975. Ground Pen- 
etrating Radar for Historical Archeology. MASCA 
Newsletter \ 1(2): 2-7. 

Butler, Dwain K., ed. March 1992. Miscellaneous 
paper GL-92-40. in Proceedings of the Govern- 
ment Users Workshop on Ground Penetrating 
Radar Applications and EquipmentVKVsburg, 
Mississippi; Department of the Army, Waterways 
Experiment Station, COE. 

Daniels,]. March 1988. Locating Caves, Tunnels 
and Mines. Geophysics: The Leading Edge of 
Exploration. 

. 1988. Fundamentals of Ground 

Penetrating Radar. Symposium on the Applica- 
tion of Geophysics to Engineering and Environ- 
mental Problems Golden, Colorado. 

Davis, J.L., and A.P. Annan. 1 989. Ground 
Penetrating Radar for High-Resolution Mapping 
of Soil and Rock Stratigraphy. Geophysical 
Prospecting 37: 53 I -55 1 . 

De Vore, S.L. 1990. Ground Penetrating Radar as 
a Tool in Archeological Investigations: An Example 
from the Fort Laramie National Historic Site. The 
Wyoming Archeologist 33(1-2); 23-38. 



10 



N D 



I N 



Fischer, P.M., S.G.W. Foilin, and P. Ulhksen. 
i 992. Surface Interface Radar Survey at Hala 
Sultan Tekke, Cyprus. Studies in [Mediterranean 
ArdieologySl: 495-508. 

Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. 1989. Radan 
instruction i^anuai MN43- 1 1 Release 3.0. 

. 1 99 1 . Surface interface Radar iO 



flanuai New Hampshire, New Salem. 

Heimmer, D.H. 1992. Near Surface, Higii 
Resoiution Geophysicai [Methods for Cuiturai 
Resource flanagement and Archeoiogicai 
investigations. Denver: USDI, NPS, Rocky 
Mountain Regional Office, Interagency Archeo- 
iogicai Services. 

Heimmer, D.H., G.C. Davenport, J. Lindemann, 
and J. Gilmore. 1989. Geophysics for Archeoiogi- 
cai Assessment: Ft. William Discovered? Fort 
Laramie National Historic Site, Wyoming. Sym- 
posium on ttie Appiication of Geophysics to 
Engineering and Environmentai Probiems 
Golden, Colorado. 

Mellett, J., and J. Geismar. 1 990. GPR Survey of 
an African-American Cemetery in Little Ferry, 
New Jersey. Third internationai Conference on 
Ground Penetrating Radar Lakewood, Colorado. 

Sheets, P.D., W.M. Loker, H.A.W. Spetzler, 
R.H. Ware, and G.R. Olhoeft. 1985. Geophysi- 
cal Exploration for Ancient Maya Housing at 
Ceten, El Salvador. National Geographic Society 
Research Reports. 



Ulricksen, C.P. 1 983. Appiication of impulse 
Radar to Civii Engineering. Hudson, New 
Hampshire: Geophysical Survey Systems. 

Vickers, R.S., and L.T. Dolphin. 1975. A Com- 
munication on an Archeoiogicai Radar Experi- 
ment at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. iMASCA 
Newsletter \ 1(1): 6-8. 

Electrical Resistivity References 

Atkinson, R.F.C. 1963. Resistivity Surveying in 
Archeology. The Scientist and Archeology. 1-30. 
Edited by E. Pyddoke. London: Phoenix House. 

Bevan, B. 1 99 1 . /I Resistivity Sun/ey at the 
Lockwood Stage Station. Denver: USDI, NPS. 

Carr, C. 1 977. A New Role and Analytical Design 
for the Use of Resistivity Surveying in Archeology. 
Mldcontinentai Journal of Archeology 2: 1 6 1 - 1 93. 

. 1982. Handbook on Soil Resistivity: 

Interpretation of Data from Earthen Archeoiogi- 
cai Sites Illinois: Evanston, Center for American 
Archeology Press. 

Ellwood, B.B. 1990. Electrical Resistivity Surveys 
in Two Historical Cemeteries in Northeast 
Texas: A method for delineating unidentified 
burial shafts. Historical Archeology 24: 9 1 -98. 

Ford, R.I.,andR.O. Keslin. 1969. A Resistivity 
Survey at the Norton mound Group, 20KTI, 
Kent County, Michigan. The IMlchlgan Archeolo- 
^/5f 1 5(3): 86-92. 



U R 



H N I 



II 



Goodyear, Frank H. 1 97 1 . Archeological Site 
Science. Chapter 8, "Wood and Charcoal," New 
York: American Elsevier Publishing. 

Heimmer, D.H. 1992. Near Surface, Higli 
Resoiution Geopii/sical l^etfiods for Cultural 
Resource Management and Archeological 
Investigations. Denver; USDI, NPS, Rocky 
Mountain Regional Office, Interagency Archeo- 
logical Services. 



Howell, M. 1 966. A Soil Conductivity Meter. 
Archaeometry 9: 20-23. 

McNeill, J. D. 1980. Electromagnetic Terrain 
Conductivity Measurement at Low Induction 
Numbers. Ontario, Canada: Geonics Limited. 

. 1985. Operating Manual for EMS I -d 



Non-Contacting Terrain Conductivity Meter 
Canada: Mississauga, Geonics Limited. 



Hranicky, W.J. 1 972. Application of Resistivity 
Surveying to American Archeology. The 
Chesopiean\0\A3-bO. 

Muggins, R., and J.W. Weymouth. 1 98 1 . A 
Probe Resistivity Survey and Analysis at the 
Deer Creek Site (34KA3), Oklahoma. Report 
submitted to the US Army Corps of Engineers, 
Tulsa District, Oklahoma. 

Electromagnetic Conductivity 
References 

Bevan, B. 1983. Electromagnetics for Mapping 
Buried Earth V&zXu\'qs. Journal of Field Archeol- 
ogy \0{\):^l-b^. 

Heimmer, D.H. 1992. Near Surface, High 
Resolution Geophysical Methods for Cultural 
Resource Management and Archeological 
Investigations. Denver: USDI, NPS, Rocky 
Mountain Regional Office, Interagency Archeo- 
logical Services. 



Musson, C.R. 1 968. A Geophysical Survey at 
South Cadbury Castle, Somerset. Using the 
Howell Soil Conductivity Anomaly Detector 
(SCM). Prospezioi Archeologichey. I 15-121. 

Parchas, C, and A. Tabbagh. 1979. Simulta- 
neous Measurements of Electrical Conductivity 
Prospecting. Archaeo-Physika 1 0: 682-69 1 . 

Tabbagh, A. 1 986. Applications and Advantages 
of the Slingram Electromagnetic Method for 
Archeological Prospecting. Geophysics 5 1 : 576- 
584. 

Tite, M.S., and C Mullins. 1970. Electromagnetic 
Prospecting on Archeological Sites Using a Soil 
Conductivity Meter. Archeometry 1 2( 1 ): 97- 1 04. 



The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. 

U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 




Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 



Pollen, Phytolith, and Macropora Analyses 



U^yiMy- 



/,.y 



/ 



Introduction - r 

Pollpn-, phytolith,' and^macrofloral analyses are archeological techniques 
used to investigate the prehistory and history of vegetation types within 
a landscape. Data fronn these analyses provides information about 
former land use and changes in cultural activities over time (See Figure 
I .) Archeological and ethnobotanical expertise is required to analyze 
pollen, ph/toliths, and macroflora 

The potential for pollen, phytolith, and macrofloral analyses to yield 
data about vegetation is highest when a site is undisturbed (for ex- 
ample, a site that has not received fill matena! or been inundated by 
flooding) In addition, information about a site is enhanced when the 
three techniques are conducted together. (The three analyses also 
complement other archeological techniques, such as the analysis of 
matenal artifacts ) 



;A.pollen:grain isthe microscopic, single-celled male gamete.of a 
flpwehhg plant and a-phytolith is a mineral fossil cast of a plant. The , 
term, macroflorai refers to' seeds and other macroscopic plant 
remains, such as wood, leaves,- tubers, and flowers, that are pre- 
serv'ed within an. incubating sediment, such as soil. The remains of .. 
pollen, phytoliths, and. macroflora can be collected from soil samples 
of a known deposition level within a soil profile. Based on their 
taxonomic classification and the soil strata in which they exist, the 
extant plant community of a prehistoric or historic period can be 
determined. In addition, the extent to which the pollen, phytolith, 
and macroflora remains are corroded or degraded can indicate the ' 
relative age of the sample. 



Pollen Analysis 

The Technique 

To analyze pollen, a small soil sample is taken from 
each stratigraphic layer that has been excavated by 
an archeologist. Systematic excavations allow for 
classification of soils by temporal sequence, which 
creates reference points for analyzing the changes 
in a landscape overtime. The classified soil samples 
are sent to a palynologistfor pollen analysis. Be- 
cause there are not many archaelogical palynolo- 
gists in the United States, the analysis may take 
three to six months. Currently, the cost of analysis 
ranges from $85,00 to $ 1 50.00 per soil sample. 



The pollen analysis of sediment taken from sample 
cores in wetlands may reveal more than soil samples 
taken from an archaeological excavation. There are 
two reasons for this: first, pollen grains are better 
preserved in wetland cores because there is less 
microbiotic activity, and second, wetland cores reveal 
more about the intervals between human and natural 
disturbances, such as fire, pathogens, and climate. 
(The occumence of fire is detemnined by counting 
charcoal partides found in pollen samples.) 

Presented pollen grains are extracted from an 
incubating sediment, such as soil, by chemical and 
mechanical separation treatments. Then the grains 







Figure I. Photograph of Boon Cotton Mills and Yard, ihe site of numerous archeohgicai investigotions that included poller) and phytoiith 
analyses. Lowell National Historical Park. (Photograph courtesy of the University of Massachusetts at Lowell, 1 890) 



LANDSCAPE 



LINES 



are examined under a microscope to identify 
characteristics of the parent plant. Although some 
pollen can be classified at the subgenus or species 
level, most pollen cannot be identified below the 
level of genus. Some plant taxa have similar pollen 
characteristics, making it difficult to identilythe plant 
below the level of family. For instance, chenopod 
and amaranth grass families are difficult to distin- 
guish from just their pollen grains. Nearly ever/ 
family of flowering plant has been investigated 
palynologically, though the accuracy of pollen 
information varies with each family. Palynologists 
can identify both dicotyledonous and monocotyle- 
donous plants from their pollen, as well as fern 
spores, fungal spores, and algal cysts and spores. 

Pollen can persist in soils for a long time, although its 
longevity is determined by such factors as exposure 
to oxygen, grain size, the initial abundance of pollen 
from a particular species, and durability of the pollen 
grain wall. The percentages of different taxa, deter- 
mined by identifying pollen, does not necessarily 
represent the relative composition of vegetation In a 
particular period;- rather, it indicates the presence of 
a particular plant community or taxa. While pollen 
preservation is generally poor in prehistoric sites, 
recent work indicates that pollen presentation in 
historic sites is generally adequate enough to yield 
valuable information about plant communities. 



particular historic periods and relate vegetation 
changes over time to land use. Pollen data can also 
reveal information about climatic and ecological 
conditions within a particular period. 

Pollen analysis has been used to chronicle the 
introduction of European flora with increased 
mercantile trade into the early colonies. For 
example, changing land use patterns in seven- 
teenth century Jamestown, Virginia have been 
identified from preserved pollen. Similar patterns 
were identified at Lowell National Historical Park 
in Massachusetts and Harpers Ferry National 
Historical Park in West Virginia. In both of these 
landscapes, the pollen record indicated a transi- 
tion from well maintained yards around dwellings 
at the turn of the nineteenth century to more 
unkempt, weedy environments corresponding 
with the period of the industrial revolution. 

The presence of pollen in a soil sample indicates 
that a particular genus of plant was historically 
present in the vicinity, but it does not indicate the 
precise location of a particular plant taxa. This is 
due to the natural forces of wind and water that 
can affect the deposition and incubation of pollen. 
To determine the historical location of a plant 
taxa, soil samples must be analyzed for phytoliths, 
the mineral fossil casts of plants. 



Applying Pollen Analysis to 
Cultural Landscape Research 

Pollen analysis was originally used by paleoecologists 
to reconstruct the prehistoric environment. In 
recent years, archeologists have used pollen analysis 
to identify the plant communities that were extant in 



Phytolith Analysis 

The Technique 

Phytolith analysis is most often used to recon- 
struct vegetation cover over time. Phytoliths are 
released into the soil by plant decay, deposits of 



POLLEN, PHYTOLITH. AND 



MACROFLORAL ANALYSES 



plant tissue in the soil through waste, and through 
cultural processing of plant tissue as fuel, food, 
fiber, or building nnaterial. The presence of 
ph/toliths indicates the location of a plant, animal, 
or cultural activity, and can be used to reconstruct 
the microdistribution— the relative historic 
locations — of plants. 

Ph/toliths are formed v^hen hydrated silicon 
dioxide precipitates out within plant cells and is 
deposited along cell walls, where it forms a 
hard, opaline microfossil cast. The ph/toliths 
remain within the living plant and are released 
into the soil when the tissue is digested by 
decay organisms. Phytoliths are known to be 
very stable in the soil (typically more decay- 
resistant than pollen) and therefore may yield 
information about prehistoric conditions of a 
landscape. Phytoliths occur mostly in stems and 
leaves, though they may also form in root, 
flower, and fruit cells. Unlike pollen, phytoliths 
are associated with more than just flowering 
plants, so they have the potential to provide 
more information about the plant kingdom in a 
particular period. 

Ph/tolith and pollen analysis are complementary 
techniques, with their relative strengths in 
monocotyledon and dicotyledon identification, 
respectively. Like pollen, phytoliths are identified 
through their morphological characteristics. A 
paleobotanist may perform the pollen and 
phytolith analyses concurrently. For the benefit 
of integrating pollen and phytolith data, pollen 
and phytoliths should be derived from the same 
soil samples. 



Applying Phytolith Analysis to 
Cultural Landscape Research 

Phytolith analysis is particularly revealing for 
monocotyledonous plants, especially the grass 
family. Many genera of grasses can be identi- 
fied, yielding valuable ethnobotanical informa- 
tion about the cultural importance of grasses as 
food crops, building materials, and ornamental 
plants. For example, the presence of turf-grass 
phytoliths may indicate lawns in cultural land- 
scapes. 

At Lowell National Historical Park in Massachu- 
setts and at Harpers Ferry National Historical 
Park in West Virginia, phytolith analysis was used 
in conjunction with pollen and artifact analysis to 
document change in land use during the indus- 
trial revolution of the nineteenth centur/. (See 
Figures 2 and 3.) At Hampton, Virginia, archeo- 
logical investigations within the early city recov- 
ered teeth from domestic livestock. Phytoliths 
were extracted from the deposits on the teeth, 
providing a physical record of the eighteenth and 
nineteenth century diets of livestock and domes- 
tic animals. This information has been used to 
interpret 1 50 years of change in husbandry 
practices and land use at the household and 
community levels. The analysis of phytoliths was 
also used to identify historic field crop patterns at 
Monticello in Virginia, garden flora at the 
Moravian Gardens in North Carolina, Bacon's 
Castle in Virginia, and Morvan Gardens in New 
Jersey. 



I N 





Figure 2. The Harper Yard is the site of numerous archeological investigations that included piiytoiitii analysis. Information yielded in 
part through phytoliih analysis contributed to a treatment plan proposing rehabilitation of the yard to reflea its nineteenth century 
charaaer as a residential garden. Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. (NPS, 1 99 1) 



IM^TAUU LATTICE PoK. 
'fVRCM 6E£ tPETAIL. ^ 

■seo PETAll- 



Fl-^l£»SroWE. PATH 
ffEeSTAgUe'H ULAC 




eXT^WO FU,^q&TOUE PATH 
^^AlWTAW PIClCer P£Ud£^ 

peeSTABU-sM PEKEJJUIAL 
BGp 

fSfia-AlW ULA^^ 

/^IWTAlM TURF 

^fTABiUte^ ^TOM& V»jAU- 



Figure 3. The proposed treatment plan for ^e Harper Yard. Information for the rehabilitation plan was partly derived from phytolith 
and pollen analyses of the yard. Harpers Ferry National Historical Park. (NPS, 1 99 1) 



POLLEN, PHYTOLITH, AND 



MACROFLORAL 



ANALYSES 



Macroflora Analysis 

The Technique 

Macroflora analysis refers to the investigation of 
the macroscopic, buried remains of plants. These 
macroscopic remains include seeds, fruits, wood, 
leaves, roots, and tubers. Macroflora are identi- 
fied according to their parent taxa and used to 
construct a history of indigenous and introduced 
vegetation. Macroflora are also a source of 
ethnobotanicai information, which indicates the 
relationship between the plants and cultural 
activities of a landscape. 

Macroflora are preserved for the longest dura- 
tion in charcoalified form, caused by charring 
through human activities or naturally occurring 
fires. Charcoal (carbon) is a relatively inert sub- 
stance that is not further decomposed by micro- 
organisms. Few seeds live longer than a century 
and those persisting longer are usually charred. 
Carbon dating can be used to determine the 
relative age of charcoalified macroflora. 

In the absence of charring, macroflora are best 
preserved in incubating conditions that are least 
favorable to the growth of decomposing microor- 
ganisms. Such conditions include arid, dry envi- 
ronments and conditions with a pH either more 
acid or alkaline than neutral. Most living organisms 
occupy a narrow pH range from slightly acid to 
neutral. More acid conditions, such as found in 
bogs and privies, retard the decomposition of 
organic material (macroflora) because the pH 
inhibits the grov\/th of microorganisms. Anaerobic, 
waterlogged conditions are conducive to the 



carbonization of macroflora, a process similar to 
lignification (development of wood), which also 
retards decomposition. 

Macroflora are derived from soil samples that have 
been classified according to their strata. Seeds may 
be incubated within human or mammalian waste 
(where they can provide dietary information), or 
directly within soil as a result of dispersal by wind, 
animals, and water. The macroflora analyst sepa- 
rates the seeds, leaves, fruits, or wood from the 
incubating sediment and obsen^es the tissue under 
a light microscope to identify the parent taxa. 
Seeds and whole leaves can often be identified to 
the species level through examination of morpho- 
logical characteristics. Certain dry fruits or succulent 
fruits, such as cherries and peaches, are identifiable 
to species. Wood must be diagnosed through the 
microscopic examination of conductive tissues and 
generally cannot be identified below the taxonomic 
level of genus. 

Applying Macroflora Analysis to 
Cultural Landscape Research 

Macroflora analysis is used with other archeologi- 
cal techniques to reconstruct the historic appear- 
ance of a cultural landscape. Charcoalified 
macroflora may be used to reconstruct vegetation 
cover in prehistoric periods. The analysis may 
indicate the presence of plant species in a particu- 
lar period and also provide a temporal sequence 
of species change through successive periods. 
The pattern of vegetation change may be critical 
to understanding how a cultural landscape 
evolved as a result of human intervention and 
natural disturbances. (See Figure 4.) 



I N 




Figure 4. Soil samples are collected during an archeological 
excavation, organized according to their respective soil strata, 
and analyzed for the presence of pollen, phytoiitbs, and macro- 
flora. San Juan Island National Historical Park. (NPS, 1 985) 



pollen deposited in lake beds in central Massachu- 
setts. The identification of historically existing 
species and the study of vegetation dynannics will 
contribute to a land use and fire history. 

A very large macroflora analysis was used to 
reconstruct the landscape of Pompeii, Italy. In 
A.D. 79, Mount Vesuvius erupted, destroying 
Pompeii and Heraculaneum. Vegetation incin- 
erated during the eruption was preserved as 
charcoalified macroflora under a layer of pum- 
ice and ash many meters deep. Much of 
Pompeii has been excavated back to the level 
of the soil in A.D. 79. At the soil level, 
charcoalified roots are excavated and identified: 
or concrete casts are made of root cavities, 
leading to plant identification by shape or size. 
Charcoalified seeds, roots and branches of 
olives, peaches, almonds, grapes, and other 
woody plants are contributing information to 
the reconstruction of formal gardens and 
vineyards within the ancient city. 



Macroflora analysis can also contribute to the 
reconstruction of a landscape at a particular 
period. For example, at Monticello in Virginia, 
charcoalified seeds found in the ash of a servant's 
kitchen fireplace on Mulberry Row were identi- 
fied as sorghum, watermelon, corn, peaches, and 
pokeberry. Here, macroflora analysis indicated 
some of the crops grown on the farm during 
Thomas Jefferson's occupation, and also contrib- 
uted dietary information, 

In New England, more general changes in 
vegetation over the past 2,000 years are being 
investigated using the record of macroflora and 



References 

General References 

International Work Group for Paleoethnobotany. 
1 983. Plants and Ancient Man: Studies in 
Paleoethnobotany. In Proceedings of the Sixth 
Symposium of the International Work Group for 
Paleoethnobotany. Groningen. 

Miller, N.F., and K.L. Gleason, eds. 1994. The 
Archaeology of Garden and Field. Pennsylvania: 
University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 



POLLEN, PHYTOLITH, AND MACROFLORAL ANALYSES 



Pearshall, D.M. 1989. Paleoethnobotany: A 
Handbook of Procedures. San Diego; Academic 
Press. 

Pollen Analysis References 

Behre, Karl-Ernst. 1980. The Interpretation of 
Anthropogenic Indicators in Pollen Diagrams. 
Pollen et SporesJiQ.): 225-245. 

Bruyam, R.B. 1978. Pollen Indicators of Land Use 
Change in Southern Connecticut. Quaternary 
Research 9: 349-362. 

Bryant, V. 1 975. Pollen as an Indicator of Prehis- 
toric Diets in Coahuila, Mexico. Bulletin of the 
Texas Archaeological Society 46: 87- 1 06. 

Bryant, V., and S.A. Hall. 1 993. Archaeological 
Palynology in the United States: a Critique. 
American Anthropology 58: 277-286. 

Bryant, V., and R.G. Holloway. 1983. The Role 
of Palynology in Archaeology. Advances in Ar- 
chaeological Method and Theory 6: 1 9 1 -224. 
New York: Academic Press. 

Cranwell, L,M. 1992. Pollen. McGraw-Hill 
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology 1 4, 
120-126. New York: McGraw-Hill. 

Dimbleby, G.W. 1985. The Palynology of Ar- 
chaeological Sites. New York: Academic Press. 

Faegri, K. Kaland, P.E. and K. Krzywinski. 1989. 
Textbool< of Pollen Analysis. New York: John 
Wiley and Sons. 



Kelso, Gerald K., and MaryC. Beaudry. 1990. 
Pollen Analysis and Urban Land Use: The 
Environs of Scottow's Dockin the 17th, 18th, 
and Early 19th-century Boston. Historical 
Archeology 1\\):G\~^\. 

Moore, P.D., J.A. Webb, and M.E. Collinson. 
1 99 1 . Pollen Analysis. London: Blackwell Scientific 
Publications. 

Reinhard, K.J., and Stephen A. Mrozowski. 1986. 
Pollen and Parasites: Exploring the Biological 
Nexus in Historical Archeology. MASCAjournai 
4(1): 3 I -36. 

Schoenwetter, James. 1963. Sun/ey of Palynologi- 
cal Results. /American Bottom Archeology, Second 
Annual Report. Edited by M. L. Fowler. Illinois 
Archeological Surrey, University of Illinois, 
Carbondale, 

. 1 973. Archeological Pollen Analysis of 



Sediment Samples from Asto Village Sites. Les 
Etablissements Asto a I' Epoque Prehispanique. 
D. Lavalle and M. Julien. Travaux de I' Institut 
Francaisd' Etudes Andines, 15, Lima. 

Solomon, A.M., and D.F. Kroener. 1 97 1 . Subur- 
ban Replacement of Rural Land Uses Reflected in 
the Pollen Rain of Northern New Jersey. New 
Jersey Academy of Science Bulletin 16: 30-43. 

Phytolith Analysis References 

Bozarth, Stephen R. 1987. Diagnostic Opal 
Phytoliths from Rinds of Selected Cucurbita 
Species. American Antiquity 52(3): 607- 15. 



N D 



. 1990. Diagnostic Opal Ph/toliths 

from Pods of Selected Varieties of Common 
Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). American Antiquity 
55(1): 98-104. 

. 1 992. Classification of Opal Phytoliths 

Formed in Selected Dicotyledons Native to the 
Great Plains. Ptiytoiitti Systematics: Emerging 
issues, 1 93-2 1 4. Edited by G. Rapp, Jr. and S.C 
Mulholland. New York: Plenum Press. 

Brown, Dwight A. 1984, Prospects and Limits of 
a Phytolith Key for Grasses in the Central United 
StdiXes. Journai of Arciieoiogicai Science I 1(4): 
345-368. 

Cummings, Linda S. 1992. Illustrated Phytoliths 
from Assorted Food Plants. Piiytoiitii Systemat- 
ics: Emerging issues, 1 7S~ 1 92. Edited by G. 
Rapp, Jr. and S.C. Mulholland. New York: 
Plenum Press. 

Geis, James W. 1 973 . Biogenic Silica in Selected 
Species of Deciduous Angiosperms. Soii Science 
116(2): 113-119. 

Klein, RobertL, andJamesW. Geis. 1978. Biogenic 
Silica in the Pinaceae. Soii Science 1 26(3): 1 45- 1 56. 

Kendo, Renzo. 1974. Opal Phytoliths— The 
Relations Between the Morphological Features of 
Opal Phytoliths and the Taxonomic Groups of " 
Gramineous Plants. Pedorojisuto (Pedoiogist) 18: 
2-10. 

. 1 976. On the Opal Phytoliths of Tree 



1977. Opal Phytoliths, Inorganic, 



Origins. Pedorojisuto (Pedoiogist) 20: 176-190. 



Biogenic Particles in Plants and S6\\s. Japan Agri- 
cuiturai Researcii Quarteriy \ 1(4): 198-203. 

Kondo, Renzo, and TomokoPeason. 1 98 1 ., Opal. 
Phytoliths in Tree Leaves (Part 2): Opal Phytoliths 
in Dicotyledonous Angiosperm Tree Leaves. 
Research Buiietin ofObihiro University Series I , 
1 2(3): 2 1 7-30. 

Kondo, Renzo, and Takahashi Sase. 1 986. Opal 
Phytoliths, Their Nature and Application, Daiyoni<i 
Keni<yu {Quaternary Researcif)15{\)\ 31-63. 

Kondo, Renzo, Takahashi Sase, and Y. Kato. 1 987. 
Opal Phytolith Analysis of Andisois with Regard to 
Interpretation of Paleovegetation. In Proceedings of 
the Ninth Intemationai Soii Ciassification Worl<- 
shop, Japan. 520-534. Edited by D. I. Kinloch etal. 

Kondo, Renzo, and T. Sumida. 1978. The Study 
of Opal Phytoliths of Tree Leaves I. Opal 
Phytoliths in Gymnosperm and Monocotyledon- 
ous Angiosperm Tree \-Qd.ye%.Journaiofthe 
Science of Soii and i^anure, Japan 49(2): 138-44. 

Parry, D. Wynn, and Frank Smithson. 1 958. 
Silification of Bulliform Cells in Grasses. Nature 
181: 1549-1550. 

Piperno, Dolores, R. 1988. Phytoiith Anaiysis: an 
Archeoiogicai and Geoiogicai Perspective. San 
Diego: Academic Press. 

Rovner, Irwin. 1971 . Potential of Opal Phytoliths 
for Use in Paleoecological Reconstruction. Qua- 
ternary Research {\)3\ 345-359. 



POLLEN, PHYTOLITH. AND MACROFLORAL ANALYSES 



. 1 972. Note on a Safer Procedure for 

Opal Phytolith Extraction. Quaternary Research 
(2)4; 59 1 . 

. 1983. Major Advances in 



Archeobotany: Archeological Uses of Opal 
Phytolith Analysis. Advances in Archeological 
Method and Theory. Vol. 6. Edited by Michael 
Schiffer. New York: Academic Press. 

. 1 988. Micro- and Macro-environ- 



mental Reconstruction Using Plant Opal Phytolith 
Data from Archeological Sediments. 
GeoarcheologylQ): 1 55- 1 65. 

. 1990. Fine-tuning Floral History v\/ith 



Opal Phytolith Analysis. Earth Patterns, Essays in 
Landscape Archeology, 297-308. Edited by 
William Kelso and Rachel Most. Charlottesville: 
The University Press of Virginia. 

Twiss, Page C, Erwin Suess, and Robert M. 
Smith. 1969. Morphological Classification of 
Grass Phytoliths. In Soii Science Society of 
America Proceedings 33(1): 109-1 15. 

Macroflora Analysis References 

Bailey, Liberty Hyde, and Ethel Zoe Bailey. 
1 976. i-iortus Third: A Concise Dictionary of 
Plants Cultivated in the United States and 
Canada. Compiled by Liberty Hyde and Zoe 
Bailey, revised and expanded by the Liberty 
Hyde Bailey Hortorium, a unit of the New York 
State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, at 
Cornell University. New York: Macmillan. 



Blake, Leonard W. 1 963. Plant matenals from the 
Bell Site. Wisconsin ArcheologistM{ I ): 70-7 1 . 

Blake, Leonard W., and Hugh C. Cutler. 1 982. 
Plant Remains from the King Hill Site (23BN I ) 
and Comparisons with Those from the Utz Site 
(23A2). Missouri Archeologist 43: 86-1 10. 

Cutler, Hugh C 1 980. Corn from 38BU 1 62A. 
The Discovery of Santa Elena 9 1 -95. Stanley 
South. Institute of Archeology and Anthropology, 
Research Manuscript Series 165. Columbia: 
University of South Carolina. 

Gardiner, Paul S. 1 980. Appendix C: Analysis of 
the Santa Elena Flotation Samples. The Discovery 
of Santa Elena. Stanley South. Institute of Archeol- 
ogy and Anthropology, Research Manuscript Series 
165. Columbia: University of South Carolina. 

Hally, David, J. 1 98 1 . Plant Preservation and the 
Content of Paleobotanical Samples: A Case 
Study. American Antiquity 46: ll'i-lAl. 

Harrington, James F. 1 972. Seed Biology. Vol. 3. 
145-240. Edited byT.T. Kozlowski. New York: 
Academic Press. 

Hedrick, U.P., ed. 1972. Sturtevant's Edible 
Plants of the World. New York: Dover Publica- 
tions, Inc. 

Justice, Oren L., and Louis N. Bass. 1978. 
Principles and Practices of Seed Storage. Agricul- 
ture Handbook, no. 506. USDA. 




10 



N D 



I N 



Kelso, W, and Rachel Most, eds. 1 990. Earth 
Patterns: Archeology of Early American and 
Ancient Gardens and Landscapes. Charlottesville: 
University Press of Virginia. 

Kirk, Donald R. 1975. Wild Edible Plants of 
Western North America. Happy Camp, Califor- 
nia: Naturegraph Publications. 

Martin, Alexander C. 1972. bVeeo!?. New York: 
Western Publishing Company. 

Miller, Naomi F. 1 989. What Mean These Seeds; 
A Comparative Approach to Archeological Seed 
Analysis. Historical Archeology 23. 



Scarry, C. Margaret. 1983. Analysis of the Floral 
Remains from the 1 982 Santa Elena (38BUL62) 
Excavations. Revealing Santa Elena, 1982, I 13- 
1 43. Stanley South. Institute of Archeology and 
Anthropology Manuscript Series 188. Colunnbia: 
University of South Carolina. 

. 1 985. The Use of Plant Food in 



Sixteenth Century St. Augustine. Florida Anthro- 
pologist ^^{\-T)•. 7 O^^O. 

Quick, Clarence R, 1 96 1 . How Long Can a Seed 
Remain Alive? Seeds, the Yearbook of Agriculture. 
94-99. Edited by A. Stefferud. Washington, DC: 
US Governnnent Printing Office. 



• 



Minnis, Paul E. 1 98 1 . Seeds in Archeological Sites: 
Sources and Some Interpretive Problems. Ameri- 
can Antiquity 46( I ): 1 43- 1 52. 



POLLEN. PHYTOLITH, AND 



MACROFLORAL ANALYSES 



II 



• 



The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. 

U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 

Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 




Tree Coring 




^■/treevwbicft^allovvs/iTi^ ..■■;, ; 

;,.Sorpe considertree coring.to^be potentiaHy-hctrmfuLtatrees. The'; 

: vepring technique used.to a saoiple wounds^ the tree and may. 

. / introddGe ;■ pathogens dr open up existing pockets .of infection ;wit.hin ■ 
.the woodtissue' that had been successfully. Gompartmentalized by . 
the.tree.; .Usepf tree coring assumes that, the tree is healthy enough 
to seal off pathogens bbth'chemically and physically before the 
organisms have.a chance to spread and possibly cause systemic 
infection. 



Applying Tree Coring to 
Cultural Landscape Research 

Tree coring is a valuable investigative technique in cultural landscape 
research when a mature tree appears to date from a known period 
of significance, but historic documentation about the tree is lacking. 
For example, in cultural landscapes where the period of significance is 
recent, questionable trees may have a caliper size of only six inches. 



In addition, different growing conditions affect the 
size of trees from an assumed average, making 
age estimation difficult without coring. The 
decision to core must consider physiological and 
morphological characteristics of a particular 
species, health status, potential vulnerability, such 
as genetic susceptibility or local presence of 
pathogens, management objectives, and the 
proposed treatment for the landscape. 

Tree coring was used as a research tool at Weir 
Farm National Historic Site in Connecticut to 
develop a restoration treatment plan for the site. 
Historical research had not revealed whether 
particular trees dated from the period of signifi- 
cance. The trees were cored and the data helped 
planners decide whether to keep or remove the 
trees in question. 



Performing the Technique 

Equipment 

When coring a tree, it is best to use the smallest 
diameter bit possible for the increment borer. 
(See Figure I .) Borer bits range in diameter from 
0.169 inches (4.3 mnn) to 0.5 inches (1 2 mm). A 
bit diameter of 0. 1 69 inches is adequate for 
determining age, but larger sizes are more 
typically used for quantitative analysis in silviculture 
research. The bit length used depends on the 
radius of the tree with some extra length to 
ensure the borer reaches the center of the trunk. 
Bit lengths range fronn approximately 6 to 30 
inches. The increment borer bit should be sharp 
(a 3-thread bit penetrates more easily than a 2- 
thread bit) and sterilized with rubbing alcohol. 



Selecting an Increment Borer 

Three things to consider when ordering an increment borer 
are length, diameter, and style. 



Borer bit length depends on the size of the trees you will be 
boring. Length is measured from the tip of the threads to the 
end of the round section of the borer bit. This is the 
maximum depth the bit will penetrate. 

Core Diameter for the wood sample is determined by the 
inside diameter of the opening at the threaded end of the bit. 
. 1 69 inches is commonly used for general forestry use, .200 
inches for wood preserving testing, and .500 inches for large 
amounts of wood for quantitative analysis. 



fc.169"(4.3mm) •.200" (5.15 mm) 




.500" (12 mm) 



2- or 3-Thread Style is a matter of personal preference. A 2- 
thread borer has two threads on the cutting edge of the bit, 
each originating 1 80° apart. A 3-thread borer has three 
threads, each originating 1 20° apart. The 3-thread borer, due 
to Its higher pitch, will penetrate the wood deeper per 
revolution than a 2-thread and also produce less friction 
because more threads are pushing against the wood. It is 
important to remember that the ease at which a borer 
penetrates wood depends on wood hardness, friction 
properties, and capability/strength of the user. 




Figure i. Photograph of an increment borer and extractor and 
diagram indicating how to selea an appropriate increment 
borer size. (Photograph courtesy of Forestry Suppliers, Inc., 
1996) 




Figure 2. An increment borer is used to core a Douglas Fir 
(Pseudotsuga menziesii) tree. San Juan island National 
Historical Pork. (NFS, 1987) 



Sterilization should be repeated between succes- 
sive cores to prevent disease transmission be- 
tween trees. After sterilization, the increment 
borer is lubricated with a natural wax, such as 
beeswax. If beeswax is coated along the borer to 
the same length as the radius of the tree, the end 
point of the wax can be used as a gauge of when 
the centerpoint of the trunk is reached. 

Drilling the Core 

The best position for drilling is the one that 
allows for the operator's optimum leverage and 
control. Tree coring is a strenuous activity, so the 
preferred working position for the operator is at 
stomach or chest height, 



Coring involves removing a core sample from 
the trunk of a living tree using the increment 
borer. (See Figure 2.) The core is a segment of 
the cylindrical trunk, corresponding in length to 
the trunk radius (the core extends from the 
outer bark to the center of the trunk). To 
obtain the core that is best for aging the tree, 
drilling should occur at the lowest point on the 
trunk before the transition to the root zone 
(just above the root flair). This location contains 
the greatest number of rings because it is the 
oldest part of the tree. The higher up the tree 
trunk, the fewer the number of growth rings. If 
the core is taken too low in the root flair, the 
core will be difficult to read. In this transition 
zone, stem cells are modified as root cells and 
the signature of rings becomes diffused. Ap- 
proximately three to four feet above ground 
level is ideal. 

Once the drilling location is determined, the 
increment borer is positioned so it can reach the 
center of the trunk. After drilling, just beyond the 
center (or up to the end of the beeswax), the drill 
is reversed through one revolution to loosen the 
core. An extractor is then inserted to remove the 
core. The borer should be backed-out immedi- 
ately so that proximate tissues will not svu'ell. If 
swelling occurs, removing the borer will be 
difficult, if not impossible. The drill hole in the tree 
trunk should be left untreated. 

If the tree radius is larger than the bit length of the 
increment borer, the center of the trunk cannot 
be reached in a single core. The age of the tree 
then must be interpolated. Age interpolation is 
done by determining what percentage of the 



O R I N 



radius the borer can penetrate, calculating the 
number of rings per inch in the extracted core, 
then interpolating how many rings the remaining 
uncored tissue will bear. The same interpolation 
must be applied when a tree trunk is hollow and 
a complete core cannot be extracted. It may be 
very difficult or impossible to remove the incre- 
ment borer from a hollow tree trunk. 

Determining Age 

A core should extend a little beyond the center 
of the trunk to ensure that the centerpoint can 
be visually identified. Wetting the core with water 
or applying core dye may make the rings more 
legible. Consecutive growth rings at the center 
of the trunk (at the end of the core) appear as 
increasingly acute single "parentheses," which 
become inverted beyond the centerpoint. The 
midway point between the only "paired paren- 
theses" marks the centerpoint; this is the refer- 
ence point to either begin or end counting. Each 
grov\4h ring represents one year of life. 



References 

Forestry Suppliers, Inc. Haglofand Suunto Incre- 
ment Borers. Jackson, MS: marketing catalog, to 
order phone 1-800-647-5368. 

Kramer, Paul Jackson. 1979. Physiology of 
Woody Plants. New York: Academic Press. 

Shigo,Alex, L 1991. Modern Aboriculture: 
A Systems Approach to the Care of Trees and 
their Associates Durham, NH: Shigo and Tree 
Associates. 

. 1993, IOOTreeMyths.Dur\\3.n\, 

NH: Shigo and Tree Associates. 

. 1994. Tree Anatomy. Durham, NH; 



Shigo and Tree Associates. 



Some species are easier to read than others, due 
to ring size, porosity of cells, presence of tannin, 
or chemical discoloration. In the more difficult 
cases it may be necessary to use staining treat- 
ments or dyes, magnifying lenses, and micro- 
scopes to visually enhance the rings for counting. 
These procedures may demand the expertise of 
a dendrochronologist. 



The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. 

U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 




Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 



Surveys 







;^gl5!^f^^^nd;|tte:e?<pert^ 



::SltE'SLHlVEY 

bocurnentatiohiof the existing conditions of a. cultural landscape 
requireS;bGth site research and asite sun/ey. Site surveys are usually^ . 
cpnduded by a: historicallandscape architect and require the recording 
of as. much information, as, is pertinent to, and defined by, the project 
agreement ■ ' - . ' 



Site surveys range from general reconnaissance and windshield 
surveys to detailed condition assessments for individual features, Site 
surveys require on-the-ground fieldworl< to inventory and document 
existing landscape characteristics and associated features, such as 
vegetation, circulation, and land use. Also, recorded are contempo- 
rary site functions and detailed technical information, as appropriate. 
The goal of the site survey is to record the landscape as objectively 
as possible. 



The findings from the existing conditions investi- 
gation and site history are connpared to identify 
the landscape characteristics and associated 
features that have significance based on National 
Register criteria. Significant landscape characteris- 
tics and associated features are those that have 
existed since a period of significance and have 
retained integrity. 

Ideally, a site survey should be preceded by 
historical research so that the history and 
historic context of the landscape are under- 
stood. With this information, the type of 
landscape characteristics and associated fea- 
tures likely to be found can be anticipated. In 
preparing for a site survey, landscape bound- 
aries should also be determined. If legal prop- 
erty lines are not known, a boundary or cadas- 
tral survey may be required before the site 
survey. During the site survey it is useful to 
have copies of a United States Geological Sun/ey 
(USGS) map, a historic site map, an aerial 
photograph, historical photographs, and a 
topographic survey nnap. 

The appearance of landscape characteristics and 
associated features, their physical condition, and 
visible changes that have occurred since the 
period(s) of significance, should be recorded in a 
format that is easily used for analysis and evalua- 
tion. A standard form may be prepared for record- 
ing obsen/ations, including a map for geographically 
referencing landscape characteristics and associated 
■ features, and space for writing notes and making 
sketches. Field work should include taking black 
and white photographs and color slides, as well as 
detailed notes and sketches. 



A datalogger, a type of hand-held computer 
used as a part of a Global Positioning System, 
may be used to expedite the recording of site 
survey data. A datalogger can be digitally pro- 
grammed with a "data-dictionary" or standard 
inventor/ form before the survey begins, allowing 
responses to be entered in the field. The re- 
corded information can then be downloaded to a 
computer. (See Landscape Lines II: Global 
Positioning Systems) 

The scheduling and number of site surveys is 
determined by park operational and program 
functions, and the management objectives and 
level of investigation outlined in the CLR project 
agreement. For example, management objectives 
may require more than one site survey to investi- 
gate the effect of seasonal changes in the existing 
conditions of a landscape. Operational or pro- ■ 
gram functions may require site surveys to be 
scheduled at only off-season times of the year. A 
limited level of investigation may restrict the site 
investigation to one site survey. A site survey 
must be scheduled during the most revealing 
conditions for information gathering; for example, 
when wetlands are submerged rather than dry, 
when deciduous trees, shrubs, and herbaceous 
plants have foliage, when steep topography is 
traversable, or when the daily altitude and azi- 
muth of the sun best reveals geologic formations 
in black and white photography. 



Topographic Survey 

A topographic survey (also called a location 
ground survey) is an accurate technique for 
recording the positions of all detectable landscape 



N D 



I N 



characteristics and associated features on or 
above grade (ground elevation). Landscape 
characteristics and associated features are re- 
corded on a topographic survey nnap, which is 
then used to create a base plan for subsequent 
plan drawings, including period plans and existing 
conditions plans. 

The topographic survey map shows contours at a 
prescribed interval and indicates spot elevations of 
peaks (high-points), depressions (low-points), and 
selected features. (See Figures I and 2.) To 
determine the position of landscape characteris- 
tics and associated features, the survey uses the 
horizontal and vertical position relative to an 
established "ground control" point. (See "Ground 
Control Survey" later in this te>ct.) The types of 



features identified include building foundation 
outlines, edges of paving materials, fence and wall 
lines, surface utilities (poles, wires, transformers, 
and manhole covers), water features, vegetation 
masses and individual plants, roadway centerlines, 
top and bottom of walls, curbs, gutters, and steps. 

The level of detail desired in a topographic 
survey, such as the contour internal and accuracy 
of spot elevations, must be specified. The specifi- 
cations should indicate that a registered land 
surveyor or civil engineer will perform the topo- 
graphic survey. 

Unlike a site survey, a topographic survey does 
not record qualitative information about the 
appearance, physical condition, or relative 





Figure I. Typical portion of a topographic ar}d utility survey 
for Klingle Mar)sion. Rock Creek Park. (NPS, 1 995) 



Figure 2. Typical portion of a topographic survey of English 
Camp. San juar) Island National Historical Park. (NPS, 1987) 



importance of a cultural landscape. A site survey 
performed before a topographic survey can aid 
in selecting features to be recorded in a topo- 
graphic survey. If a topographic survey is per- 
formed before a site sun/ey, the resultant topo- 
graphic survey map can be used during a site 
survey to document landscape characteristics and 
associated features. 

Aerial photogrammetry is an alternative technique 
for obtaining topographic information through the 
use of ortho-rectified (horizontally and vertically 
georeferenced), aerial photographs. (See Figure 
3.) Hov^ever, because the topographic informa- 



tion is derived from a specialized photograph 
taken above ground level, the information is less 
refined than the information based on a traditional 
topographic survey. Aerial photogrammetry may 
be used to derive the overall topography of a 
large landscape, whereas a traditional topographic 
survey may be performed in landscape areas with 
a greater density of features. (See Landscape 
Lines 5: Graphic Documentation.) 

The need and scope of a topographic sun/ey 
and its scale depend on the type and size of the 
landscape, and the density of existing features. 
Also influencing the survey's scale are the 




Figure 3. Topographic survey generated using computer aerial photogrammetry. Weir Farm Natior)al Historic Site. (NPS, 1 992) 



LANDSCAPE LINES 



management objectives and the level of investi- 
gation for the CLR. Typically the scale of resolu- 
tion of a USGS topographic quadrangle map at 
1 : 2400 is too small to accurately depict topo- 
graphic contours on a 1 : 200 base plan. For 
larger landscapes, a survey derived from aerial 
photogrammetry may be satisfactory and less 
expensive than a traditional topographic survey 
for obtaining landscape topographic data. If 
traditional methods are used to record the 
topography of an entire landscape, the costs can 
be reduced by using a larger contour interval for 
the overall landscape and a smaller (more 
detailed) contour inten/al for areas with a 
greater density of features. 

Topographic information may be delivered as 
either a print document or electronic files (on 
disk). If the graphic documentation of a CLR is 
produced using computer aided design (CAD), it 
is best to receive that information from the 
surveyor as electronic files saved as a specified 
CAD format. This v^ill make it easier to create a 
CAD base plan. 



Ground Control Survey 

Aground control survey establishes geographic 
control points, or benchmarks, to v^hich all 
surveyed coordinates relate. The survey records 
horizontal and vertical ground control monu- 
ments already in place, or positions new ground 
control monuments v^here none exist. 

Aground control survey is performed concur- 
rently with other types of surveys to provide 
points of reference. If no benchmarks exist or 



their coordinates are unknown, establishing a 
ground control may be necessary before topo- 
graphic, utility, or hydrographic surveys are 
conducted. Traditional survey equipment, such as 
a transit, theodolite, electronic distance meter, 
level, and measuring tape is used in this tech- 
nique. (See Figure 4.) A survey grid is established 
from either the ground control monument or 
benchmark. 



Utility Survey 

A utility sun/ey identifies and locates existing or 
abandoned utilities, above and below ground, 
and documents their horizontal and vertical 
positions relative to a ground control. A utility 




Figure 4. Sur/eyors using laser transits to perform a 
topographic survey. San juan National Historical Park. (NPS, 
1987) 



U R V 



Y S 



survey is performed by a certified geophysical 
survey contractor and may involve identifying all 
utilities or just specified utilities. 

Types of information recorded during a utility 
survey may include the type of utility, line diam- 
eter and location, materials of construction, and 
related structures or mechanical features. Geo- 
physical survey equipment, such as ground 
penetrating radar, is used to detect the utilities. A 
utility survey also requires collection of all existing 
documentation from utility companies, although 
the documentation does not alv^ays include all 
site improvements that have occurred overtime, 
such as the installation of, or modifications to, 
drainage, irrigation, and lighting systems. 

Utility surveys contribute information to the 
development of the site history of a landscape, 
but the information is more likely to be useful in 
preparing construction drawings for work to be 
done as a result of a treatment plan. It may be 
more efficient to combine a utility survey with a 
topographic survey rather than contracting the 
two sun/eys separately. 



Cadastral Survey 

A cadastral survey, which can include and may be 
referred to as a property title search, involves 
researching the legal description of a property, 
including easements, former surveys and permits, 
and all other legal records related to the property 
through successive ownership. Such documents 
are found at the local courthouse, recorder of 
deeds office, tax assessors office, and any other 
iurisdictional offices. 



The product of a cadastral survey may be a 
reference file containing copies of all legal 
documents related to the property, or a com- 
posite map that graphically presents legal 
information about the property. The survey 
may include a narrative or graphic description 
of the property in metes and bounds, a copy of 
the property plat, deeds, previous plats, per- 
mits or easements (such as utility easements), 
and ground control monuments. This informa- 
tion can be used to understand the historic and 
contemporary legal status of the property, to 
date certain features of the landscape shown or 
described in legal documents, and to identify 
any legal restrictions associated with the pres- 
ervation and management of the landscape. 
(See Figure 5.) A historian, historical landscape 
architect, or other technical staff members can 
perform the survey. 

Boundary Survey 

A boundary survey establishes legal property lines 
by locating and identiiying coordinates for the 
boundaries of a cultural landscape. Knowledge of 
property boundaries is important for performing 
other kinds of sun/eys, such as topographic and 
utility surveys. Ideally, the location of property 
boundaries should be known before a site sun/ey 
is performed. 

A registered land surveyor or civil engineer will con- 
duct a boundary survey when no record of property 
lines exists, or when no legal boundary markers are 
found on the property. Boundary surveys are per- 
formed using traditional survey equipment and they 
are often conducted with topographic and cadastral 




™r~^ r. 



i-r«?^. EPGEWOpD.-r— AVE 



Figure 5. A historic cadastrai survey map, performed by the Worlcs Progress Administration in Atlanta. Map indicates the dwellings, 
property frontage, street width and alignment, and sidewalk cor^ditlons along Auhum Avenue. Martin Luther King Jr., National Historic 



surveys. The boundary survey may locate boundary 
markers and produce a narrative or graphic descrip- 
tion of the property boundaries. 

Hydrographic Survey 

A hydrographic survey maps the submerged 
topography and configuration of natural or 
constructed water features and locates and 
identifies underwater objects. A certified geo- 
physicist contractor often performs this survey 
with an archeologist. 

Geophysical survey equipment mounted on a 
floating vessel is used to conduct the soundings of a 
hydrographic survey. A side scan sonar uses 
reflected acoustic energy to record topography 
and locate submerged objects. Soundings are taken 
at regular intervals along survey lines perpendicular 
to the shore line. Supplementary soundings are 
taken of objects or features of particular interest, 
which may include sewer outfalls, sedimentation 
areas, spillways, dams, and rock outcroppings. The 
horizontal and vertical location of soundings is 
based on established ground control points. 



Topographic and location information is received 
by a recorder and can be printed as a survey map 
or stored as an electronic file. 

A hydrographic survey may be limited to investi- 
gating to a specified depth of sediment or surface 
geology beneath certain water features. Sediment 
cores or rock samples are taken from the bottom 
ofthewaterfeature using boring equipment. 
Archeoiogists, geologists, geophysicists, and 
archeobotanists may analyze the samples to 
better understand the cultural and natural history 
of the water feature and its environment. 

A hydrographic survey may be necessary as part 
of an existing conditions investigation to better 
understand the underwater qualities of a water 
feature. This may be particularly important when 
a water feature contributes to the significance of a 
landscape, when the presence of submerged 
cultural artifacts is suspected, and when the size, 
shape, or depth of a water feature has changed 
since a historic period and the cause or effect of 
this change needs to be understood. 



The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. 




U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 



Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 



Geographic Information Systems 



^m 




IK'te'vSi^WGh jpore^ sdphisticated anci &i .gehe)^ pew<daiB:,cLnd ": . "-■ 

;-;;i;-'Ui;festeptHa^^^^ in^cultural landscape' ■ "'-'-: ■ . 

>--''^-nnaha^ement-js now universal^ ■;. 

Perhaps because of ife roots in landscape' analysis,, the analytical - 
:; .; ' .capabilities of GIS are Gons!de;red ampng the rhost inriportant uses of ,. .' 
^ ■ .. the technology. :.Given. the necessary hist6ric.data,.,G|S can:be a, -:. 
, powerful tool .for. exannining cultural .landscape, changes'.over time'. ... 
. ■ For example; if a park has digitized historic land use maps, that are 
■ appropriately georeferenced, GIS can overlay the historic data on , 
currentland use data to determine the magnitude and spatial extent 
of the changes. GIS can also model or predict various outcomes of - 
different treatment alternatives presented in a Cultural Landscape 
Report (CLR). ^ ■ . ' 

Mapping, or cartographic output, is.another important use of GIS, and is 
often valuable for more intuitive, less explicit, visual analysis. (See Figure 
I .) For many years the quality of cartographic output available through 
GIS software could not equal that achieved with manual methods or 
computer aided drafting (CAD) systems. But this is no longer the case. 
Numerous mapping tools are now available in most GIS packages, 



including desktop systems, whicin offer tlie added 
benefit of being easy enougli to learn and use for 
even non-GIS specialists. 

GIS also offers an efficient method for storing and 
retrieving cultural landscape data. Unlike 
hardcopy maps, digital data does not decay over 
time (although the storage media may need to be 
updated), is easily copied with no loss of data 
quality, and requires little physical space. And 
wh\\e CAD systems may be just as effective in 
storing and retrieving spatial data, GIS is far 
superior for managing attribute information; that 
is, data describing spatial features, such as the 
year in which a building was constructed. 



Applying GIS to Cultural 
Landscape Management 

The National Park Service (NPS) has used GIS 
extensively to document and analyze cultural 
landscapes. The system can provide cartographic 
models analyzing the effect of visitor use and assist 
planners in developing alternatives for a visitor 
facility or placing roads and trails. GIS can also be 
used for viewshed analysis in which the computer, 
using a digital elevation model, generates a data 
layer of all areas visible from critical points within a 
park. This data layer can then be used in conjunc- 
tion with data about neighboring properties to 
predict how local planning, zoning, and develop- 
ment proposals might impact parkviews. 




Figure I. GIS map of an archeological survey. Jamestown National HistoricSite. (Map courtesy of North Carolina State 
University, n.d.) 



< 



I N 



For example, Manassas National Battlefield Park 
used GIS to protect its viewshed. The park was 
able to sinnulate the effects of a proposed shop- 
ping mall and office development within view of 
the battlefield. This helped the NPS garner public 
support to oppose the development and eventu- 
ally stop the project. 

Inventories of park cultural features have often 
been facilitated by the use of GIS. (See Figure 
2.) Using Global Positioning System (GPS) 
receivers, Richmond National Battlefield col- 
lected locations of all earthworks inside the park. 
The digital data was then entered directly into 
the park's database. The park also used GIS to 



inventory and monitor every tree in its historic 
orchard. Similar databases have been developed 
at many parks throughout the national park 
system. 



Technical Considerations 

Data 

Data is a critical element in GIS and it represents 
the biggest investment of resources. None of the 
previously mentioned implementations of GIS in 
cultural landscape management would have been 
possible without good data. Poor or inadequate 
data can lead to erroneous results, which is often 




Unauthorized Digging Locations in Gettsburg NMP: Spangler's Woods Section 



Figure 2. GIS plan of mauthonzed digging in Spangki^s Woods. The plan indicates topograpliy, circulation, and vegetation, along with 
the location of digging. The plan was created using Atias GIS and AutoCAD. Gettysburg National Military Park. (Plan courtesy of North 
Carolina State University, n.d.) 



H I 



I N 



R M 



worse than having no data at all. Care nnust 
always be taken to use data that is appropriate for 
the task at hand. 

Types of Data 

There are two basic types of data used in GIS: vector 
and raster. Vector data includes points, lines, or 
polygons and has one set of attributes associated with 
each feature. Raster data is a continuous area broken 
into a regular grid of cells, each cell having a value 
(attribute) associated with it. For example, a soil grid 
might have the soil t/pe found at each cell location. 
The main difference between vector and raster data is 
that vectors are feature-oriented and rasters are 
landscape-oriented. Discrete data, such as a structure, 
is better suited to a vector fonnat, while continuous 
data, such as slope, is better suited to a raster fonnat. 

Spatial data is usually separated into layers. A layer 
represents a group of features with a common set 
of attributes. For instance, roads, trails, soils, and 
terrain aspect are all possible data layers. In some 
cases, seemingly different features can be combined 
into one layer if the attributes are general enough. 
For example, roads and trails can be combined into 
a single layer called transportation, with an attribute 
describing whether the feature is a road or a trail. 

Obtaining Data 

Although obtaining data has always been, and 
remains the single largest roadblock to developing 
successful GIS applications, the tools available for 
collecting data are more numerous and easier to 
use than ever before. Some of the more popular 
methods for cultural landscape data collection 
include the following: 



• Global Positioning Systems (GPS). This in- 
volves the use of hand-held receivers that 
receive signals from satellites to determine the 
user's location on the ground. (See Landscape 
Lines/ 1: Global Positioning Systems) 

• Map scanning. Scanners have become a quick 
and efficient method for entering data from old 
maps and are much faster than hand-digitizing 
on a digitizing table, although sometimes the 
latter method must still be used. (See Figures 3 
and 4.) A scanned image is converted from a 
raster format to a line format through vectoring 
software. 

• Digital orthophotography. This is aerial imagery 
in which all the distortion due to terrain, 
camera angle, etc., is removed so that it is 
essentially a photo map. Many software 
packages allow "heads up" digitizing on a 
computer monitor with the digital orthophoto 
image displayed as a backdrop. 

In the next few years the development of very 
detailed satellite imagery may become a useful 
source of data for cultural landscape management. 

Storing Data 

All georeferenced data must be stored in a 
coordinate system and datum. Furthermore, to 
use two or more data sets together, they must 
be stored in the same coordinate system and 
datum. There are many coordinate systems 
available, including latitude/longitude and state 
plane, but the one most commonly employed 
within the MPS is the Universal Transverse 
Mercator (UTM) system. This coordinate 
system is based on a series of Transverse 



N D 




Figure 3. A large scanning device converts map information to 
digital form. (USGS J 995) 





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, 


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k 


r 


-, 


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MBuBf 




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^yti, ^^^ / 




-Mj;-,' ^5li-- 




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. 




feV 




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Figure 4. Digitizing converts map information to digital form 
using o hand-held mouse. (USGS, 1 995) 



Mercator projections, each one having its own 
set of parameters that control how the spatial 
coordinates are displayed. There are 60 zones 
encircling the earth corresponding to these 
projections, each zone being six degrees of 
longitude in width. Since each zone has its own 
Transverse Mercator projection and set of 
associated parameters, all data to be used 
together must be stored in the same UTM zone. 

There are two datums in widespread use 
around the agency: North American Datum of 
1 927 (NAD27) and North American Datum of 
1 983 (NAD83). The latter is a more accurate 
description of the earth's surface and NPS 
guidelines recommend that data should be 
placed in this datum whenever possible. How- 
ever, since many agencies still use NAD27, 
there is often the practical consideration of 
converting large amounts of data obtained from 
other sources to NAD83. Again, the most 
important concern is that all data to be used 
together be in the same datum. 

Resolutior], Accuracy, and Scale 

Other issues pertaining to data include resolution, 
accuracy, and scale. Although these terms are not 
synonymous, they are often used interchangeably, 
sometimes leading to confusion. Resolution refers 
to the degree of precision in a data set; that is, how 
finely described the data is. In a raster data set, 
resolution is the same as the cell size. In a vector 
data set, resolution can be thought of in terms of 
how closely the shape points in a line or polygon 
are spaced. (For a straight line, no more than two 
points are needed to describe it precisely.) 



H I 



T I O N 



Accuracy describes how close a feature in a data 
set is to its real location on the ground. This is 
easier to do with vector data than with raster data. 
Because raster data is not feature-based, it is often 
difficult to discern errors in spatial accuracy from 
errors in attribute accuracy unless the entire grid 
has been shifted, or rotated from its true location. 

Finally, scale is a nearly meaningless term when 
applied to digital data storage. Digital data is 
essentially scaleless until it is displayed, and even 
then its display scale can be easily changed. When 
performing spatial analysis or creating carto- 
graphic output, the most important consider- 
ations are the resolution and accuracy of the 
data. Data presented at too low a resolution will 
appear crude and blocky when displayed at a 
large scale. Since cultural landscape management 
often deals with small areas displayed at large 
scales, it is often necessary to have very high 
resolution data. 

A good source for information about the suit- 
ability of a data set for a particular need is the 
layer's metadata. Metadata is information about 
data, It should include such things as the source 
of the data, estimated accuracy, and time from 
which the data was collected. Metadata can be 
stored in many forms, ranging from a simple text 
file for an entire data layer to complex attribute 
fields describing each feature in a layer. 

Hardware and Software 

When the NPS began heavily promoting the use 
of GIS in the mid- 1 980s, there were few pow- 
erful software packages available for personal 



computers (PCs). Consequently, most parks 
turned to workstation computers running the 
UNIX operating system. Early GIS software 
included GRASS, a package developed by the 
United States Army Corps of Engineers, but 
most of these systems are now running Arc/Info, 
a proprietary package from the Environmental 
Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI). The last 
few years have seen the rise of GIS software for 
PCs, primarily ArcView, another product from 
ESRI. Desktop GIS is seen by many in the 
agency as the best way to get non-GIS specialists 
actively involved in using spatial data for analysis 
and mapping. Many opportunities exist for 
cultural resource managers to receive training 
for desktop GIS. Contact a regional or cluster 
GIS coordinator for information. 



Where to Go For Assistance 

Within the NPS there are many sources for 
obtaining further technical assistance related to 
GIS. Many parks have staff who are knowledge- 
able in the use of GIS and who can respond to 
inquiries. Many regions and clusters have field 
technical support centers that provide GIS 
services. In addition, there are regional and 
cluster GIS coordinators throughout the NPS 
who can provide technical guidance and direct 
individuals to appropriate resources. Their 
names and phone numbers, along with other 
agency- related GIS information, are available 
on the NPS GIS world wide web site 
(www.nps.gov). For general program informa- 
tion, the national GIS coordinator can be 
reached at 303-969-2964, The national GIS 
program office also has a cooperative agreement 



N D 



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with North Carolina State University to provide 
consultation and training services. Finally, the 
NPS Cultural Resource CIS (CRGIS) Facility of 
the Heritage Preservation Services Program in 
Washington provides CIS training and data 
collection service. 



GIS References 

Adams, Carol. 1 990. Visual Protection of National 
Parks. In Proceedings of the 2nd International 
Symposium on Advanced Teciinologyin Natural 
Resource Management. 

Allen, Kathleen M,, Stanton Green, and Ezra 
Zubrov\/, eds. 1990. Interpreting Space: GIS in 
Archeology. London: Taylor and Francis. 

Environmental Systems Research Institute. 1993. 
Understanding GIS: The Arc/Info Method. New 
Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

Foster, Mike, and Peter Shand. 1 990. Associa- 
tion for Geographic Information Yearbook 
1990. London: Taylor and Francis. 

Fotheringham, AS., and P. Kogerson, eds. 1 994. 
Spatial Analysis and GIS. London: Taylor and Francis. 

Goodchild, Michael, and SucharitaGopal, eds. 
1 989. The Accuracy of Spatial Databases. 
London: Taylor and Francis. 

Green, David R., David Rix, and James Cadoux- 
Hudson, eds. 1993. Geographic Information for 
1994: The Sourcebool< for GIS. London: Taylor 
and Francis. 



Hall, Jerry, and John Knoerl. 1990. Use of GIS 
for Site Planning and Resource Protection of 
Great Falls Park. In Proceedings of the 2nd 
International Symposium on Advanced Techno f 
ogyin Resource Management 

Hearnshaw, Hillary, and David Unwin. 1994. 
Visualization in Geographic Information Systems. 
New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. 

Hulse, D.W, and R.Z. Melnick. 1990. GIS as 
an Aid to Rural Landscape Protection. In 
Proceedings of the 2nd International Sympo- 
sium on Advanced Technology in Resource 
Management. 

Hunt, EleazerD. 1992. Upgrading Site-catch- 
ment Analysis with the Use of GIS: Investigating 
the Settlement Patterns of Horticulturalists. 
World ArcheologylAQ): 283-309. 

Langran, Gail. 1992. Time in Geographic Infor- 
mation Systems. London: Taylor and Francis. 

Marble, Duane, and Donna Peuquet. 1 990. 
Introductory Readings in Geographic Information 
Systems. London: Taylor and Francis. 

Maguire, D. M. Goodchild, and D. Rhind, eds. 
1 99 1 . Geographical Information Systems. 2 
Volumes, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

Masser, Ian, and Michael Blakemore. 1 99 1 . 
Handling Geographic Information: Methodology 
and Potential Applications. New Jersey; John 
Wiley and Sons. 



H I 



O R M A T I 



Mather, Paul, ed. 1994. Geographical Informa- 
tion Handling: Research and Applications. New 
Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. 

McCloy, Keith, 1994. Resource Managennent 
Information Systems. London: Taylor and Francis. 



Raper, Jonathan, ed. 1989. Three Dimensional 
Application in GIS. London: Taylor and Francis. 

Rhind, David, Jonathan Raper, and Helen 
Mounsey. 1992. Understanding GIS. London: 
Taylor and Francis. 



National Park Service. NBS/NPS Geographic 
Information Source-bool<. Washington DC: USDI, 
NPS, CRGIS Facility. 



Star, Jeffrey, and John Estes. 1990. Geographic 
Information Systems: An Introduction. New 
Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc. 



National Park Service. July 1993. National Park 
Sen/ice GIS Sourcebook. Isted.Vol. I.Wash- 
ington DC: USDI NPS, Geographic Infornnation 
Systenns Division. 

O'Doherty, Erin, Lee Graham, and Milford 
Fletcher. 1 990. Transferring Geographic Infor- 
mation System Technology to National Parks in 
the Southwest Region (USA). In Proceedings of 
the 2nd International Symposium on Advanced 
Technology in Natural Resource Management 

Peuquet, Donna, and Duane Marble, eds. 1990. 
Introductory Readings in Geographic Informa- 
tion Systems. London: Taylor and Francis. 



United States Geological Survey. 1 992. Geo- 
graphic Information Systems. Poster. Denver, 
Colorado. 

Worboys, M., ed. 1994. GIS: A Computer 
Science Perspective. London: Taylor and Francis. 

. 1994. Innovations in GIS. London: 



Taylor and Francis. 

Young, Roy Haines, David Green, and Steven 
Cousins, eds. 1994. Landscape Ecology and 
Geographic Information Systems. London: 
Taylor and Francis. 



Price, Martin, and Ian Heywood, eds, 1994. 
Mountain Environments and Geographic Infor- 
mation Systems. London: Taylor and Francis. 



The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. 

U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 




Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 



Global Positioning Systems 



ill! 




■/;;;■;;;:;; \^itl~iihva^^ 

;;;■;. l;;}GpS^NA/as^ tJevebped ^by^thS; United Statespepartrheht Of- Defense^' ■■ ' 
^:- ; ;-;(;PQD);1or^rhilitar/ pu^^ th^there.- ■ 

::.,;:;■■- woDld';bec^^ - 

/ ■: .?n6rlnniliter)<^app[ications.wouldq^^^^ uses in voiurne,: ■ 

■;;■. and diversity.. The sys^^ 

:;::. .known as-NAVSIAK. These satellites continually send out signals- that' 
^are picked' up by GPS receivers and used to caiculate a . receiver's , ' 
.location in. three-dimensional space. This infornnation is then translated 
.to.;any. of several geographic coordinate systems, such, as latitude and . 
;■ longitude or Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). ' 

There are several types of GPS receivers that are useful for different 
applications. (See Figure I .) Military grade receivers, which can 
decode a special noncivilian signal called precise positioning systenn 
(PPS), are very helpful for navigating (within about 1 meters) to 
known sites. Normal civilian GPS receivers, which use coarse 
acquisition (CA) signals, are better suited to mapping applications. 
After data is collected in the field with these receivers, accuracy can 
be greatly improved (to approximately two to seven meters) 
through a process called differential correction (discussed later in this 
section). Some GPS receivers are capable of collecting data in either 




Figure /. Catalog photograph of a GPS rover unit (Photograph 
courtesy of Trimble Navigatm, Inc., 1995) 



PPS or CA mode. There are also receivers 
specifically designed for extremely high-accuracy 
surveying. Most of these units can deliver 
coordinates accurate to v^ithin a centimeter. The 
most precise GPS receivers have even been 
used to detect motion in the earth's crust to 
within a millimeter. 



Applying GPS to Cultural 
Landscape Management 

In association with a Geographic Information 
System (GIS), GPS is an expedient and accurate 
tool for verifying the location of specific land- 
scape characteristics and associated features to 



identify UTM coordinates. The coordinates 
can, in turn, be used to verify georeferenced 
spatial data in GIS and aerial photographs. A 
GPS unit with an accuracy to within nine feet 
horizontally will most often be used to locate 
cultural landscape characteristics and associated 
features on a I inch = 20 feet base map. A 
survey grade GPS unit is more likely to be used 
when locating features on a I inch = 20 feet 
base map. 

Technical Considerations 

When a GPS receiver picks up signals from four 
satellites simultaneously, it can calculate a 
three-dimensional position for the user. When 
GPS first came into use, the NAVSTAR satellite 
system was incomplete. As a result, it was 
always necessary to plan data collection times 
to coincide with maximum local satellite visibil- 
ity to ensure that four satellite signals would be 
detected by the receiver (often referred to as 
"mission planning"). Now satellite coverage is 
available nearly continuously throughout the 
world, and data collection can be performed 
almost anywhere at any time. However, there 
can still be problems receiving a sufficient 
number of satellite signals in deep canyons or 
under heavy canopy. Under these conditions, 
mission planning may still be advisable. 

Accounting for Signal Error 

Because DOD wants to retain a strategic advan- 
tage over other countries' military organizations, it 
introduces a deliberate random error into the 
civilian satellite signals called selective availability. 



I N 



or SA, This error makes it necessary to tal<e extra 
measures to obtain coordinate locations more 
accurate than 1 00 meters. 

The most common method of eliminating SA- 
introduced error is known as post- processed 
differential correction. This technique requires that 
a second GPS receiver, known as a base station, 
be established at a known location, preferably over 
a sunv^ey control monument or other such site. 
The base station must be collecting data from the 
same satellites at the same time as the rover unit. 
As the base station collects data recording its 
location, the coordinates recorded wander ran- 
domly due to the SA error, When field collection is 
complete, software is used to apply a set of 
corrections to the base station's data, based on its 
known, true location. These same corrections are 
then applied to the corresponding rover data. In 
this manner, data that was no more accurate than 
i 00 meters can be made as close as two meters 
or even better. To ensure that the base station and 
rover unit "see" the same satellites, it is usually 
recommended that the rover unit be no farther 
than 500 kilometers from the base station, and that 
no signals from satellites lower than a certain level 
above the horizon (usually 1 5 degrees) be used in 
calculating rover positions. 

Another method of eliminating SA error is real-time 
differential correction. The process is similarto post- 
processed differential correction, except that the 
base station has a radio beacon that transmits its 
con-ections to the rover unit as data is collected. The 
rover unit is equipped with a radio receiver to pick 
up the correction signals, and an internal cornputer 
to calculate the con"ected coordinates. 



Military grade receivers that use PPS to record their 
locations avoid SA altogether. To prevent use by 
foreign countries, however, PPS is a coded signal 
that can only be read by a receiver properly 
configured to decode it. Through an agreement 
between the departments of Interior and Defense, 
the NPS has access to purchase and use receivers 
capable of decoding PPS signals. Most of the 
receivers of this type procured to date by NPS are 
Rockwell PLRGs (nicknamed, "pluggers"). 

Satellite Visibility Constraints 

Sometimes, even when more than four satellites 
are visible, it is not possible for the GPS receiver 
to get an accurate reading for its location. This is 
due to other sources of error in the system, such 
as atmospheric and ionosphere effects on the 
satellite signals, and errors in the internal timing 
mechanisms in the receivers. Most of this error 
can be minimized when the satellites being used 
to calculate a position are in a desirable geometri- 
cal configuration. However, often the angles 
between the satellites are too shallow or too near 
1 80 degrees to help eliminate enough of these 
other errors to produce a good positional read- 
ing. This problem is known as position dilution of 
precision (PDOP), and can be quite vexing in less 
than ideal terrain or canopy situations. Often a 
GPS user may be having a difllcult time just trying 
to get enough satellites, only to find that when a 
fourth signal kicks in, it results in a reading with 
much too high a PDOP to be acceptable for 
mapping. Sometimes the GPS user can move to a 
more favorable location and record an "offset" 
distance to the desired point, but unfortunately 
there is often nothing that can be done other than 



O B 



I O N I N 



r'^.-3'.-u4^r 





Figure 2. GPS operators and equipmer)t in the field (Photographs courtesy of Trimble Navigation, inc., 1 995) 



to wait for a lower PDOP reading. This is why it 
is still important to use mission planning software 
when collecting data under difficult satellite 
visibility conditions. 

Using a Data Dictionary 

As data is collected by the user (see Figure 2), 
the points, lines, and/or polygons being re- 
corded are stored in the receiver's data logger. 
When collecting data for input into a GIS it is 
often useful to have a list of the types of fea- 
tures to be collected, and information about 



thenn, stored in the data logger. This list is 
known as a data dictionary. As an example, if 
data about a cultural landscape were being 
collected with a GPS receiver, the data dictio- 
nary might contain a field for a unique feature 
identifier number, and another field containing 
the type of feature, such as building, fence, or 
rock wall. The user can select the appropriate 
codes as each feature is collected, saving time 
and confusion trying to remember which 
feature was which after the data has been 
entered into a GIS. (See Landscape Lines 10: 
Geographic information Systems) 



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Where to Go For Assistance 

Within tine NPS there are many sources for 
obtaining technical assistance on GPS. Many parks 
have staff who are knowledgeable about using 
GPS and who can respond to inquiries. In addi- 
tion, many regions and clusters have field techni- 
cal support centers that provide GPS services. 
There are regional and cluster GIS coordinators 
throughout the agency who can provide technical 
guidance and direct individuals to appropriate 
resources. The coordinators' names and phone 
numbers, along with other agency-related GIS 
information, are available on the NPS GIS world 
wide web site (w\vw.nps.gov). For general 
program information, the national GPS coordina- 
tor can be reached at 505-988-67 1 0. Finally, the 
NPS Cultural Resource GIS (CRGIS) Facility of 
the Heritage Preservation Services Program 
provides GPS training and data collection service. 



References 

Ackroyd, N., and R. Lorimer. 1990. Global 
Navigation, A GPS User's Guide. Lloyd's of 
London. 



Dahl, B. 1 990. Tlie Users Guide to GPS. Chi- 
cago: Richardson's Marine Publishing. 

Geodetic Survey Division. 1993. GPS Position- 
ing Guide. Ontario: Natural Resources Canada, 
6 1 5 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario K I A 0E9. 

Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., H. Lichtenegger, and J. 
Collins. 1992. Giobal Positioning System, 
Ttieory and Practice. Springer- Verlag. 

National Park Service. 1993. Idistoric Stonema- 
sonry of Great Smol<y f^ountains National Park, 
Open File Peport No. /Washington, DC: 
USD!, NPS, CRGIS Facility. 

National Park Service. NBS/NPS Geographic 
Information Sourcebook. Washington, DC: 
USDI, NPS, CRGIS Facility. 

Trimble Navigation, Ltd. 1992. GPS Surveyor's 
Guide — A Field Guidebook for Static Surveying. 
Sunnyvale, California: Trimble Navigation Ltd. 

Trimble Navigation, Ltd. 1992. GPS Surveyor's 
Guide — A Field Guidebook for Dynamic Survey- 
ing. Sunnyvale, California: Trimble Navigation Ltd. 



I O N I N 



The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. 




U.S. Department of the Inferior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 

Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 



Treatment of Plant Features 



If 






jNTRbpUCTION '" ' ' ' 

Virtually alhcuiturailandscapes are influenced by and depend on 
natural resources and processes. !n nnany ways, the dynamic qualities 
inherent in natural systems differentiate cultural landscapes from 
other cultural resources Plant and animal communities associated 
with human settlement and use are considered "biotic cultural 
resources " These can reflect social, functional, economic, ornamen- 
tal, or traditional uses of the land 



Vegetation is considered a biotic cultural resource when it can be linked 
to an established period of significance and adds to the overall signifi- 
cance of the landscape. Vegetation is a common landscape charactenstic 
associated with the histoncal development of a cultural landscape or 
resulting from cultural activities on the land Vegetation has a cycle of 
growth, change, and eventual death and often requires constant man- 
agement and intervention to retain its overall structure and appearance. 
The features associated with vegetation are recognized as either a 
system (such as a forest or wetland), an aggregation of plants (such as a 
hedge or orchard), or an individual plant (such as a tree or shrub), all of 
■which have distinct, unique, or noteworthy characteristics, in a landscape. 



.It isioiportant to understand the, degree to which change contributes 
to or compromises the historic character of a cultural landscape, and 
the way in which natural cycles influence the ecological processes 
within a landscape. For example, preservation of a single tree in a 
designed landscape may be critical to the overall integrity of the design. 
In contrast, an entire woodlot may have significance, in which case it is 
necessary to preserve the ecological processes of the system rather 
than an individual tree. Determining a treatment strategy for the 
vegetation within a cultural landscape involves consultation with 
appropriate natural' resource professionals. 




Figure I. Planted in the early nineteenth century, this Gnko Tree is an individual plant feature. Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic 
Site. (NPS, 1995) 



This text describes the process of historical re- 
search, existing conditions investigation, and 
analysis and evaluation conducted during the 
preparation of a Cultural Landscape Report (CLR) 
as it relates to treating vegetation, in particular 
individual plants and aggregations of plants. Indi- 
vidual plants are solitary (see Figure I ), whereas an 
aggregation of plants is a physical grouping of 
multiple individuals of the same plant type, such as 
a hedge, allee, bosk,-and orchard. The aggregation 
of plants shares the same aesthestic or functional 
role in the landscape because of the collective 
arrangement of plants in space. In most cases, an 
aggregation of plants can be treated similarly to an 
individual plant because its composition is uniform. 
(See Figures 2 and 3.) 



This text emphasizes the need to determine, 
during analysis and evaluation, how the features 
of vegetation contribute to the significance of a 
landscape. This is particularly important in select- 
ing a prinnary treatment for a landscape and in 
implementing treatment and management of 
plants. This text also discusses special consider- 
ations for treatment activities, including replace- 
ment of declining vegetation. Because vegetation 
is living material, plant replacement is an inevitable 
activity regardless of the treatment. Throughout 
this text, the term "plant features" refers to both 
individual plants and aggregations of plants that 
contribute to the significance of a cultural land- 
scape and retain integrity,' 



BioTic Cultural Resource Management 

The treatment and management of biotic cultural resources 
was first discussed in Ian Firth's 1 985 study: B/ot/c Cultural 
Resources: Management Considerations for Historic Districts in 
the National Park System, Sou^east Region. The treatment and 
management of agricultural landscapes, battlefields, and 
private estates in the Southeast are described using the 
extant plants and animals associated with historic uses of the 
land. The document emphasizes the need to preserve biotic 
cultural resources as a historic record and a living connec- 
tion with the past, as well as abiotic features that convey the 
historic character and significance of a landscape. 

In a discussion of the treatment of biotic cultural resources 
in accordance with the Secretary of the Interior's Standards, 
the 1 985 study illustrates the unique challenges in preserving 
biotic, rather than abiotic features. Biotic features have an 
inherently dynamic nature, that gives rise to such challenges 
as managing the size of livestock herds, the need to sow and 
harvest agricultural crops, resisting ecological succession in a 
now unglazed pasture, and interpreting the role of a 
replanted seedling forest in the maneuvers of a Civil War 
battle, despite the slow pace of restoration. Referring to the 
attempt to restore biotic cultural resources to depict the 
appearance of a historic period, Ian Firth states: 

A repetition of a historic scene composed of several 
plant and animal communities requires a conjunction of 
all biotic c/cles in their appropriate phases. Therefore, 
like Halle/s Comet, a historic scene may return 
perhaps once in a lifetime. 

The treatment and management of biotic cultural resources 
must anticipate and plan for the natural process of change. It 
must establish acceptable parameters for change and manage 
the appearance of biotic resources within those parameters. 




Figure 2. These evergreen shrub hedges represent on 
aggregation of plants. Eugene O'Neill National Historic Site. 
(NPS, 1944) 




Figure 3. This birch allee is an aggregation of plants. Saint- 
Gaudens Notional Historic Site. (NPS, 1 966) 



Plant Features and the CLR 

Historical Research 

Historical research is performed while preparing a 
CLR to produce the site history narrative. The 
narrative describes and illustrates the developnnent 
and appearance of a landscape through successive 
historic periods. When vegetation is a characteris- 
tic associated with the historic development of a 
landscape, research includes identifying the 



historic location, appearance, and identity of plant 
features during each relevant period. (See Figures 
4 and 5.) 

Sources for historic research of plants include: 
historic maintenance logs, agricultural records, 
personal letters, diaries and journals, receipts of 
plant purchases, historic photographs (including 
historic aerial photographs), paintings, sketches, 
planting plans, and oral histories. (See Figure 6.) 



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Figure 4. The historic record for f^rr) Village indicated that large 
trees were selected from other areas in the pork, root pruned, 
and transplanted to the Rim as part of the designed landscape. 
Crater Lake National Park. (NPS, 1933) 



The identification of plants from historic docu- 
nnentation sources, rather than from living or 
herbarium specimens, is a special technique that 
may require a plant taxonomist. Some site 
investigation techniques, such as archeobotanical 
analysis (the analysis of pollen, phytoliths, and 
macroflora) and tree conng can also yield infor- 
mation on the existence of plants in historic 
periods. 

Existing Conditions Investigation 

The existing conditions investigation provides an 
understanding of the present conditions of a 
cultural landscape. The investigation involves both 
a site survey and site research to identify and 
document the location and condition of all extant 
landscape characteristics and associated features, 
including vegetation and plant features. (See 
Figure 7.) Based on the site survey and research, 




Figure 5. Research illustrated that large conifers were moved and planted at f^m Village in the 1 930s to create a "natural appearmg 
lar)dscape." Crater Lake National Park. (NPS, 1 933) 



LANDSCAPE LINES 



RtFBRENCt f0R.(iL<.HT mTCBlUl.-'iTAHOMlOlieo PLfcHT H»Mei,lSI5" 




■-^--.^ ' 93 — tT .■ • ' "^Yv- '"'"" /t-"~ ' '-'^'''S. '■■("M*o"r*7'- ''.'.'("''"5**'') ■ ' coi^D 



WOWS SIOUUl ABHIHimilOU 

iwieiRi, FMJitT Kcto-niS 

MAMARftT WEBSTWCL-,, 




MOTta 

AL^ PATH4 <}RAVGL. 

DBWItV/AY 

4tt PI«AMT LIST FOR ^HEtU&a \*.<n MAI4CP 

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I modihh atroctudl 
GENERAL PLAM VlCiMlTY OF H0U5Ei | 

HOUSE. BUIUT ITS? GARDIiK' LftlD OUT • IB't-S J^ 



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a. a. oTOHc oouMO 



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■ ■■ ■ I nT.MAM CmiM 



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^ 



JO 4,6 ip 60 TO ap 



I I 1 



d etiw. 



ua. ettAMHtKT Of Tm wrDtion 

OTEI or HAnOKU. PARKS. KIIUHK>% AKD REUKVATIOHS 
HUNCH or lUKS AK> DESICN 



HENRY W.LONGFELLOW PLACE*CAMBRIDGE,MIDDLESEX Ca.MA55 



MASS 
165 



HirCORIC AMERICAN 
BUILDINCS GURV£Y 



F/gure 6. f\ Historic American B>ui!dir)g Survey (HAE>S) plar) ofLor)gfeliow Piace. The early HABS survey of the landscape ider)tifies plant 
nannes and is a valuable source for historic plant information. Longfellow National Historic Site. (NFS, 1 935) 



plant features may be graphically documented 
with line drawings (sketches, measured sections, 
and plans), black and white photographs, color 
slides, and videography. (See Figure 8.) 

Information on the identity and condition of 
existing plants also may be gathered during a plant 
inventory. A plant inventory is a specialized type 
of site survey that focuses exclusively on existing 
plants. A plant inventor/ identifies and locates all 
existing plants, regardless ofwhether they are 
known to be associated with a landscape's period 
of significance. 



Information about contemporary introductions of 
plants, or plant recolonizations, is particularly 
important in treating and managing plants. If plants 
cannot be accurately identified in the field (the 
plant is an unknown variety or cultivar), it may be 
necessary to make a herbarium specimen with a 
representative sample from the plant. A botanist 
or horticulturist can later identify the representa- 
tive sample. Site investigation techniques used to 
identify and map existing plant features may 
include aerial photograph analysis, aerial photo- 
grammetric surveys, topographic surveys (which 
locate vegetation masses and individual plants), 




Figure 7. Field documentation of plants at Lake Crescent Lodge. 
Olympic National Park. (NFS, 1984) 



Global Positioning System with a Geographic 
Information System, and hydrographic surveys for 
submerged vegetation. 

Analysis and Evaluation 

The analysis and evaluation performed while 
preparing a CLR compares the findings of the site 
history with the existing conditions investigation to 
determine the type and extent of landscape change 
since a site's earliest historic period. The analysis 
and evaluation identifies the extant landscape 
characteristics and associated features and defines 
their contribution to a landscape's significance. If 
vegetation is a landscape characteristic, plant 
features are analyzed to determine their integrity 
and association with the landscape's significance. 



In analyzing and evaluating vegetation and plant 
features, the process must acknowledge the 
dynamic nature of living organisms; plant features will 
have changed in appearance since the historic 
period(s). Therefore, evaluating the integrity of plant 
features involves determining whether a plant's 
contemporary appearance is evidence of an associa- 
tion with the significance of a landscape. Plant 
features may retain integrity if the historic type, 
distribution, size, and structure are still recognizable. 

Plant features are evaluated according to National 
Register criteria in the same manner as abiotic 
features of the landscape. Plant features may be 
associated with a significant event, person, design, 
or function, or have the potential to yield infor- 
mation about the history or prehistory of a 
landscape. But generally, plant features are not 
significant independent of their landscape context; 
rather, they contribute to the significance of the 
entire cultural landscape. For example, the fruit 
trees of Adams National Historic Site in Massa- 
chusetts are associated with the lives of John and 
Abigail Adams (criterion A). The woods and fields 
of Chickamauga-Chattanooga National Military 
Park in Georgia are associated with the event of a 
Civil War battle. The woods influenced the 
pattern of maneuvers and conduct of the battle in 
the landscape in 1863 (criterion B). The indig- 
enous eastern woodland of Prospect Park, 
Brooklyn, New York is associated with the 
picturesque design of the landscape. The design 
was can/ed from the existing woods by Olmsted 
and Vaux in 1 868 (criterion C). The filbert trees 
of the 75-acre, 90-year-old orchard of Dorris 
Ranch in Oregon have yielded information about 
the early cultivation and breeding of filberts in the 



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EXISTING PLANT MATERIAL LIST 
COMFEROUS TKEES 6R0ADLEAF TREES 



AppioomKe Bounds 
SHRUBS 



NAME CODE QTY NAME CODE QTY Do(w«.3 DO 13 P<W Oit POS ' NAME CODE Ql 

i^rtorv^M AR U Ait, AS 5 Eta ELM \ H^0^ SO 2 AVIii AB 2 

CMar Ce IIS E«iti BE 1 Holly HOL 2 Silvrt Miplc SM I EuonjTiw EU 1 

Htralock HE 6 Bl»!l!OH EO 3 M.s«i:i . MAQ 1 TulLpFopla W 1 KiBt SUmoq BS 1 

Spruc= SPR 4 CribApp^ CA 2 M.pH MAP 6 Wjtaul WA 1 Spm SPl 6 

While Pi« WP 19 OpsMytlteMY I Ojt OA I Whin O^ WO 6 Ysw YE 3 



O - Conifewtus Tic« flrpj Shrubs 

HE-31" - Co^ - SIm (diamcEct at 

Q-Conlilion-Goiid 
W - Cflpdilion - PMf 



Figure 8. This vegetation assessment plan identifies broadieafand coniferous trees, and indicates their common name, quantity, 
diameter at breast height, and physical condition. Andrew Johnson National Cemetery. (NPS, 1 992) 



United States in their experimental planting 
arrangements, spacing, culture, and genetic 
composition (criterion D). 

An understanding of tl^e significance of plant 
features in a landscape is a critical factor in deter- 
mining how it should be managed. For example, 
the fruit trees at the Adams National Historic Site 
were one of the reasons John and Abigail pur- 
chased the property south of Boston in 1 787, and 
subsequent generations of the Adams family 
continued to plant and experiment with the fruit 
trees. The orchard is an important feature in light 
of its association with the Adams family. The type 



and variety of plant material may also contribute to 
the significance of a cultural landscape. An inventory 
of the orchards at the Moses Cone Estate on the 
Blue Ridge Parkway uncovered several unusual 
vaneties of apples that date from the turn of the 
century. These historic cultivars are part of the 
historic record at this site, and because of their 
rarity these cultivars should be genetically pre- 
sented within the landscape (through maintenance 
and propagation for genetic authenticity). 

The importance of the plant material may also be 
derived from its function in the landscape as part of a 
particular design or land use practice rather than 



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from its association or unique genetic mal<eup. At 
Eleanor Roosevelt's rural retreat, Val-Kill (now 
Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site), in 
Hyde Park, New York, a line of red pines was an 
effective screen between the drive and the stone 
cottage during the 1 950s. As the pines matured, 
the lower limbs were lost with a resulting loss of 
screening. To regain the function of the pine 
hedge as a landscape feature, the trees were 
removed and replaced in-kind. A decision was 
made that the significance of the red pines as a 
hedge in the landscape was more important than 
the fact that they were original plantings from the 
time when Mrs. Roosevelt lived on the property. 
Similarly, in vernacular landscapes, such as an 
agricultural district, perpetuation of a particular 
crop may not be as important as the retention of 
the overall landscape patterns. 

Treatment 

The treatment section in a CLR either states the 
primary treatment (if already known through park 
planning), proposes a primary treatment (preser- 
vation, rehabilitation, restoration, or reconstruc- 
tion), or proposes treatment alternatives for a 
cultural landscape. Landscape character areas and 
management zones may also be discussed in the 
treatment section of a CLR. 

Determining the primary treatment (the goal for 
the overall appearance of the landscape) for a 
cultural landscape is influenced by the following: 

• integrity and condition of the biotic and abiotic 
features 

• management objectives for the park 



• type of cultural landscape and significance 

• contemporary use of the landscape 

Treatment is guided by policy, guidelines, and 
standards contained within N PS Management 
Policies, Cuitural Pesource l^anagement Guide- 
iine, and Ttie Secretary of the Interior Standards 
for Treatment of Historic Properties with Guide- 
lines for the Treatment of Gultural Landscapes 
These documents identify four treatments for 
cultural landscapes: preservation, rehabilitation, 
restoration, and reconstruction. 

Plant features are addressed in relation to the 
primary treatment for a cultural landscape, along 
with designated character areas or management 
zones. For example, the CLR for the Van Buren 
National Historic Site in New York proposes 
restoration as the primary treatment, and treat- 
ment recommendations include replanting the fruit 
orchards that existed during Van Buren's occupa- 
tion. The CLR for the Frederick Law Olmsted Site 
in Brookline, Massachusetts proposes restoration 
of the landscape to its appearance circa 1 930 to 
illustrate the landscape designed and developed by 
Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr. and perpetuated by his 
sons, John Charles and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. 
As a result, the CLR prescribes removing over 200 
nonhistone trees and shrubs and introducing over 
800 trees, shrubs, and vines based on the charac- 
ter of the landscape in circa 1 930. (See Figure 9.) 

All treatments for a cultural landscape are repre- 
sented by a sequence of activities given in order 
of increasing physical intervention: protect and 
maintain, repair, replace, design for missing 
features, and design compatible alterations and 









I" 



figure 9. Photographs showing before ar\d after the clear'mg ofrecolonizing vegetation. This activity was part of a restoration treatment 
plan. Frederick Law Oimsted Notional Historic Site. (NPS, 1 994) 



TREATMENT 



O F 



PLANT 



FEATURES 



additions. The sequence first establishes that 
significant features, such as plant features, are 
preserved by regular maintenance and by pro- 
tecting them from adverse influences. The 
sequence promotes repairing before replacing 
deteriorated features, requires substantiated 
design for replacing missing features, and asserts 
that alterations and additions be compatible with 
the histonc character of the landscape. The 
frequency with which various activities occur 
varies with a given treatment. For example, the 
majority of activities in presentation involve 
protection, maintenance, and repair, while 
restoration involves more replacement and 
design for missing features. 



Special Considerations for 
Treati^ent Activities 

Treatment activities applied to plant features may 
be restricted, modified, or influenced by: 

• protection and maintenance 

• repairs and replacement 

Protection and Maintenance 

The protection and maintenance of significant 
plant features, including their form and scale in a 
landscape, is a high priority in all treatments. 
Good horticultural practices can enhance the 
longevity of significant plant material. Although 
genetics is a major factor in determining plant 
longevity, external factors can also play a role. 
For example, erecting barriers, staking, tying, 
and cabling plants are protective measures that 
can be performed. Maintenance is performed 



by irrigating, fertilizing, pruning, dividing, trans- 
planting, mowing, and performing integrated 
pest management. Such activities create a 
favorable growing environment and promote 
the health of plants, but they may also be 
designed to achieve particular visual effects. 

With an aggregation of plants, each individual 
plant is equally protected and maintained to 
achieve a uniform effect. The protection and 
maintenance of plants must integrate a knowl- 
edge of the cultivation requirements of individual 
plant species with an understanding of the 
primary landscape. For example, the optimal 
growth and reproductive potential of a plant 
may be compromised to achieve a visual ap- 
pearance that accurately conveys the landscape's 
significance. Protection and maintenance re- 
ginnes may be modified to achieve a particular 
effect (for instance, infrequent or high grass 
mowing to resemble the appearance of 
meadow-like sod that existed before the advent 
of lawnmowers). 

Contemporary environmental legislation may 
restrict the protection and maintenance of plants 
associated with the significance of a cultural land- 
scape. Many old cultivars or varieties of agricultural 
crops are prohibited by federal or state law to 
prevent new epidemics of pests and diseases and 
consen^e soil fertility. For example, each year at 
the Shiloh National Military Park in Tennessee, a 
representative portion of land is planted in cotton 
to reflect the appearance of the land at the time of 
the Civil War battle. To guard against loss of soil 
fertility, state law requires that the cotton crop be 
rotated to a different area each year. 



10 



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Contemporary standards of environmental quality 
also affect land management practices. These 
standards may influence the protection and 
maintenance of certain plant species or affect 
current practices that eradicate others. New 
technologies, such as geotextiles and biological 
pest controls, should be integrated wherever 
possible into the protection and maintenance of 
plant features. 

Repair and Replacement 

The repair of plant features may involve remedial 
or rejuvenative pruning, cabling, or grafting to 
remove infection or decay, provide physical 
support, and promote healing or the regeneration 
of new tissue. Plant features must be closely 
monitored to determine the vitality of plants and 
identify agents that may cause their decline. 
Replacement typically occurs when repair is no 
longer possible. Loss of vitality due to age, pest 
and disease infestation, mechanical damage, 
natural disasters, or environmental modification 
may negate attempts at repair and necessitate 
replacement. 

Replacing plant features involves removing a 
declining plant in a particular location and replant- 
ing it with another plant. (See Figures 1 and I I .) 
The replacement plant may be genetically identi- 
cal to the former plant, taxonomically the same, 
or be a substitute cultivar, variety, species, or 
genus for the former plant. The desired degree of 
authenticity of the replacement plant is a decision 
influenced by various factors, but it is primarily 
based on the association of the plant with the 
landscape's significance. 



When repair and replacement is applied to an 
aggregation of plants, it may involve just one 
individual of the group (removing and replanting 
one dying individual) or the entire group (re- 
moving and replanting every plant). The decision 
to remove and replant one or all individuals of 
an aggregation of plants must consider two 
factors; 

• whether the feature still conveys its association 
with the significance of the landscape in its 
current state 

• the vitality, longevity, growth rate, and size of 
the plant to be replanted 

The questions to be answered are what is the 
condition and anticipated life span of the remain- 
ing plants of the feature, and what will be the 
visual effect of incremental replacement in terms 
of conveying the historic character of the land- 
scape? 

For example, at Saint-Gaudens National F4istoric 
Site in Cornish, New FHampshire, the home and 
studio of the nineteenth centur/ sculptor, 
Augustus Saint-Gaudens, a significant aggregation 
of plants is the more than one mile of hedges that 
divide the landscape into intimate garden rooms. 
Historically, the hedge was primarily white pine 
transplanted from the surrounding fields. Park 
maintenance staff has developed a replacement 
strategy that integrates new material into the 
existing hedge. In contrast, if the individual ele- 
ments of the hedge were deteriorated, missing, 
or out of scale with the original intent, so that the 
historic feature as a whole was no longer discern- 
ible, the entire hedge would be replaced. 



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Figure i 0. Boxwood around these ponds did not thrive in the 
climatic condiijons and was therefore replaced with Japanese 
Holly. Naunnkeag in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. (Photograph 
courtesy of the Trustees of Reservations, n.d.) 




Figure 1 1 . Japanese Holly being planted as a funaional 
replacement for Boxwood. Naumkeag in Stockbridge, 
Massachusetts. (Photograph courtesy of the Trustees of 
Reservations, n.d.) 



In-Kind Replacement 

The in-kind replacement of plant features in a 
cultural landscape involves replanting with the 
same cultivar, variety, or species as the former 
plant. The degree of authenticity selected for 
the replacement plant should consider the 
particular association of the former plant with 
the significance of the landscape and the pri- 
mary treatment for the landscape. Individual 
plants and aggregations of plants directly associ- 
ated with the significance of a landscape may 
require the highest level of genetic authenticity 
in their replacement. 

For example, at Adams National Historic Site, 
the genetic identity of the fruit trees (their 
particular varieties) is of great importance in 
associating them with the landscape's significance 
(the acquisition and development of the prop- 
erty by John and Abigail Adams). The fruit tree 
replacement at the Adams' property therefore 
requires the highest level of authenticity. Replac- 



ing one dying tree in a woodland of a designed 
landscape would not require the highest level of 
genetic authenticity because each tree is indi- 
rectly associated with the significance of the 
landscape. In this case the exact genetic replace- 
ment of the dying tree is not as important as the 
protection, cyclical maintenance, repair, and 
replacement of the entire woodland. A dying 
tree may be felled and left as a nurse log, allow- 
ing natural regeneration to take place. A replace- 
ment tree could be the same species as the 
former tree or another species of the wood- 
land, according to the management regimes 
established for the entire woodland. Woodland 
managers may insist that the replacement tree 
has the same provenance as the former tree 
(originating from seed of the same localized 
region in the United States), but woodland 
managers would generally discourage attempts 
to clone the former tree, as genetic diversity 
contributes to the vitality of such plant commu- 
nities as woodlands. 



12 



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The need to clone a plant in decline may be 
due to the lack of availability of a replacement 
plant through other sources. Some plants of 
cultural landscapes are no longer commercially 
available, either because they are no longer 
fashionable (extinct as a result of lack of propa- 
gation), or they are difficult to find as "unim- 
proved" (nonhybridized) straight species or 
varieties. Some plants can be found in other 
cultural landscapes where they have been 
accurately identified and maintained. But when 
a source cannot be found for a plant in decline, 
vegetative propagation guarantees the accurate 
identity of the replacement plant and the 
prevention of extinction of the cultivar, variety, 
or species. If old-fashioned cultivars, straight 
varieties of exotic plants, or other unusual 
forms of plants exist, it is useful to check on 
plant availability before the onset of mortality 
so that a viable propagule can be made. When 
genetic authenticity is important, the spectrum 
for the genetic authenticity of replacements 
should be considered when planning a replace- 
ment. 

Plants can be asexually propagated by cuttings, by 
grafting onto another plant, or sexually propa- 
gated by seed, with genetic authenticity decreas- 
ing, respectively. Nursery stock has no direct 
genetic association with the original plant to be 
replaced; the greatest level of authenticity of 
nursery stock is another individual of the same 
variety or species. Note: cultivars must be asexu- 
ally propagated. All members of a cultivar (or a 
man-made cultivated variety) are genetically 
identical. 



Substitutions 

In-kind replacement of the original species or 
variety may not be possible because of changes 
in the site's growing conditions, disease and 
insect problems, or simply because the original is 
no longer available. In these cases, substitution 
of plant material may be necessary. This may be 
the appropriate action when plants negatively 
impact the habitat of a rare and endangered 
species or a diseased plant cannot be replaced 



Genetic Authenticity of 
Plant Replacements 

The following list, prepared by the Olmsted Center for 
Landscape Preservation, illustrates the spectrum of genetic 
authenticity associated with the following types of plant 
propagation. 

Highest Level of Genetic Autlienticity 

CLONAL 

• Shoot Cuttings 

• Root Cuttings 

Intermediate Level of Genetic Authenticity 

SUBCLONAL GRAFTING 

• Cloned Rootstock x Cloned Scion 

• Cloned Rootstock or Scion x Seedling Rootstock or Scion 

• Seedling Rootstock x Seedling Scion 

SEEDLINGS 

• Manually Pollinated, Seed Collected from Original Plant 

• Naturally Pollinated, Seed Collected from Original Plant 

• Naturally Pollinated, Seed Collected from Same Plant on 
Site 

Lov/est Level of Genetic Authenticity 

NONCLONAL NURSERY STOCK 

• Substitution of Cultivar or Variety 

• Substitution of Species 

• Substitution of Genus 



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13 



with the same plant. For example, Anthracnose 
disease precludes the replanting of the dogwoods 
Cornus florida or Cornus nuttalli with these 
species, and Dutch Elm disease precludes the 
replanting of American Elm, Ulmusamericanawith 
the sanne species, though the Liberty Bell or 
Princeton cultivars are disease-resistant substitutes. 

In decisions on substitution, care should be given 
to match the visual, functional, and horticultural 
characteristics of the historic plant material. A 
substitute plant should be compatible with the 
role of the former plant in its association with the 
significance of the landscape. The importance of 
the former plant's genetic identity, aesthetic or 
functional historic role, physical form, texture, 
color, size, and longevity should be considered in 
selecting the substitute plant. These attributes 
may include the form, shape, and texture of the 
original, as well as its seasonal varieties, such as 
the bloom time and color, fruit, and fall foliage, 
When substitutions are made, it should be 
recorded to allow future generations to distin- 
guish between historic plants and later alterations 
and additions to the landscape. 

Ideally, plant features should be protected, 
maintained, repaired, and replaced (in-kind or 
with substitutions) to accurately preserve the 
historic character of a cultural landscape. 
However, under some circumstances, plants 
that are removed are not replaced. For ex- 
ample, if a plant feature threatens the perpetua- 
tion of an endangered species, it may not be 
preserved or replaced. In addition, when the 
growth of a plant feature is undermining the 
structural integrity of another cultural resource. 



such as the facade of a building or a buried 
archeological resource, the plant may be re- 
moved before its decline and not replaced. 
F4owever, prior to the removal of such plant 
features, the available technologies, such as root 
barriers and support systems in replanting 
attempts, as well as the plant's association with 
the significance of the landscape should be 
considered. 

Management Considerations 

Beyond the implementation of a treatment plan, 
all treatment activities eventually focus on pro- 
tection, maintenance, repair, and replacement, 
Preserving the landscape characteristics and 
associated features is the focus of landscape 
management. The changing appearance of the 
landscape must be anticipated through planning 
and managed within well defined parameters 
that best support the significance of the land- 
scape. 

When protection and maintenance are regularly 
practiced, the requirement for repair is infrequent 
and the cyclical need for replacement can be 
anticipated. Maintaining accurate plant records is 
useful for management. These records may 
include information on the anticipated longevity of 
a plant feature, current condition, protection and 
maintenance regimes, and records of repair and 
replacement interventions. A record of the 
anticipated replacement strategy can be included 
for each plant feature to expedite the replacement 
process when replacement is necessary, A 
replacement strategy is particularly important for 
plant features that will be propagated, because 



14 



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Decision Process for Replacement of Plant Features 



Is the plant feature independently 
historically significant, or directly 
associated with the significance of the 
landscape, based on National Register 
criteria A-D? 



Yes 



No 

Genetic identity of plant is not directly 

associated with the significance of the 

landscape. 



Is the plant feature rare, endangered, 
or commercially unavailable? 



Yes 



No 



Does the plant exhibit unique or 
unusual physical characteristics that 
are unrepresentative of its variety or 
species? 



Yes 



No 



Is the plant suffering from an uncontrol 
lable disease, or an epidemic? 



Yes 



No 



Has the environmental context {the 
growing conditions) of the plant 
changed, or does legislation prohibit 
growth of the plant? 



Yes 



No 



Is the plant having a negative impact 
on rare and endangered species, or 
on other cultural resources? 



Yes 



Replace by vegetative root or shoot 
cuttings (clone). 



Not Possible 




Not Possible 



Replace with same nursery stock or 
same individual from other landscape 
source. 



Not Possible 



Replace by substitution with a 
disease-resistant cultivar from 
nursery trade or other source. 



Not Possible 



Replace by substitution with another 
cultivar/variety/species/genusfrom 
nursery trade or other source. 



Not Possible 



Replace by substitution with another 
cultivar/variety/species/genus from 
nursery trade or other source using 
available technologies to limit impacts 
or do not replace and document 
removal for the historical record. 



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15 



cuttings or grafts must be taken from live, healthy 
tissue, and special growing facilities may need to 
be used. Herbarium specimens of plant features, 
particularly those to be replaced, are excellent 
archival records. 



References 

General 

Birnbaum, Charles A. September 1994. Preser- 
vation Brief No. 36: Protecting Cuiturai Land- 
scapes: Planning, Treatment, and Management of 
i-iistoric Landscapes. Washington, DC: USDI, 
NPS, Preservation Assistance Division. 

Birnbaum, Charles A., with Christine Capella 
Peters, eds. 1996. Tiie Secretary of ttie 
interior's Standards for ttie Treatment of I-iis- 
toric Properties witti Guideiines for ttie Treat- 
ment of Culturai Landscapes. Washington, DC: 
USDI, NPS, Heritage Preservation Services. 

Bratton, Susan, ed, 1 988. Vegetation Change 
and Historic Landscape Management. In Pro- 
ceedings of the Conference on Science in the 
National Pari<s, Colorado State University, 
1 986. Washington, DC: The George Wright 
Society and the NPS. 

Clark, James R. August 1 993. Age Related 
Change in Tv^^s. Journal of Aboriculture 9 (8): 
201-205. 

Clark, James R., and Nelda Matheny. July 1 99 1 . 
Management of Mature J fees. Journal of 
Aboriculture 1 7 (7): 1 73- 1 83. 



Cobham, Ralph, ed. 1990. Amenity Landscape 
Management: A Pesource Handbook. New 
York: Van Nostrand. 

Coffin, Margaret. 1995. Cultural Landscape 
Publication No. 7: Guide to Developing a 
Preservation Maintenance Plan for a Historic 
Landscape. Brookline, Massachusetts: USDI, 
NPS, Olmsted Center for Landscape Presenta- 
tion. 

Couch, Sarah, H. 1991. Trees in Line for 
Conservation. Landscape Design 214: 24-30. 

. 1 992. The Practice of Avenue 



Planting in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth 
Centuries. Garden History 10 Q): 173-200. 

Firth, Ian. 1985. Biotic Cultural Resources: 
Management Considerations for Historic Dis- 
tricts In the National Pari< System, Southeast 
Region. Georgia: USDI, NPS, Southeast Re- 
gional Office. 

Loeb, Robert, E. 1993. Long Term Arboreal 
Change in a Landscaped Urban Park: Central 
Park, Hey^yofk. Journal of Aboriculture 19 (4): 
238-249. 

McGann, Martin, R. 1989. Maintaining the 
Historic Garden. The Public Garden 4(3): 22- 
25,38. 

Meier, Lauren. April 1 992. The Treatment of 
Historic Plant Material. The Public Garden. 



16 



N D 



I N 



Meier, Lauren, and Nora Mitchell. 1990. Prin- 
ciples for Preserving Historic Plant Material. 
Preservation Technology Update 6. Washing- 
ton, DC: USDI, NPS, Preservation Assistance 
Division. 

Mitchell, NoraJ., and Robert R, Page. 1 993. 
Managing the Past for the Future. Historic Preser- 
vation Foruml Q). Washington, DC: National 
Trust for Historic Preservation. 

National Park Service. July 1997. Culturai 
Pesource i^anagement Guideline, no. 5. 
Washington, DC: USDI, NPS, History Division. 

Remple, Sharon. 1992. Conserving and Manag- 
ing Living Plant Collections. APT Bulletin 1^ (3 
and 4): 69-70. 

Treib, Marc. Spring 1 994. The Care and Feed- 
ing of Noble Allee. Arnoldia 54 ( I ): 1 2-23. 

Van Valkenburgh, Michael, and Peter Del 
Tredici, Spring 1994. Restoring the Harvard 
Yard Landscape. Arnoldia 54 ( I ): 2- 1 I . 

Weinstein, Geraldine. 1985. Replacingthe 
Understory Plantings of Central Park. Arnoldia, 
45(2): 19-27. 



Wright, Tom. 1 982. The Maintenance and 
Management of Historic Gardens. Large Gar- 
dens and Parks: Maintenance Management and 
Design, 135-144. London: Granada. 

Plant Propagation References 

Clark, G., and Alan Toogood. 1992. The Complete 
Book of Plant Propagation. London: Ward Lock. 

Dirr, Michael, and C.W. Heuser, Jr. 1987. The 
Reference Manual for Woody Plant Propagation. 
Athens, Georgia: Varsity Press. 

Hartman, Hudson T., etal. 1990. Propagation: 
Principles and Practices. 5th ed. Englewood 
Cliffs, New Jersey; Prentice Hall. 

Herbarium Specimens References 

Arnold Arboretum. 1 968. Notes on Making an 
Herbarium. Arnoldia!^ (8-9): 69-92. 

Bridson and Leonard Foreman. 1992. The 
Herbarium Handbook Kew, England: Royal 
Botanic Gardens. 

Robertson, Kenneth, R. 1980. Observing, Photo- 
graphing and Collecting Plants. Illinois Natural 
History Survey Circular 55. 



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17 



The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. 




U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 



Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 



Accessibility 



'--.'i^y 









/*V ' Since the jCivil Rights Acf of 1 9fa4, disability rights legislation 'and ^ ' 
,' " increasing public awareness aBout the 'rights of people N^ith disabili-„ 

^ ties have [produced yanous pieces of legislation „the rnost^ extensive 

' 1 -■ J > 

. ' of which IS the Americans with Disabilities Act, Public Law ! 1 -336 

I- 

Passfed in January 1 990, the law identifies equal access as a civil right 
and prohibits discnmination on the basis of disability in both privately 
and publicly owned acconnmodations Public accommodations 
include services, programs, activities, goods, and commercial estab- 
lishments, such as restaurants, hotels, theaters, hospitals, museums, 
and parks 

The executive branch of the federal government is not bound to 

the provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act Executive 
agencies and recipients of federal funding are required to comply 
With the accessibility provisions contained in two pieces of earlier 
legislation 

• Architectural Barriers Act ( 1 968) 

• Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act ( 1 973) 

Accessibility Requirements 






Both the Architectural Barriers Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilita- 
tion Act contain standards and guidelines that identify the conditions . 
necessitating accessibility requirements and give techhicalspecifications 
for new construction, alterations, and additions. For both. Acts, the 
minimum standards of accessibility for federal buildings and facilities is 
defined by the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (}JVP^), pub- 
lished in i 984 by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Com- 
pliance Board. 



For nonfederal public accommodations, minimum 
accessibility requirements are outlined in the 
Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility 
Guidelines (ADAAG). The ADAAG was pub- 
lished in 1 99 1 by the Architectural and Transpor- 
tation Barriers Compliance Board. 

The UFAS and ADAAG have common technical 
requirements. The general technical require- 
ments for ADAAG (titled "Accessible Elements 
and Spaces") are the same as the UFAS technical 
requirements. Both require that the design of 
new construction be accessible; however, they 
differ slightly in their scoping requirements for 
existing facilities. ADAAG has many new technical 
requirements for various types of public accom- 
modations, including restaurants and cafeterias, 
medical care facilities, business and mercantile, 
libraries, transient lodging, and transportation 
facilities. Both UFAS and ADAAG have special 
rules for historic preservation, which are dis- 
cussed in this text. 

The technical requirements common to both 
UFAS and ADAAG are actually derived from 
accessibility standards first developed in 1 96 1 by 
the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 
The ANSI standards have been modified very 
little over the past 30 years despite medical and 
technology advancements and increased aware- 
ness about the needs and life expectations of 
people with disabilities. 

The federal government intends to revise the 
UFAS to be at least equivalent to the ADAAG in 
its technical and scoping requirements. In a June 



30, 1993 memorandum, the Department of 
Justice requested that until the UFAS are revised, 
the executive agencies use the higher standards 
of the ADAAG whenever the guidelines result in 
more universal access. Currently, both the UFAS 
and the ADAAG are being reviewed by the 
Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compli- 
ance Board for possible revisions to their respec- 
tive technical requirements. This review is being 
conducted in conjunction with the Civil Rights 
Division of the Department of Justice and the four 
standard-setting agencies under the Architectural 
Barriers Act: General Services Administration, the 
United States Postal Service, the Department of 
Housing and Urban Development, and the 
Department of Defense. 

Universal Design 

Universal design is based on the premise that a 
facility or product should be usable by anyone. 
Despite advancements toward universal accessi- 
bility, the disability community and universal 
design advocates have criticized the use of 
accessibility guidelines. Critics maintain that the 
use of minimum construction specifications does 
not promote a greater understanding about the 
needs of people with disabilities, or contribute to 
removing attitudinal barriers. 

Critics believe that for designed environments, 
attitudinal barriers are more persistent than 
architectural ones, and the way to remove the 
attitudinal barriers is to increase awareness about 
the many distinctive needs of users. Critics assert 
that.in practice, minimum design standards 



N D 




Figure I. View of the original office wakway and location of a 
proposed accessibility project to create universal access. 
Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site. (NFS, i 995) 



become maximum standards, and compliance with 
minimum standards is viewed as the goal rather 
than the means to achieving universal or equal 
access. 

Universal design advocates believe strict adher- 
ence to accessibility guidelines may result in a 
design solution that does not create equal ac- 
cess. They distinguish accessibility from universal 
and equal access, noting that separate provisions 
for one group of users may ignore the needs of 
another group with different disabilities. They 
emphasize education about the concept of 
"fitness for use by anyone" as the basis for the 
environmental design process. (See Figures 1 , 2, 
and 3.) 




Figure 2. A sl^etcb of the proposed universal access design, 
which raises the elevation of the historic entrance porch to 
meet the threshold, and includes a new walkway with an 
accessible gradient Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic 
Site. (NFS, 1995) 




Figure 3. Office walkway following implementation of the 
accessibility project The historic stor)e edge cor)diiJon of the 
original walkway was salvaged and relaid to match the 
gradient of the new walkway. Frederick Law Olmsted National 
Historic Site. (NFS, 1997) 



The Equal Facilitation Clause 

A fundamental difference between the UFAS and 
ADAAG in guiding the creation of universally acces- 
sible environments is that the ADAAG has an extra 
clause WMn the general provisions, titled "Equivalent 
Facilitation" (ADMG 2.2). The clause states: 

Departures from the particular technical 
and scoping requirements of this guide- 
line by the use of other designs and tech- 
nologies are permitted where the alter- 
native designs and technologies used will 
provide substantially equivalent or greater 
access to and usability of the facility 

The ADMG allov^s designers to depart from the 
specifications. For designers to take advantage of 
this creative opportunity, they should understand 
the needs of people v\/ith disabilities and the 
reasons underlying the existing guidelines. For 
example, the reason for requiring handrails along 
both sides of a rannp or set of steps is that people 
with different capabilities on either side of their 
bodies (such as people v\/ho have suffered 
strokes) can use the handrail nnatching their 
physical abilities. 

Universal design advocates are critical of the 
prevalence of eight percent gradient ramps v\/ith 
handrails (permitted by UFAS and ADAAG 
guidelines), because an eight percent gradient is 
too steep for many people v^ith limited mobility 
and handrails are unusable by many people with 
disabilities. They encourage the use of the 
ADAAG's Equivalent Facilitation clause because it 
has more potential to change attitudes and 
improve the usability of designed environments. 



Accessibility in Cultural 
Landscapes 

Historically, the needs of people with disabilities 
have not been considered in the design and 
construction of places. As a result, many historic 
properties have features that are obstacles to equal 
access. Unfortunately, equal access and historic 
preservation have often been portrayed as anti- 
thetical, technically infeasible, and even impossible. 
But designing equal access to historic properties, 
including cultural landscapes, does not have to 
preclude the presentation of significant resources. 

Historic presentation exists to allow experiential 
access to historic properties that are considered 
culturally valuable or significant. In this context, 
the goal of equal access is to create equal access 
to the experience as well as improve physical 
accessibility. (See Figure 4.) To create equal 
access to the opportunity to experience the 
significance of a cultural landscape, the goal of 
accessibility needs to be united with the goal of 
preservation. The loss of integrity resulting from 
the implementation of an accessibility project 
represents a compromise to the goals of both 
equal access and preservation. 

Equal access to the experience of a cultural 
landscape is achieved when the significance is 
conveyed through the physical integrity of 
landscape characteristics and associated features 
and when the experience is equally available to 
all visitors or users. As defined by the National 
Register of Historic Places, integrity relates to 
the presence of physical features that have 
existed since a period of significance and that 
contribute to and convey the significance of a 



I N 



historic property. Therefore, the design of 
accessibility projects in a cultural landscape 
should retain the extant landscape characteristics 
and associated features that contribute to and 
convey the significance of the landscape. New 
features that are added to provide equa! access 
should be designed in a mannerthat is compatible 
with the character of the landscape. The goal is 
to provide the highest level of access with the 
lowest level of impact on the integrity of the 
landscape. (See A Guide to Cu/tura/ Landscape 
Reports: Appendices, "Appendix I: Treatment 
Policy, Guidelines, and Standards.") 

Accessibility in a cultural landscape is part of the 
preservation planning process. Currently, under 
UFAS scoping requirements, only existing facilities 
undergoing substantial alteration (all alterations in 
one year amounting to 50 percent or more of the 
property value) trigger requirements for accessibil- 
ity. Under ADAAG scoping requirements, any 
alterations to an existing element, feature, space, 
or area, triggers new construction standards for 
accessibility. Until the UFAS has been revised to 
the greater scoping requirement of ADAAG, the 
Depari:ment of Justice and the Architectural and 
Transportation Barriers Compliance Board en- 
courage the executive agencies to use the greater 
scoping requirement of ADAAG for alterations. 

Accessibility Planning 

The planning and design of accessibility projects is 
a multidisciplinar/ activity involving the expertise 
of presen/ation professionals, accessibility special- 
ists, and individuals with disabilities and their 
organizations. Accessibility coordinators, usually 




Figure 4. Before (top) ar]d after (bottom) existir)g conditions 
plans of Dorchester Heights, the site of an accessibility project 
in 1 995. The accessibility project occurred as part of a 
rehabilitation treatment plan. It involved "stretching" the 
pattern of the historic circulation plan (the central walk and the 
north and south ramps were elongated), to achieve a more 
shallow, accessible route up to the Dorchester Heights 
Monument Boston Historical Park. (NPS, 1 994) 



located in the National Park Service (NFS) sup- ■ 
port offices, should be invited to participate in the 
planning process. 

Accessibility planning and design requires a clear 
understanding of a cultural landscape's signifi- 
cance and how it is conveyed through its extant 
landscape characteristics and associated features. 



A c 



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I T Y 



Equal access must be defined for each particular 
cultural landscape based on a variety of factors, 
including significance, landscape characteristics and 
associated features, integrity, treatment, and 
contemporary use of the landscape. These factors 
influence how a landscape's significance is 
presented to visitors, and, therefore, affect the 
extent and location of modifications required to 
provide access and the physical appearance of 
access designs. 

If a cultural landscape is eligible for listing or is 
listed in the National Register of Historic Places, 
and the access project is a federal undertaking, 
the planning and design stages of an accessibility 
project involve the review process cited in 
Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation 
Act. The NPS initiates consultation with the State 
Historic Preservation Office to develop a Memo- 
randum of Agreement on the planning and design 
of access modifications. As a result, the Memo- 
randum of Agreement outlines actions that are 
agreed upon and it is submitted to the Advisory 
Council for Historic Preservation for comment. 
The same review procedure is followed when 
the less comprehensive scoping requirements of 
UPAS and ADAAG are used to plan and design 
access modifications. 

Both UPAS and ADAAG have special rules for 
historic preservation that reduce scoping re- 
quirements for particularly challenging circum- 
stances. The rules apply to situations in which 
creating equal access would destroy the integrity 
of a historic property because its significance is 
wholly conveyed by the exact location, original 
materials, original workmanship, or original 



design of a feature or features. The special rules 
add flexibility to the process of creating access 
changes that retain the integrity of a historic 
property and therefore allow the significance to 
be conveyed and experienced. If using the 
general scoping requirements for accessibility 
would destroy the integrity of a cultural land- 
scape, the special rules of UPAS and ADAAG 
are permitted. The circumstances in which to 
apply the special rules for historic presentation 
of UPAS (4. 1 .7 (2)), and ADAAG (4. 1 .7 (3)) are 
relatively rare and only apply to a small number 
of historic properties. 

Listed below are the special rules for historic 
presentation, which are written to apply most 
directly to historic buildings. 

• Allow only one accessible route from one site 
access point (such as a parking lot) to an 
accessible entrance. 

• The accessible entrance may be different to 
the one used by the general public (though it 
cannot be locked and ADAAG requires 
directional signage to the accessible en- 
trance). 

• A ramp steeper than is ordinarily permitted 
may be used in space limitations (a gradient of 
1 6.6 percent ( 1 :6) for a maximum run of two 
feet). 

• Only one accessible restroom is required and 
it may be unisex. 

• Accessible routes are only required at the 
elevation of the entrance. 

• Interpretive materials should be located where 
they can be seen by seated persons. 



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ADAAG also has an exception rule for historic 
preservation (ADAAG 4.1.7(1 )), which states 
that if the integrity of a historic property could 
be destroyed by following the special rules, 
scoping requirements are reduced even fur- 
ther. The exception permits use of alternative 
methods to make services and programs 
available (that is, to create the opportunity to 
experience the significance of a property). 
Alternative methods include the use of inter- 
pretation (such as audio visual materials), using 
facilitators to assist individuals with disabilities, 
and adopting other innovative methods such as 
those invited by the Equivalent Facilitation 
clause of ADAAG. UFAS has no exception rule 
for historic preservation. 



Sources of Further Information 

The Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards and 
information can be obtained from: 

Architectural and Transportation 
Barriers Compliance Board 

I I I I ISthStreet, NW, SuiteSOl 
Washington, DC 20036 
l-800-USA-ABLE 

The Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility 
Guidelines and information can be obtained from: 

Office of the Americans with 
Disabilities Act — Civil Rights Division 
U.S. Department of Justice 

P.O. Box 661 18 
Washington, DC 20035-6 1 1 8 
202-514-0301 



For NFS accessibility enquiries contact: 

Accessibility Program Coordinator 
Parks Facility Management Division 
National Park Service 

P.O. Box 37 1 27, Suite 580 
Washington, DC 200 1 3-7 1 27 
202-343-3674 



Technical and Scoping 
AccEssiBiUTY Requirements for 
Elements and Spaces 

Following is a partial list of ADAAG and UFAS 
"Technical Requirements for Accessible Ele- 
ments and Spaces," which are most pertinent to 
access projects in cultural landscapes. For the full 
list of technical and scoping requirements, refer 
to the UFAS or ADAAG. 

Accessible Route Minimum Specifications 

• Width = 36 inches 

• Passing zone = 60 inches wide occurring at 
200-foot inten/als 

• Wheelchair 1 80-degree turning zone = 60 
inches X 60 inches 

• Gradient = 5 percent ( 1 : 20) 

• A gradient greater than 5 percent shall be 
called a ramp 

• Cross pitches (cross slopes) = 2 percent ( 1 : 50) 
or less 

• Abrupt level changes are no greater than 0.5 
inch in height 



I B I 



• 0.25-inch level change is permitted without a 
beveled edge 

• 0.5-inch level change must have a beveled 
edge 

• Surfaces must be of stable, firm, slip resistant 
material 

Accessible Parking 

• Space = 96 inches wide 

• Access aisle is considered to be part of an 
accessible route 

• Spaces and aisles have a 2 percent ( 1 : 50) 
maximum gradient in any direction 

• Passenger loading zone (access aisle) = 60 
inches wide x 20 feet long, adjacent and 
parallel to the vehicle pull-up space 

Curb Ramps 

• Must be located wherever an accessible route 
crosses a curb 

• 5 percent ( 1 : 20) gradient or less, unless space 
is limited, then a gradient between 8 percent 

( 1 : 1 2) and 10 percent ( 1 : 1 0) is permitted for 
a rise of 6 inches 

• Must have flared sides if they are located 
where pedestrians must walk across the ramp 
or are not protected by handrails or guardrails 

• Maximum gradient of curb ramp flared sides = 
1 percent 

• Must have returned curbs where pedestrians 
do not walk across the ramp 



• Built-up curb ramps must be located where 
they do not project out into vehicular traffic 
lanes 

• Must have a detectable warning of raised, 
truncated domes or contrasting color that 
extends the full width and depth of the curb 
ramp 

• Must be located where they will not be ob- 
structed by parked vehicles 

• Diagonal curb ramps (corner ramps) must have 
at least a 48-inch width clear space at the 
bottom of the ramp 

• Where a sidewalk landing beyond a curb ramp 
is less than 48 inches deep, the curb ramp 
gradient must not exceed 8 percent ( 1 : 12) 

Ramps 

• Must beat least 36 inches wide 

• Gradient greater than 5 percent ( 1 : 20) and a 
maximum of 8 percent ( 1 : 12) 

• Maximum rise on any run = 30 inches in 
height 

• In space limitations, a ramp gradient no greater 
than 1 6.6 percent (1:6) may be used for a 
horizontal run of 2 feet 

• In space limitations, a ramp gradient between 8 
percent ( 1 : 1 2) and 10 percent ( 1 : 10) may be 
used for a maximum vertical rise of 6 inches 

• An 8 percent ( 1 : 12) gradient and a rise greater 
than 6 inches, or a horizontal run greater than 
72 inches, must have handrails on both sides of 
the ramp 



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• Surface must be stable, firm, and nonslip 

• Ramps and landings with dropoffs on either 
side must have curbs at least 2 inches high 

• Must be well draining to prevent the accumula- 
tion of rainwater 

• Cross pitch (cross slope) must be no greater 
than 2 percent ( 1 : 50) gradient 

Landings 

• Must be located at every 30-inch vertical rise in 
a ramp 

• Dimensions of landing = 36 inches wide X 60 
inches deep at the top and bottom of a ramp run 

• Dimensions of landing = 60 inches wide x 60 
inches deep at a ramp dogleg 

• Drop-offs must have curbs with a minimum 
height of 2 inches 

• Height of door thresholds = 0.5-inch high or 
less, with a beveled 50 percent (1 : 2) edge 

• Width of clear landing on latch side of door = 
24 inches wide 

Handrails 

• Not required on curb ramps 

• Required on either side of 8 percent ( 1 : 12) 
gradient ramps with a 6-inch rise or greater, or a 
72-inch horizontal njn, and on either side of stairs 

• Must be continuous on the inner side of a 
dogleg ramp or dogleg stairs 

• Must continue at least 1 2 inches beyond the 
top and bottom of a ramp and be parallel to 
the ground plane 



• Must continue at least 1 2 inches beyond the 
top riser of stairs parallel to the ground plane, 
and continue to slope for a distance of one 
tread width from the bottom stair riser and 
become parallel to the ground plane for an 
additional distance of 1 2 inches 

• Distance from mounting wall = 1 .5 inches wide 

• Gripping surface must be uninterrupted 

• Diameter or width ofgripping surface of 
handrail or grab bar must be 1 .25 - 1 .5 inches, 
or the shape must provide an equivalent 
gripping surface UFAS 4.26.2. 

• Top ofgripping surface — 34-38 inches in 
height above the ramp or stair tread surface 

• Terminaiendsofhandrailsmustbe rounded off 
or returned smoothly to the ground, wall or post . 

Stairs 

• Must have uniform tread widths and riser 
heights 

• Width of treads must be no less than I I inches 
high 

• Open risers are not permitted 

• Nosings must project no more than 1 .5 inches 

• Nosing undersides must be angled at no 
greater than 60 degrees from the horizontal 

• Handrails must be located on either side of 
stairs 

• Inside handrail at stair dogleg must be continuous 

• Handrails must extend 1 2 inches beyond the 
top riser, and at least one tread width and an 
additional 1 2 inches beyond the bottom riser 



ACCESS 



B I L I T Y 



Handrails at the top of stairs must be parallel to 
the ground plane, and at the bottom of stairs, 
handrails must continue to slope for a distance 
of one tread from the bottom riser and for an 
additional 1 2 inches be parallel to the ground 
plane 

Handrail gripping surface must be uninter- 
rupted and be located 34 - 38 inches above 
the stair treads 

Terminal ends of handrails must be rounded or 
returned smoothly to the ground, wall, or post 

Stairs must be well draining to prevent the 
accumulation of rainwater 



References 

Adaptive Environments, Inc. 1992. Checklist for 
Existing Facilities: The Americans with Disabilities 
Act Sun/ey for Readily Achievable Barrier Re- 
moval. Massachusetts: Adaptive Environments, 
Inc. and Barrier Free Environments, Inc. 

Ballantyne, Duncan. \^^A . Accommodation of 
Disabled Visitors at Historic Sites in the Na- 
tional Park System. Washington, DC: USDI, 
NPS, Park Historic Architecture Division. 

Battaglia, David H. 1 99 1 . The Impact of the 
Americans with Disabilities Act on Historic 
Structure. Information Series SS. Washington, 
DC: National Trust for Historic Presentation. 

. 1 99 1 . Americans with Disabilities 



Act: Its Impact on Historic Buildings and Struc- 
tures. Preservation Law Reporter I 1 69. 



Birnbaum, Charles, A., and Sharon C. Park. June 
1 993. Maintaining Integrity: Accessibility and 
Historic Landscapes. Landscape Architecture %!> 
(6). Washington, DC: American Society of 
Landscape Architects. 

Casciotti, Lynn, M. 1 992. Americans with Dis- 
abilities Act Resource Guide for Park, Recreation, 
and Leisure Sen/ice Agencies Draft. Virginia: 
National Recreation and Park Association, Re- 
source Development Division, Arlington. 

Clark, Roger, N., and George H. Stankey. 1979. 
The Recreation Opportunity Spectrum: A Frame- 
work for Planning, Management and Research. 
Washington: USDI, Forest Service, Pacific North- 
west Forest and Range Experiment Station, 
Seattle. 

Goltsman, Susan, and Timothy Gilbert. 1 979. 
The Accessibility Checklist: An Evaluation System 
for Buildings and Outdoor Settings Berkeley, 
California: MIG Associates. 

Harold Russell Associates, Inc. 1978. Accommo- 
dation of Handicapped Visitors at Historic Sites: 
The Impact of Accessibility and Historic Preserva- 
tion Laws, Regulations and Policies on NPS 
Historic Sites, Analysis and Recommendations 
Washington, DC: USDI, NPS. 

Jester, Thomas C, and Judy, L. Hayward, eds. 
Photocopy 1 992. Accessibility and Historic 
Preservation Resource Guide. Sponsored by 
Historic Windsor; the NPS, Preservation Assis- 
tance Division; the Advisory Council on Historic 
Preservation; the National Conference of State 



10 



I N 



Historic Preservation Officers; Accessibility and 
Historic Preservation Worl<shops. Reprint infor- 
mation available from Historic Windsor, Inc., 
Windsor, Vermont. 



National Park Service. 1993. Entrances to the 
Past. Video recording. Washington, DC: USDI, 
NPS, Presen^/ation Assistance Division, Cultural 
Resources Training Initiative. 



jester, Thomas, C, and Sharon C. Park. 1993. 
Preservation Brief No. 32: f^al<ing {-iistoric 
Properties Accessible. Washington, DC: USDI, 
NPS, Presen/ation Assistance Division. 



Park, D.C., and A. Farbman. Spring 1 989. Acces- 
sible Outdoor Recreation Facilities, National Parl< 
Sen/ice and National Recreation and Pari< Associa- 
tion Design.\N^%\m^ox\, DC: USDI, NPS. 




Kraus, L.E., and S. Stoddard. 1989. Cliartbookon 
Disability in the United States Washington, DC: 
National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation 
Research. 

Mace, Ron, L., Graeme J. Hardie, andjaine P. 
Plaice. 1990. Accessible Environments: Toward 
Universal Design. Design Interventions: Toward a 
More Humane Architecture. Preiser, Vischer, and 
White, editors. New York: Van Nostrand 
Reinhold. 

Majewski, Janice. 1987. Part of Your General 
Public Is Disabled: A Handbook for Guides in 
i^useums, Zoos, and Historic Houses Washing- 
ton, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, Office of 
Elementary and Secondary Education. 

National Park Service. 1 99 1 . Preserving the Past 
and Making it Accessible to Ever/one: How Easy 
a Task? CRN Supplement 1991. Washington, 
DC: USDI, NPS. 

National Park Service. \9^1. Accessibility Check- 
list for Historic Properties Washington, DC: 
USDI, NPS, Preservation Assistance Division. 



Park, D.C, Wendy Ross and Kay Ellis. 1 986. 
Interpretation for Disabled Visitors in the 
National Parks System. Washington, DC: 
USDI, NPS, Special Programs and Populations 
Branch. 

Robinette, Gary, O., and Richard K. Dee. 
1 985. Barrier-Free Exterior Design: Anyone 
Can Go Anywhere. New York: Van Nostrand 
Reinhold. 

Smith, Kennedy. September 1 99 1 . The Ameri- 
cans with Disabilities Act: What it Means to 
Main Street. Main Street News. Washington, 
DC: National Trust for Historic Preservation. 

Smith, William, and Tara G. Frier. 1 989. Access 
to History: A Guide to Providing Access to 
Historic Buildings for People with Disabilities. 
Massachusetts: Massachusetts Historical Commis- 
sion. 

United States Congress. 1 990. The Americans 
with Disabilities Act. Public Law \Qi\ -236. 



A c 



I T Y 



II 



United States Department of justice. July 26, Walker, Burke. 1994. The Americans with 

1 99 1 . Standards for Accessible Design: ADA Disabilities Act (ADA): Compliance Solutions for 

Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG). Appendix A to Historic Buildings Using Landscape Architecture. 

28 CFK 36 (ADA Title III). Federal Register, vol. Georgia Landscape 2-3. Georgia: University of 

56, no. 144. Georgia School of Environmental Design. 




The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. 

U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 




Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes 



Cataloging, Printing, and Distribution 




^ / 



" ^- 1 he guidelines fn tbis -text describe how, to prepar;e a camera7ready . " ' 
" copy of a Cultural Landscape'ReportJCLR) for printing and how td/ 
catalog and distribute the^report ' / ^ 

There is considerable variety in the layout, style, and graphic 
conventions used in producing the camera-ready document (the 
final document ready to be printed) However, the steps leading to 
publication are standardized across the National Park Service 
(NPS) 

A strongly recommended first step is to have the document edited 
Especially when a CLR involves more than one author, an editor can 
improve the document by making the writing style consistent from 
section to section Following editing, the document can be desktop 
published, which involves designing the page layout, integrating the 
text and graphics, and formatting the document Both the editorial and 
formatting conventions should be based on the most recent edition of 
the Chicago Manual of Style 

, Desktop publishing is accomDhshed using a computer .software, applica- 
■ tion. Many- contractors (editors^and desktop publishers) and printers 
offer desktop publishing services. They can integrate the text and ■ . . 
Sonne, if not all, of the graphics into electronic files. (Some graphics 
may have to be manually pasted into the camera-ready, printout.) 
When the CLR is camera-ready, the finished typographic format of the 
document is defined in the project agreement or through subsequent 
negotiation. If a CLR is to have the same format as an existing docu- 
ment (if it is part of a series of documents, for example), a sample may 
be provided for the preparer. 



Each NPS Region or Support office has a printing 
coordinator who serves as a liaison between the 
NPS and the United States Government Printing 
Office (GPO). The GPO has branches throughout 
the United States and each Region may have access 
to more than one GPO within the larger cities of 
the Region. According to a 1 994 memorandum, all 
NPS printing contracts must currently be tendered 
through the GPO. In some NPS Regions, the GPO 
negotiates limited term contracts with local printing 
contractors for miscellaneous printing services, 
which may result in lower printing costs. The Form 
25 1 1 is used for miscellaneous printing term con- 
tracts. Check with a printing coordinator for more 
information on how to arrange a printing term 
contract. (See A Guide to Cultural Landscape 
Reports: Appendices, "Appendix L: Government 
Printing Office Fomns.") 



In the camera-ready copy, space must be set 
aside for each graphic. To indicate the location 
of images, boxes may be drawn with a 
nonphoto blue pencil or a black hairline. Inside 
the space designated for graphics, the figure 
number and caption, any required percent 
enlargement or reduction, and location should 
be noted. Instructions to the printer should 
include the location and size of graphic images 
in the document. 

The camera-ready printout has single-sided pages 
with a blank separation page inserted wherever the 
subsequent page has a blank second side. In all 
cases, no additional changes to the text are antici- 
pated and the document has a title and cataloging 
information assigned to it, which includes a Library 
of Congress catalog card number. 



The procedure for printing and distributing a docu- 
ment through the GPO requires preparation of 
several fomns, some of which are filled out by the 
contracting agency (NPS) and some by the printing 
coordinator. The printing coordinator connmuni- 
cates with and forwards the completed forms to the 
GPO. The printing coordinator may also send the 
camera-ready copy and mock-ups to the GPO. 



The Camera-Ready Copy 

The camera-ready copy is the completed, edited, 
and formatted document that is ready to be deliv- 
ered to the printer. The camera-ready copy may or 
may not contain all of the graphics. Graphics that are 
not computer-generated (such as photographs) may 
need to be processed as halftones by the printer 
and pasted into the camera-ready printout. 



Graphic Images 

Copies of black and white line art, which have 
been sized to fit the allocated space in the docu- 
ment, may be directly pasted into the camera- 
ready printout. Alternatively, black and white line 
art may be digitally scanned in and positioned 
within the document. Other types of graphics, 
such as color line art, grayscale images (with color 
or shaded areas), and photographs are usually 
photographed as a halftone by the printer and 
presented separately from the camera-ready 
document. Each graphic to be half-toned is 
notated with the figure number and page on 
which it will be located. If an enlargement or 
reduction of the original photograph is required to 
fit the allocated space, the percent reduction or 
enlargement should also appear on the note. 



It is useful to compile a figure specification sheet, 
which lists each figure, whether it is to be pasted 
in or incorporated, and any instructions, such as 
the percent reduction orenlargennent, or extent 
of cropping. The printer photographs each 
graphic to be incorporated as a halftone and 
may manipulate light and darkness to some 
extent. Contractors with scanning capabilities 
may directly incorporate scanned, halftone 
images of the desired size into the camera-ready 
document, eliminating the need for drawing 
boxes and leaving spaces in the body of the 
document. 

The GPO requires copyright permission for any 
copyrighted materials (photographs, maps, charts, 
and drawings) that are to be reproduced in the 
CLR. The GPO may also require reprint permis- 
sion for materials from private sources that are to 
be reproduced. 



Mock-Ups 

A document mock-up indicates how folded 
inserts, illustrations, pocket inserts or other 
special details should be handled. A mock-up is 
created by photocopying a camera-ready copy, 
and then pasting in photocopied images at the 
correct size and placement. Any cropping of 
graphic originals can be indicated in the mock-up. 
The mockup senses as a template to guide the 
printer. It should be submitted at the time of 
printing along with the original camera-ready 
document and all the artwork. 



Cataloging Using the 

Library of Congress Procedure 

A CLR can be cataloged with the Library of 
Congress' Cataloging in Publication (CIP) or the 
Preassigned Card Number (PCN) programs. The 
two programs are mutually exclusive. Each has its 
own requirements and a publication can be 
cataloged using only one program. Both CIP and 
PCN are concerned only with books, and for the 
purposes of cataloging with the Library of Con- 
gress, a CLR is considered to be a book. 

CIP is the preferred program for CLRs because it 
provides more cataloging information about the 
document. To apply for CIP, the CLR text must 
be complete (if not camera-ready). Allow six 
weeks for obtaining CIP information prior to the 
anticipated printing date. When received, the CIP 
information can be typed in directly or pasted 
onto the back side of the front cover or title page 
(the copyright page) before printing. 

Once a catalog card number has been assigned by 
the Library of Congress, the trtle of a CLR cannot be 
changed. Participation in either CIP or PCN requires 
the anticipated publishing date and number of pages. 
Cataloging is an opportunity to organize and name 
the publication according to a series to emphasize a 
relationship to existing documents. For example, a 
series might include "Cultural Landscape Publication 
No. 1 , 2, or 3" in the title or subtitle, or indicate 
"Volume 1 , 2, or 3," etc. 

The advantage of CIP is that more information is 
included on the copyright page of the book. 
Although the PCN program provides only a 
catalog card number, it should be considered in 



CATALOG 



N G , 



PRINTING 



AND 



STRIBUTION 



Cataloging Programs 



The Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Division 
offers two cataloging programs: the Cataloging in Publication 
(CIP) program and the Preassigned Card Number (PCN) 
program. At a minimum, a CLR. needs to be cataloged using 
the PCN program, but CiP provides additional cataloging 
information that make it the preferred program to use. 

While both programs assign a Library of Congress catalog 
card number to a CLR, CIP provides a description of a 
CLR's contents. The description is an additional aid to 
researchers, enhancing access and retrieval of the document. 
The Library of Congress catalog card number is a biblio- 
graphic control number that facilitates retrieval of the CLR 
from any library. 

Cataloging in Publication (CIP) Program 

The CIP program provides a CLR with a Library of Congress 
catalog card number, a description of contents, and other 
publication data to be printed in the book on the copyright 
page. CIP requires an application form {referred to as the 
data sheet) and a copy of the complete galley (preferably 
camera-ready copy or quality draft). 

CIP requires ten working days once the application is 
received by the Library of Congress. The criteria for 
eligibility to receive CIP data include the likelihood that the 
publication will be widely acquired by the nation's libraries. 
CIP also requires that a complimentary "best cop/' (most 
durable copy) of the document is sent to the Library of 
Congress after publishing. 

To apply for CIP, call the CIP data liaison for the NPS at the 
Library of Congress 202-707- 1 630, or write to: 

The Library of Congress • Cataloging and Publication 
Division • Washington, DC 20540-4320 



a situation where it is not possible to send a 
completed draft of the docunnenttothe Library 
of Congress to qualify for CIP. (See A Guide to 
Cu/turaf Landscape Reports: Appendices, "Appen- 
dix L: Governnnent Printing Office Forms.") 



Copyright Information 

Although the GPO is responsible for printing and 
distributing CLRs, the NPS is considered to be the 
publisher of these documents. Because govern- 
ment funds are used to prepare, print, and 
distribute a CLR, its contents are public domain. 
Therefore, a CLR should not be registered for 
copyright. The following statement should appear 
on the copyright page, under the heading Pubiica- 
tion Credits. 

information in this publication maybe copied 
and used, with the condition that full credit is 
given to the authors, their companies, and 
the National Park Sen/ice. Appropriate 
citations and bibliographic credits should be 
made for each use. 



Preassigned Card Number (PCN) Program 

The PCN program provides a Library of Congress catalog 
card number to be printed in the copyright page of the CLR. 
PCN requires an application form and a copy of the 
document's title page, and it requires five working days once 
the application is received by the Library of Congress. 

The criteria for selection by the Library of Congress to 
receive a PCN include the likelihood that the publication will 
be selected by the Library of Congress for its collections. 
PCN requires that a complimentary "best cop/' is sent to 
the Library of Congress after publishing. 

To apply for a PCN, call the PCN liaison for the NPS at the 
Library of Congress 202-707-979 1 , or write to: 

The Library of Congress • Cataloging in Publication 
Division • Washington, DC 20540-4320 



GPO Procedure for 
Printing and Distribution 

Form 3868 

Thirty days before sending in the printing requisi- 
tion to the GPO (Forms SF- 1 and Dl- 1 ), the 
"Notification of Intent to Publish Form 3868" must 
be completed. Form 3868 may be completed and 
forwarded by the printing coordinator. This form is 
necessary for the GPO to includethe published 
document in its sales and depositor/ library 



AND 



programs. If a CLK is intended for sale, Form 3868 
requires a description of the target audience. The 
GPO may issue the CLK with an International 
Standard Book Number (ISBN) for sales of the 
publication. If indicated on Form 3868, the GPO 
will distribute copies of the publication to federal 
depository libraries throughout the United States 
including the Library of Congress, at no expense to 
the NPS. (See A Guide to Cultural Landscape 
Reports: Appendices, "Appendix L: Government 
Printing Office Forms,") 

Cost Estimate 

To obtain an accurate cost estimate from the 
GPO, printing specifications must be known. Each 
specification will add to the printing cost, and the 
more detailed the specifications provided, the 
more accurate the GPO estimate will be. A 
printing coordinator or GPO representative can 
help determine the full range of printing specifica- 
tions for an estimate. The following are typical 
specifications required by a printing coordinator 
to obtain an estimate: 

• Number of copies. The number of copies 
required for minimum distribution is 35. 
Beyond the minimum number of copies, the 
number of any additional copies printed is 
influenced by the following factors: 

► distribution objectives 

► demand for the document 

► cost of additional copies 

► potential use of the information in the 
document (a CLK that addresses planning 
issues may have a broad appeal) 



Paper stock and ink. A local printer may be a 
good reference source for reviewing and 
choosing standard materials. The printing 
coordinator may also have sample swatches of 
paper and an ink color chart. 

Composition. This is only important when the 
document is completely typeset by the printer. 
If the CLK will be camera-ready when given to 
the printer, specify that a camera-ready copy 
and mock-ups will be furnished. 

Press and bindery. A book-like document is 
usually printed "head-to-head" (forms can be 
printed "head-to-foot"). Indicate the overall 
document size (width x height), number of 
inserts, if any, and the type of binding. Adhesive 
bound (also called perfect binding) is com- 
monly used for NPS documents. In this binding 
method the pages are glued to the spine. 
Comb binding and saddle stitching are alterna- 
tives for smaller documents. Different docu- 
ment formats work better with certain types of 
binding; for example, lightweight paper, rather 
than heavy cover stock, should be used as 
dividers between chapters in adhesive bound 
publications. F^eavy stock tends to crack and fall 
out of adhesive bindings. 

Proofs and delivery. A date for receipt of 
proofs for review and delivery date of final 
product should be indicated. Also indicate 
whether these dates may be extended. 
Proofs are reviewed for errors in image 
placement, enlargement, or reduction. It is 
too late to review the text for errors at this 
stage. Proofs can be cropping proofs of 
illustrations, and blueline or gray dyiux proofs 
of the entire document. Blueline proofs have 



CATALOGING, 



PRINTING 



AND 



DISTRIBUTION 



greater legibility, though gray dylux proofs are 
less expensive. A press proof may also be 
requested. (This is an exact copy (printed and 
bound) of the finished product. The press 
proof is the most expensive proof.) Indicate 
"suitable" for delivery packaging unless there 
is a specific requirement. 



• It should be indicated that all originals, master 
plates, film negatives, etc., must be returned to 
the NPS. The negatives may be used to reprint 
more copies of the document in the future, at 
lower cost. 

• Printers to be included on the bid list may be 
indicated. 



Form Dl-I 

The Dl-I Requisition Form obligates funds for 
printing a CLR. The Dl- 1 requires a requisition 
number, an appropriation number, and a descrip- 
tion of the printing specifications, The Dl-I must 
be completed by the NPS and forwarded to the 
printing coordinator. The description of printing 
specifications must be the same as those provided 
for the estimate. A printing coordinator W\\\ use 
the information provided on the Dl- 1 to fill out 
the Standard Form or SF- 1 . 

Form SF-I 

Form SF- 1 , Printing and Binding Requisition to the 
Public Printer, is submitted along with the Dl- 1 to 
the GPO by the printing coordinator, after an 
estimate has been received. The same printing 
specifications as above are outlined on the SF- 1 , 
along with the following additional information: 

• Any enclosures to be sent with the SF- 1 are 
listed: typically the camera-ready copy, two 
mock-ups, original artwork, and reprint per- 
mission for materials from private and copy- 
righted sources. 



(See A Guide to Cultural Landscape Reports: 
Appendices, "Appendix L: Government Printing 
Office Forms.") 



Minimum Distribution List 

Copies of final CLRs should be provided to the 
following offices and repositories (the list has been 
excerpted from the Cultural Resources Manage- 
ment Guidelines, Release No. 5.) A CLR contain- 
ing an archeological report must have a certifica- 
tion of its level of availability. Copies of a CLR are 
sent to those on the minimum disthbution list by 
the NPS. GPO automatically has the printer send 
copies to the Library of Congress and to Deposi- 
tory Libraries if so indicated on the Form 3868. 

No. of 

Copies Send to: 

2 Associate Director, Cultural 

Resource Stewardship and 
Partnerships 
National Park Service 

PO. Box 37 1 27 
Washington, DC 200 1 3-7 1 27 



I M 



Associate Director, Natural 
Resource, Stewardship and Science 
National Park Service 

Natural Resources Library 
Washington, DC 20240 

Associate Director, 
Professional Services 
National Park Service 

P.O. Box 25287 
Denver, CO 80225-0287 

National Park Service 
Harpers Ferry Center Library 

P.O. Box 50 

Harpers Ferry, WV 25425-0050 

National Trust for Historic 
Preservation 
McKilden Library 
University of Maryland 

College Park, Maryland 20742 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
Gifts and Exchange 

Washington, DC 20560 



Support Office Library 



ea Coauthors or consultants 



Further Information 

The Chicago Manual of Style i\Jr\\\j^vi\\.y of 
Chicago Press, 14th edition, 1 993) has helpful 
information on printing technology and copyright 
issues for publishers. 77?^ Mac is not a Type- 

writerby Robin Williams (Peach Pit Press, 1990) 
is a useful reference for basic information on 
preparing a camera-ready document, including 
desktop publishing. 

National Park Service. Editing Reference Manual. 
This manual provides guidance for capitalization, 
preparing bibliographies and notes, and other 
information useful for preparing documents for 
public distribution. Copies of the manual are 
available from Denver Service Center, Technical 
Information Center. 



I ea Cultural Landscape Program 

Managers in all System Support 
Offices (recommended) 

20-25 Superintendent of Park 

I State Historic Preservation Officer 

1 Support Office Archeology or Preser- 

vation Center 



CATALOGING, 



PRINTING 



AND 



DISTRIBUTION 



The mission of the Department of the interior is to protect and provide access to our Nation's natural and 
cultural heritage and honor our trust responsibilities to tribes. 




U.S. Department of the Interior 
National Park Service 
Cultural Resources 

Park Historic Structures & Cultural Landscapes